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The Constitutional Multiverse: A Retroactive Analysis Of Hemphill V. New York, Michael C. Wetmore Jan 2024

The Constitutional Multiverse: A Retroactive Analysis Of Hemphill V. New York, Michael C. Wetmore

Loyola University Chicago Law Journal

In 2022, the Supreme Court was asked the question: May a criminal defendant “open the door” to evidence that it is otherwise inadmissible because of their Sixth Amendment right to confront adversarial witnesses? It is not unheard of that, at trial, a defendant’s attorney makes arguments that prosecutors and judges think will mislead the jury. Many times, these arguments reference evidence that—by evidentiary rule, pretrial ruling, or otherwise—is inadmissible. Trial courts have long been afforded the discretion to measure how much evidence can come through the door a defendant opens by raising these arguments to cure any false impression that …


Lessons Of The Plague Years, Barry Sullivan Jan 2023

Lessons Of The Plague Years, Barry Sullivan

Faculty Publications & Other Works

The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged governments of every description across the globe, and it surely would have tested the mettle of any American administration. But the pandemic appeared in the United States at a particularly inopportune time. January 2020 marked the beginning of a presidential election year in a deeply polarized country. President Donald Trump was a controversial figure, beginning the fourth year of a highly idiosyncratic administration. He was both a candidate for re-election and the subject of an ongoing impeachment proceeding. In these circumstances, the pandemic quickly became politicized. President Trump's response to the COVID-19 pandemic has often …


United States V. Vaello-Madero: The Impact Of Varying Rights To Citizens Of The United States, Ana Siracusa Jan 2023

United States V. Vaello-Madero: The Impact Of Varying Rights To Citizens Of The United States, Ana Siracusa

Loyola University Chicago Law Journal

Since 1917, residents of Puerto Rico have been citizens of the United States. However, because of Puerto Rico’s status as a United States territory, residents of Puerto Rico are not automatically guaranteed the same constitutional rights as other citizens of the United States. When faced with the question of what constitutional rights residents of Puerto Rico are entitled to, the Supreme Court has continued to perpetuate the otherness of United States territories. This disposition results from the United States’ colonial mindset in the acquisition and government of its territories. The discrimination against United States territories, namely Puerto Rico, has bled …


Introduction To Issue Three, Paul W. Kucinski Jan 2023

Introduction To Issue Three, Paul W. Kucinski

Loyola University Chicago Law Journal

No abstract provided.


From Conciliation To Conflict: How Dobbs V. Jackson Women's Health Organization Reshapes The Supreme Court's Role In American Polarized Society, Shai Stern Jan 2023

From Conciliation To Conflict: How Dobbs V. Jackson Women's Health Organization Reshapes The Supreme Court's Role In American Polarized Society, Shai Stern

Loyola University Chicago Law Journal

Professor Shai Stern of Bar Ilan University in Israel analyzes the Court’s decision and argues that its approach not only denies a previously recognized constitutional right, but also opens the door for the challenge to other recognized rights. In addition, Professor Stern highlights the Court’s own delegitimization and contribution to rising political polarization.


States’ Duty Under The Federal Elections Clause And A Federal Right To Education, Evan H. Caminker Jan 2023

States’ Duty Under The Federal Elections Clause And A Federal Right To Education, Evan H. Caminker

Loyola University Chicago Law Journal

Fifty years ago, in San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez, the Supreme Court failed to address one of the preeminent civil rights issues of our generation—substandard and inequitable public education—by holding that the federal Constitution does not protect a general right to education. The Court didn’t completely close the door on a narrower argument that the Constitution guarantees “an opportunity to acquire the basic minimal skills necessary for the enjoyment of the rights of speech and of full participation in the political process.” Both litigants and scholars have been trying ever since to push that door open, pressing …


The Demise Of The Bivens Remedy Is Rendering Enforcement Of Federal Constitutional Rights Inequitable But Congress Can Fix It, Henry Rose Jan 2022

The Demise Of The Bivens Remedy Is Rendering Enforcement Of Federal Constitutional Rights Inequitable But Congress Can Fix It, Henry Rose

Faculty Publications & Other Works

A federal statute, 42 U.S.C. 1983, allows a person whose federal constitutional rights are violated by state actors to sue them for damages to compensate for the harm caused by the constitutional violations. There is no analogous federal statute that allows a person whose federal constitutional rights have been violated by federal actors to sue them for damages to compensate for the harm caused by the constitutional violations. The United States Supreme Court allowed Webster Bivens, a man who sued federal law enforcement officials for falsely arresting and physically abusing him in violation of his Fourth Amendment rights, to sue …


