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Full-Text Articles in Law

Shots Fired, Shots Refused: Scientific, Ethical & Legal Challenges Surrounding The U.S. Military's Covid-19 Vaccine Mandate, Shawn Mckelvy, L. William Uhl, Armand Balboni Apr 2024

Shots Fired, Shots Refused: Scientific, Ethical & Legal Challenges Surrounding The U.S. Military's Covid-19 Vaccine Mandate, Shawn Mckelvy, L. William Uhl, Armand Balboni

St. Mary's Law Journal

The COVID-19 pandemic provided uncertain and challenging circumstances under which to lead a nation and the military that protects it. Those in charge and in command faced unique challenges—scientific, ethical, and legal—at our various levels of government to both keep people safe while keeping government and society functioning. While there were many successes to celebrate, there are also many criticisms for how this “whole-of-government approach” may have degraded some of our most cherished liberties along the way. The authors focus on the U.S. military’s vaccine mandate and propose military leaders may have failed to fully consider the evolving science, weigh …


The Red Pill: Critical Race Theory, Ostrich Law, And The 14th Amendment Right To Free And Equal Thought And Dignity, Kindaka J. Sanders Jan 2024

The Red Pill: Critical Race Theory, Ostrich Law, And The 14th Amendment Right To Free And Equal Thought And Dignity, Kindaka J. Sanders

St. Mary's Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Translating A Cbdc Dollar Into A Constitutional Dollar, Christopher P. Guzelian Jan 2024

Translating A Cbdc Dollar Into A Constitutional Dollar, Christopher P. Guzelian

St. Mary's Law Journal

The constitutional Dollar was a silver coin. Federal and state paper moneys were

unconstitutional, and gold and copper coins were not Dollars. Consequently, notable

constitutional originalists claim any Dollar not constructed from silver—including the

current widely circulating paper Federal Reserve note—is unconstitutional. But the Dollar

soon may undergo an unprecedented technological metamorphosis: in 2022, the White

House and the Federal Reserve Bank Board of Governors advocated the possible adoption

of a U.S. Central Bank Digital Currency (“CBDC” Dollars). Private commercial

electronic bank credits have been issued for some time, but a CBDC Dollar would be

America’s first electronic government currency. …


Conduct Relating To The Practice Of Law: Aba Model Rule 8.4(G) And Its History In Light Of The Constitution, Nathan Moelker Nov 2023

Conduct Relating To The Practice Of Law: Aba Model Rule 8.4(G) And Its History In Light Of The Constitution, Nathan Moelker

St. Mary's Journal on Legal Malpractice & Ethics

The ABA adopted a revision to the Model Rules in 2016, prohibiting harassment and discrimination against a list of protected classes. The Rule, while well-intentioned and targeted at a serious problem, was broadly phrased to include a large category of protected speech and behavior. The Rule has already faced extensive and well-crafted challenges from the perspective of the Free Speech Clause. This article argues that two additional provisions of the First Amendment—the Free Exercise Clause and Freedom of Association—further illustrate the failure of the Rule and the alarmingly wide-ranging effects of such a prohibition on attorney conduct.


“Better Luck Next Election”: Late-Jailed Voters’ Constitutional Right To Vote After Mays V. Larose., Grace Thomas Oct 2023

“Better Luck Next Election”: Late-Jailed Voters’ Constitutional Right To Vote After Mays V. Larose., Grace Thomas

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract Forthcoming.


Are Handguns A Matter Of Privacy?, Bret N. Bogenschneider Aug 2023

Are Handguns A Matter Of Privacy?, Bret N. Bogenschneider

St. Mary's Law Journal

The thesis developed in this Article is that the Heller and Bruen cases involved primarily right-to-privacy concerns. By its terms, the Second Amendment involves the collective right to bear Arms in connection to regulated militia service and does not mention handguns. Handguns were not “ordinary military weapons” employed by a militia at the time of the American revolution under the originalist view. The Ninth and Fourteenth Amendments are more appropriate sources for an individual privacy right related to the possession of handguns for private purposes, such as for self-defense or suicide. However, a prohibition of handguns under this approach would …


More Than Lip Service Is Required: Excessive Fines Clause Limitations Upon Fining The Homeless, Tim Donaldson Jun 2023

More Than Lip Service Is Required: Excessive Fines Clause Limitations Upon Fining The Homeless, Tim Donaldson

St. Mary's Law Journal

No abstract provided.