Compelled Speech And Proportionality, Alexander Tsesis Jan 2022

Compelled Speech And Proportionality, Alexander Tsesis

Faculty Publications & Other Works

This Article argues for a proportional First Amendment approach to compelled speech jurisprudence. It discusses the evolution of doctrine and how it led to recent opinions finding unconstitutional consumer protection, health disclosure, and collective bargaining statutes. In place of the currently formalistic approach, the Article argues for a transparent balancing of interests to avoid litigants’ opportunistic reliance on categorical First Amendment doctrines. Missing from the recent decisions that relied on the compelled speech doctrine is any systematic or contextual weighing of private and public concerns about disclosure regulations. The Roberts Court has been rather formalistic and categorical in its compelled …


The Supreme Court And The People: Communicating Decisions To The Public, Barry Sullivan, Ramon Feldbrin Jan 2022

The Supreme Court And The People: Communicating Decisions To The Public, Barry Sullivan, Ramon Feldbrin

Faculty Publications & Other Works

Although the individual Justices of the Supreme Court frequently speak to the public, the Court as an entity holds fast to the purportedly ancient principle that courts should speak only through their official written opinions—the meaning of which is for others to figure out. Over the years, the Court’s decisions have become more complex, prolix, and fractured, making it difficult and time-consuming for anyone outside the professional elites to determine what the Court has held. Even journalists, who attempt to explain the Court’s decisions to the public, struggle to make sense of the Justices’ opinions under the pressures generated by …


Why Do The Poor Not Have A Constitutional Right To File Civil Claims In Court Under Their First Amendment Right To Petition The Government For A Redress Of Grievances?, Henry Rose Jan 2021

Why Do The Poor Not Have A Constitutional Right To File Civil Claims In Court Under Their First Amendment Right To Petition The Government For A Redress Of Grievances?, Henry Rose

Faculty Publications & Other Works

Since 1963, the United States Supreme Court has recognized the constitutional right of entities and persons to pursue civil legal claims in American courts under the First Amendment right to petition government for redress of grievances. However, in a series of three cases decided by the Supreme Court in the early 1970’s - Boddie v. Connecticut, United States v. Kras and Ortwein v. Schwab - the Court inexplicably declined to address the appellants’ claims that they have a constitutional right to access the courts to seek resolution of their civil legal claims. In each of these three cases, the indigent …


Enforcement Of The Reconstruction Amendments, Alexander Tsesis Jan 2021

Enforcement Of The Reconstruction Amendments, Alexander Tsesis

Faculty Publications & Other Works

This Article systematically analyzes the delicate balance of congressional and judicial authority granted by the Reconstruction Amendments. The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments vest Congress with powers to enforce civil rights, equal treatment, and civic participation. Their reach extends significantly beyond the Rehnquist and Roberts Courts’ narrow construction of congressional authority. In recent years, the Court has struck down laws that helped secure voter rights, protect religious liberties, and punish age or disability discrimination. Those holdings encroach on the amendments’ allocated powers of enforcement.

Textual, structural, historical, and normative analyses provide profound insights into the appropriate roles of the Supreme …


Enforcement Of The Reconstruction Amendments, Alexander Tsesis Jan 2021

Enforcement Of The Reconstruction Amendments, Alexander Tsesis

Faculty Publications & Other Works

This Article systematically analyzes the delicate balance of congressional and judicial authority granted by the Reconstruction Amendments. The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments vest Congress with powers to enforce civil rights, equal treatment, and civic participation. Their reach extends significantly beyond the Rehnquist and Roberts Courts’ narrow construction of congressional authority. In recent years, the Court has struck down laws that helped secure voter rights, protect religious liberties, and punish age or disability discrimination. Those holdings encroach on the amendments’ allocated powers of enforcement.

Textual, structural, historical, and normative analyses provide profound insights into the appropriate roles of the Supreme …


The Lost History Of Delegation At The Founding, Christine Chabot Jan 2021

The Lost History Of Delegation At The Founding, Christine Chabot

Faculty Publications & Other Works

The new Supreme Court is poised to bring the administrative state to a grinding halt. Five Justices have endorsed Justice Gorsuch's dissent in Gundy v. United States--an opinion that threatens to invalidate countless regulatory statutes in which Congress has delegated significant policymaking authority to the Executive Branch. Justice Gorsuch claimed that the “text and history” of the Constitution required the Court to replace a longstanding constitutional doctrine that permits broad delegations with a more restrictive one. But the supposedly originalist arguments advanced by Justice Gorsuch and like-minded scholars run counter to the understandings of delegation that prevailed in the Founding …