John Roberts And Owen Roberts: Echoes Of The Switch In Time In The Chief Justice’S Jurisprudence, Luke G. Cleland Jun 2023

John Roberts And Owen Roberts: Echoes Of The Switch In Time In The Chief Justice’S Jurisprudence, Luke G. Cleland

St. Mary's Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Public Accommodations Originalism’S Inability To Solve The Problems Of Online Content Moderation, Vincent A. Marrazzo Jun 2023

Public Accommodations Originalism’S Inability To Solve The Problems Of Online Content Moderation, Vincent A. Marrazzo

St. Mary's Law Journal

In response to online platforms’ increasing ability to moderate content in what often seems to be an arbitrary way, Justice Clarence Thomas recently suggested that platforms should be regulated as public accommodations such that the government could prevent platforms from banning users or removing posts from their sites. Shortly thereafter, Florida passed the Transparency in Technology Act, which purported to regulate online platforms as public accommodations and restricted their ability to ban users, tailor content through algorithmic decision-making, and engage in their own speech. Texas followed suit by passing a similar law, and Arizona debated a bill purporting to regulate …


A House Built On Sand: The Qualified Immunity Case For Keeping The Smith Doctrine, Joshua L. Johnston Jun 2023

A House Built On Sand: The Qualified Immunity Case For Keeping The Smith Doctrine, Joshua L. Johnston

St. Mary's Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Internally Displaced Persons: Ordeals And Analyses Of The Possible Regimes Of Legal Protection Frameworks, Olawale Ogunmodimu Mar 2023

Internally Displaced Persons: Ordeals And Analyses Of The Possible Regimes Of Legal Protection Frameworks, Olawale Ogunmodimu

St. Mary's Law Journal

This present global community is complicated because of anxiety and uncertainty. It is thoroughly interconnected yet intricately partitioned. Pivotally, one could argue that the centrality to this global anxiety is identity and belonging. People want to identify with and belong to a political system, territory, and culture. It seems that there is a present world that mirrors the political emergence of the interwar period that had nationalism on the rise. There is hostility to non-citizens globally, whether as refugees, internally displaced peoples (IDPs), or immigrants seeking to join new political communities. This Article explains the difficulties that ensue from being …


Concerning United States Constitutional War Powers, Marcus Armstrong Mar 2023

Concerning United States Constitutional War Powers, Marcus Armstrong

St. Mary's Law Journal

The United States faces a future in which the possibility of a conventional, great-power conflict is elevated. This is because of a constitutional interpretation that has altered United States constitutional war powers significantly. Specifically, the interpretation gives the president the authority to initiate and escalate war or hostilities unilaterally. In this Article, I reexamine that specific historical interpretation and find it wanting. I then offer a different historical interpretation, drawing upon other contemporary writers as well as upon historical events in order to give a more complete and nuanced understanding of the context in which the early American leaders developed …


Texas Disaster Act And The Covid-19 Pandemic: The Validity Of School Mask Mandates And How The Texas Supreme Court Engaged In A Legal And Ethical Disaster, Ron Beal Mar 2023

Texas Disaster Act And The Covid-19 Pandemic: The Validity Of School Mask Mandates And How The Texas Supreme Court Engaged In A Legal And Ethical Disaster, Ron Beal

St. Mary's Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Originalism And The Meaning Of "Twenty Dollars", Michael L. Smith Jan 2023

Originalism And The Meaning Of "Twenty Dollars", Michael L. Smith

Faculty Articles

Originalism claims to provide answers, or at least assistance, for those hoping to interpret a Constitution filled with wide-ranging, morally loaded terminology. Originalists claim that looking to the original public meaning of the Constitution will constrain interpreters, maintain consistency and predictability in judicial decisions, and is faithful to ideals like democratic legitimacy. This essay responds with the inevitable, tough question: whether originalism can tell interpreters what the Seventh Amendment's reference to "twenty dollars" means--both as a matter of original meaning and for interpreters today.

While this appears to be an easy question, I demonstrate that rather than telling modern legal …


The Eyes Of Texas Are Upon You: Will Affirmative Action In Texas Survive Its Endless Constitutional And Legislative Attacks?, Kathryn L. Cantu Jan 2023

The Eyes Of Texas Are Upon You: Will Affirmative Action In Texas Survive Its Endless Constitutional And Legislative Attacks?, Kathryn L. Cantu

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract Forthcoming.


Dollars That Devalue Are Unconstitutional, Christopher Guzelian Jan 2023

Dollars That Devalue Are Unconstitutional, Christopher Guzelian

St. Mary's Law Journal

This Article demonstrates the United States dollar has been unconstitutional since at least the Civil War. Congresses and central bankers often weaken its value. In a previous article, the Author demonstrated that the largely valueless dollar causes human poverty and environmental damage. If Congress restores the dollar’s constitutionality by returning to a silver dollar coin standard of adequate value (at least 371.25 grains of fine silver per dollar), human economies and the environment will become more sustainable.


Without Limit: Why Texas's Criminal Statutes Of Limitations Violate The State Constitution's Separation Of Powers Clause, Andrew Warthen Jan 2023

Without Limit: Why Texas's Criminal Statutes Of Limitations Violate The State Constitution's Separation Of Powers Clause, Andrew Warthen

St. Mary's Law Journal

No abstract provided.


How Scotus's Recent Decision On The Cheerleader Case Impacts Public School Students' Due Process Rights For Their Off-Campus Conduct, Abby Efron Jan 2023

How Scotus's Recent Decision On The Cheerleader Case Impacts Public School Students' Due Process Rights For Their Off-Campus Conduct, Abby Efron

St. Mary's Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Kahler V. Kansas: How The Current Insanity Defense Regime Underserves Postpartum Psychosis Defendants, How The Supreme Court Failed To Act, And How Now Is The Perfect Time To Implement A Gender-Specific Postpartum Defense, Victoria Frazier Jan 2023

Kahler V. Kansas: How The Current Insanity Defense Regime Underserves Postpartum Psychosis Defendants, How The Supreme Court Failed To Act, And How Now Is The Perfect Time To Implement A Gender-Specific Postpartum Defense, Victoria Frazier

St. Mary's Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The American Tradition Of Self-Made Arms, Joseph G.S. Greenlee Jan 2023

The American Tradition Of Self-Made Arms, Joseph G.S. Greenlee

St. Mary's Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Gender Identity, Sports, And Affirmative Action: What's Title Ix Got To Do With It?, Michael E. Rosman Dec 2022

Gender Identity, Sports, And Affirmative Action: What's Title Ix Got To Do With It?, Michael E. Rosman

St. Mary's Law Journal

There is much talk these days of promoting “equity” rather than “equality.” When applied outside athletics, Title IX promotes non-discrimination, usually associated with equality. As it has been applied to sports, though, it may be our most prominent “equity” statute, making sure each sex gets its fair share.

The questions this article seeks to address are legal ones that the debate about trans females seems to bring to the fore. How did we start with a statute whose language looks very similar to every other civil rights statute—and, indeed, that acts just like every other civil rights statute outside of …


The Dark Side Of Due Process: Part Iii, How To Use Irreverent Double-Talk To Speak Back To Bad Men, Joshua J. Schroeder Dec 2022

The Dark Side Of Due Process: Part Iii, How To Use Irreverent Double-Talk To Speak Back To Bad Men, Joshua J. Schroeder

St. Mary's Law Journal

Most American lawyers take for granted that the common law established almost all the ordinary causes of action we know today. As Joseph Story’s Commentaries acknowledged, the common law is the basis of the entire U.S. system of law. Common law struggled with feudal and canon forms and eventually transformed them for the benefit of ordinary people even in the face of the most heinous travesties of the English and American past.

The Witch Judges of Salem, Massachusetts and the Parliament of Saints in England did not prevail through despotic radicalism to demolish the common law through codification. Legal positivism …


State Is Required Under Texas Forfeiture Staute To Assume Burden Of Proving Proceeds Were Used In Gambling Activity., Curtis Vaughan Iii Jun 2022

State Is Required Under Texas Forfeiture Staute To Assume Burden Of Proving Proceeds Were Used In Gambling Activity., Curtis Vaughan Iii

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract Forthcoming.


Texas Statute Conferring Jurisdiction On District Courts Over Election Contests Is Inapplicable To Contests Of Congressional Election., Susan G. Wright Jun 2022

Texas Statute Conferring Jurisdiction On District Courts Over Election Contests Is Inapplicable To Contests Of Congressional Election., Susan G. Wright

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract Forthcoming.