Retroactivity And Appointments, Andrew C. Michaels Jan 2021

Retroactivity And Appointments, Andrew C. Michaels

Loyola University Chicago Law Journal

The current law of retroactivity in the Appointments Clause context is confused, resulting in significant practical consequences, such as when courts unnecessarily invalidate prior administrative decisions after judicially removing an unconstitutionality, even where the prior statutory misrepresentation had no apparent effect on the invalidated actions. The Supreme Court has recently been active in the Appointments Clause area without discussing the attendant retroactivity issues, which lower courts are confronting with increased frequency. This article reviews the doctrine of retroactivity and appointments, discusses the relevant academic literature, and proposes a coherent and sensible framework for courts to use when faced with these …


Covid-19 And American Democracy, Barry Sullivan Jun 2020

Covid-19 And American Democracy, Barry Sullivan

Faculty Publications & Other Works

This article discusses the response of the United States Government to the COVID-19 Pandemic from January through June 19, 2020.In particular, the article focuses on the constitutional and legal background of that response. The article was prepared for a symposium in the Italian journal Il diritti dell'economia on responses to the COVID-19 pandemic by governments around the world.


Are Presidential Electors Free To Vote As They Wish, Despite A State’S Popular Vote?, Alan Raphael, Elliott Mondry Jan 2020

Are Presidential Electors Free To Vote As They Wish, Despite A State’S Popular Vote?, Alan Raphael, Elliott Mondry

Faculty Publications & Other Works

No abstract provided.


State Attorneys General As Agents Of Police Reform, Stephen Rushin, Jason Mazzone Jan 2020

State Attorneys General As Agents Of Police Reform, Stephen Rushin, Jason Mazzone

Faculty Publications & Other Works

State attorneys general can and should play an important role in remedying police violations of constitutional rights. In 1994, Congress enacted 42 U.S.C. § 14141 to authorize the U.S. Attorney General to seek equitable relief against state and local police departments engaged in patterns or practices of misconduct. The Department of Justice (DOJ) has used this statute to reform some of the nation’s most troubled police departments. However, the DOJ has lacked the resources to pursue more than a few cases each year and the Trump Administration has recently announced it would no longer enforce § 14141.

In response, a …


Confederate Monuments As Badges Of Slavery, Alexander Tsesis Jan 2020

Confederate Monuments As Badges Of Slavery, Alexander Tsesis

Faculty Publications & Other Works

This Article develops a Thirteenth Amendment theory supporting the removal of Confederate symbols from government properties. It argues that such monuments to the Lost Cause are badges of slavery that should have no place in public squares.

The Article discusses how white supremacist groups, such as those who participated in the 2017 Unite the Right March in Charlottesville, effectively draw together around monuments honoring leaders and soldiers who fought for the cause of slavery. Relying on the Thirteenth Amendment's principles of freedom, States and municipalities can and should eliminate those monuments from their properties. Such policy initiatives communicate the government's …


A Constitutional Right To A Functioning United States Government? Are Governments Shutdowns Unconstitutional?, Allen E. Shoenberger Jan 2020

A Constitutional Right To A Functioning United States Government? Are Governments Shutdowns Unconstitutional?, Allen E. Shoenberger

Faculty Publications & Other Works

No abstract provided.


Deliberate Democracy, Truth, And Holmesian Social Darwinism, Alexander Tsesis Jan 2019

Deliberate Democracy, Truth, And Holmesian Social Darwinism, Alexander Tsesis

Faculty Publications & Other Works

JUSTICE Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.'s “marketplace of ideas” analogy continues to deeply influence First Amendment doctrine. It provides a rational substratum upon which the political or self-realization characterizations of free speech are built. However, typically overlooked is the Social Darwinistic root of the Justice's thought. He championed the spread of ideas and the political sway of majority opinions. That analytical insight is key to many of the Supreme Court's free speech precedents. On the one hand, the concept is invaluable for defending free discussions about philosophy, political science, the arts, humanities, pedagogy, and social sciences. In these areas, the …


Democratic Conditions, Barry Sullivan Jan 2019

Democratic Conditions, Barry Sullivan

Faculty Publications & Other Works

According to many social scientists, democratic institutions are subject to much discontent and distrust today. Citizens sense the existence of a substantial disconnect between the rhetoric of representative democracy and its reality—what citizens believe their proper role to be and what the realities of our government and society allow them to be. More to the point, citizens of all stripes believe that those who “represent” them live lives quite different from their own, and that those representatives are not seriously interested in the perspectives, ideas, or well-being of most people. The nature and extent of this discontent raises serious questions …


Echoes Of Slavery Ii: How Slavery's Legacy Distorts Democracy, Juan F. Perea Jan 2018

Echoes Of Slavery Ii: How Slavery's Legacy Distorts Democracy, Juan F. Perea

Faculty Publications & Other Works

No abstract provided.