Revisiting The History Of The Independent State Legislature Doctrine, Hayward H. Smith May 2022

Revisiting The History Of The Independent State Legislature Doctrine, Hayward H. Smith

St. Mary's Law Journal

In hopes of legitimizing the independent state legislature doctrine, its proponents have recently made two claims with respect to history, which this Article refers to as the Substance/Procedure Thesis and the Prevailing View Thesis. The former admits that the original understanding was that state “legislatures” promulgating election law pursuant to the Elector Appointment and Elections Clauses are required to comply with state constitutionally-mandated “procedural” lawmaking requirements (such as a potential gubernatorial veto), but asserts that they were otherwise understood to be independent of “substantive” state constitutional restraints. The latter asserts that the independent state legislature doctrine was the “prevailing view” …


The Dark Side Of Due Process: Part I, A Hard Look At Penumbral Rights And Cost/Benefit Balancing Tests, Joshua J. Schroeder May 2022

The Dark Side Of Due Process: Part I, A Hard Look At Penumbral Rights And Cost/Benefit Balancing Tests, Joshua J. Schroeder

St. Mary's Law Journal

Due process is the fountainhead of legitimate government coercion. When an individual’s rights of life, liberty, or property are at stake, the government is meant to apply due process of the law or suffer reversal of its intrusions as a plain trespass. However, such reversals are merely theoretical, premised upon the willingness of federal judges to interpose their power for the protection of ordinary individuals.

The willingness of federal jurists to check the other branches of government for individual rights is transient at best. They do not usually check the global, dragnet United States surveillance programs that clearly violate the …


Protecting A Woman’S Right To Abortion During A Public Health Crisis, San Juanita Gonzalez Apr 2022

Protecting A Woman’S Right To Abortion During A Public Health Crisis, San Juanita Gonzalez

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

As COVID-19 infected our nation, states were quick to issue executive orders restricting various aspects of daily life under the pretense of public safety. It was clear at the outset that certain civil liberties were going to be tested. Among them, the constitutional right to an abortion.

This comment explores Texas’ response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the limitations it imposed on abortion access. It will attempt to address the legitimacy of the “public health concerns” listed in executive orders issued throughout numerous states and will discuss the pertinent legal framework and judicial scrutiny to apply.

According to the Fifth …


Answering The Call: A History Of The Emergency Power Doctrine In Texas And The United States, P. Elise Mclaren Feb 2022

Answering The Call: A History Of The Emergency Power Doctrine In Texas And The United States, P. Elise Mclaren

St. Mary's Law Journal

During times of emergency, national and local government may be allowed to take otherwise impermissible action in the interest of health, safety, or national security. The prerequisites and limits to this power, however, are altogether unknown. Like the crises they aim to deflect, courts’ modern emergency power doctrines range from outright denial of any power of constitutional circumvention to their flagrant use. Concededly, courts’ approval of emergency powers has provided national and local government opportunities to quickly respond to emergency without pause for constituency approval, but how can one be sure the availability of autocratic power will not be abused? …


Judicial Federalism And The Appropriate Role Of The State Supreme Courts: A 20-Year (2000–2020) Study Of These Courts’ Interest Evaluations Of The Fruits And The Attenuation Doctrines, Dannye R. Holley Mr. Feb 2022

Judicial Federalism And The Appropriate Role Of The State Supreme Courts: A 20-Year (2000–2020) Study Of These Courts’ Interest Evaluations Of The Fruits And The Attenuation Doctrines, Dannye R. Holley Mr.

St. Mary's Law Journal

The current composition of the United States Supreme Court increases the probability that the Court will be more likely to side with the government with respect to identifying, evaluating, and reconciling the interest of the government versus those of the people when issues of “policing” reach the high court. This opens the door for state supreme court to independently assess individually and collectively these seemingly competing interests and potentially provide greater protections to the interest of the people.

This Article is a twenty-year study of dozens of state supreme court decisions made during the period of 2000–2020. The decisions focused …


When Police Volunteer To Kill, Alexandra L. Klein Jan 2022

When Police Volunteer To Kill, Alexandra L. Klein

Faculty Articles

The Supreme Court has upheld the constitutionality of lethal injection, yet states continue to struggle with drug shortages and botched executions. Some states have authorized alternative methods of execution, including the firing squad. Utah, which has consistently carried out firing squad executions throughout its history, relies on police officers from the jurisdiction where the crime took place to volunteer to carry out these executions. This represents a plausible-and probable method for other states in conducting firing squad executions.

Public and academic discussion of the firing squad has centered on questions of pain and suffering. It has not engaged with the …