How The United States Supreme Court Diminished Constitutional Protections Of The Right To Vote And What Congress Can Do About It, Henry Rose Jan 2018

How The United States Supreme Court Diminished Constitutional Protections Of The Right To Vote And What Congress Can Do About It, Henry Rose

Faculty Publications & Other Works

No abstract provided.


A Diachronic Approach To Bob Jones: Religious Tax Exemptions After Obergefell, Samuel D. Brunson, David Herzig Jan 2017

A Diachronic Approach To Bob Jones: Religious Tax Exemptions After Obergefell, Samuel D. Brunson, David Herzig

Faculty Publications & Other Works

In Bob Jones University v. United States, the Supreme Court held that an entity may lose its tax exemption if it violates a fundamental public policy, even where religious beliefs demand that violation. In that case, the Court held that racial discrimination violated fundamental public policy. Could the determination to exclude same-sex individuals from marriage or attending a college also be considered a violation of fundamental public policy? There is uncertainty in the answer. In the recent Obergefell v. Hodges case that legalized same-sex marriage, the Court asserted that LGBT individuals are entitled to “equal dignity in the eyes of …


From Selma To Ferguson: The Voting Rights Act As A Blueprint For Police Reform, Stephen Rushin Jan 2017

From Selma To Ferguson: The Voting Rights Act As A Blueprint For Police Reform, Stephen Rushin

Faculty Publications & Other Works

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 revolutionized access to the voting booth. Rather than responding to claims of voter suppression through litigation against individual states or localities, the Voting Rights Act introduced a coverage formula that preemptively regulated a large number of localities across the country. In doing so, the Voting Rights Act replaced reactive, piecemeal litigation with a proactive structure of continual federal oversight. As the most successful civil rights law in the nation's history, the Voting Rights Act provides a blueprint for responding to one of the most pressing civil rights problems the country faces today: police misconduct. …


Campus Speech And Harassment, Alexander Tsesis Jan 2017

Campus Speech And Harassment, Alexander Tsesis

Faculty Publications & Other Works

No abstract provided.


Social Media Accountability For Terrorist Propaganda, Alexander Tsesis Dec 2016

Social Media Accountability For Terrorist Propaganda, Alexander Tsesis

Faculty Publications & Other Works

Terrorist organizations have found social media websites to be invaluable for disseminating ideology, recruiting terrorists, and planning operations. National and international leaders have repeatedly pointed out the dangers terrorists pose to ordinary people and state institutions. In the United States, the federal Communications Decency Act's § 230 provides social networking websites with immunity against civil law suits. Litigants have therefore been unsuccessful in obtaining redress against internet companies who host or disseminate third-party terrorist content. This Article demonstrates that § 230 does not bar private parties from recovery if they can prove that a social media company had received complaints …


The Declaration Of Independence And Constitutional Interpretation, Alexander Tsesis Jan 2016

The Declaration Of Independence And Constitutional Interpretation, Alexander Tsesis

Faculty Publications & Other Works

This Article argues that the Reconstruction Amendments incorporated the human dignity values of the Declaration of Independence. The original Constitution contained clauses, which protected the institution of slavery, that were irreconcilable with the normative commitments the nation had undertaken at independence. The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments set the country aright by formally incorporating the Declaration of Independence's principles for representative governance into the Constitution.

The Declaration of Independence provides valuable insights into matters of human dignity, privacy, and self-government. Its statements about human rights, equality, and popular sovereignty establish a foundational rule of interpretation. While the Supreme Court has …


Balancing Free Speech, Alexander Tsesis Jan 2016

Balancing Free Speech, Alexander Tsesis

Faculty Publications & Other Works

This article develops a theory for balancing free speech against other express and implied constitutional, statutory, and doctrinal values. It posits that free speech considerations should be connected to the underlying purpose of constitutional governance. When deciding difficult cases involving competing rights, judges should examine (1) whether unencumbered expression is likely to cause constitutional, statutory, or common law harms; (2) whether the restricted expression has been historically or traditionally protected; (3) whether a government policy designed to benefit the general welfare weighs in favor of the regulation; (4) the fit between the disputed speech regulation and the public end; and …


Multifactoral Free Speech, Alexander Tsesis Jan 2016

Multifactoral Free Speech, Alexander Tsesis

Faculty Publications & Other Works

This Article presents a multifactoral approach to free speech analysis. Difficult cases present a variety of challenges that require judges to weigh concerns for the protection of robust dialogue, especially about public issues, against concerns that sound in common law (such as reputation), statutory law (such as repose against harassment), and in constitutional law (such as copyright). Even when speech is implicated, the Court should aim to resolve other relevant individual and social issues arising from litigation. Focusing only on free speech categories is likely to discount substantial, and sometimes compelling, social concerns warranting reflection, analysis, and application. Examining the …