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Innovation In A Legal Vacuum: The Uncertain Legal Landscape For Shared Micro-Mobility, David Pimentel, Michael B. Lowry, Timothy W. Koglin, Ronald W. Pimentel Sep 2020

Innovation In A Legal Vacuum: The Uncertain Legal Landscape For Shared Micro-Mobility, David Pimentel, Michael B. Lowry, Timothy W. Koglin, Ronald W. Pimentel

Journal of Law and Mobility

The last few years have seen an explosion in the number and size shared micro-mobility systems (“SMMS”) across the United States. Some of these systems have seen extraordinary success and the potential benefit of these systems to communities is considerable. However, SMMS have repeatedly ran into legal barriers that either prevent their implementation entirely, confuse and dissuade potential users, or otherwise limit SMMS’s potential positive impact.

This paper reflects a detailed study of state laws relating to SMMS and the platforms commonly used in these systems. The study uncovered many inconsistencies with micro-mobility laws across the country. Currently, many states …


Punishment But Not A Penalty? Punitive Damages Are Impermissible Under Foreign Substantive Law, Paul A. Hoversten Mar 2018

Punishment But Not A Penalty? Punitive Damages Are Impermissible Under Foreign Substantive Law, Paul A. Hoversten

Michigan Law Review

It is a well-established principle that no court applies the penal laws of another sovereign. But what exactly is a penal law? According to Judge Cardozo, a penal law effects “vindication of the public justice” rather than “reparation to one aggrieved.” Although courts have historically treated punitive damages as a purely civil remedy, that attitude has shifted over time. Modern American punitive damages serve not to compensate the plaintiff but to punish the defendant on behalf of the whole community. Therefore, when courts rely on foreign substantive law to impose punitive damages, they arguably violate the well-established principle that no …


A Relational Feminist Approach To Conflict Of Laws, Roxana Banu Jan 2017

A Relational Feminist Approach To Conflict Of Laws, Roxana Banu

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Feminist writers have long engaged in critiques of private law. Surrogacy contracts or the “reasonable man” standard in torts, for example, have long been the subjects of thorough feminist analysis and critique. When private law issues touch on more than one jurisdiction, Conflict of Laws is the doctrine that determines which jurisdiction can try the case and—as separate questions—which jurisdiction’s law should apply and under what conditions a foreign judgment can be recognized and enforced. Yet, there are virtually no feminist perspectives on Conflict of Laws (also known as Private International Law). This is still more surprising when one considers …


Beyond Carve-Outs And Toward Reliance: A Normative Framework For Cross-Border Insolvency Choice Of Law, John A. E. Pottow Sep 2014

Beyond Carve-Outs And Toward Reliance: A Normative Framework For Cross-Border Insolvency Choice Of Law, John A. E. Pottow

Articles

The title of this Article purports to develop a normative framework for cross-border insolvency choice of law. That can be a task of varying scope, so at the outset any pretense of ambition for a wholly new choice of law model should be dispelled. Indeed, at the most generalized level, bankruptcy choice of law theory has already been fully ventilated in the well-rehearsed universalism versus territorialism debates. And it has been settled. The universalists, at least as a normative matter, appear to have won: choice of law, as it is increasingly accepted, should be determined by the debtor's center of …


Universal Jurisdiction As An International "False Conflict" Of Laws, Anthony J. Colangelo Jan 2009

Universal Jurisdiction As An International "False Conflict" Of Laws, Anthony J. Colangelo

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Essay proposes a framework for analyzing the concept of universal jurisdiction and evaluating its exercise by States in the international legal system. In brief, the author argues that universal jurisdiction is unique among the bases of prescriptive jurisdiction in international law, and that its unique character gives rise to unique-and underappreciated- limiting principles. The main analytical device the author uses to make this argument is the notion of a "false conflict," which is borrowed from the private law field of conflict of laws, also known outside the United States as private international law. The author does not suggest that …


Aggregation And Choice Of Law, Edward H. Cooper Jan 2009

Aggregation And Choice Of Law, Edward H. Cooper

Articles

This is more a conversational gambit than an article. I address a question at the intersection of procedure and choice of law, speaking as a proceduralist rather than a choice-of-law scholar. The question - which may be two questions - addresses the potential interdependence of procedural aggregation devices and choice of law. One part of the question is whether aggregation can justifiably change the choice of law made for some part of an aggregated proceeding. The other part is whether choice-of-law principles can be adapted to facilitate procedurally desirable aggregation. Answers may be sought either in abstract theory or in …


The Myth (And Realities) Of Forum Shopping In Transnational Insolvency, John A. E. Pottow Jan 2007

The Myth (And Realities) Of Forum Shopping In Transnational Insolvency, John A. E. Pottow

Articles

A decade ago, in 1996, the landscape of transnational insolvencies was vastly different from today. The UNCITRAL Model Law had not been finished, the efforts at the E.U. Insolvency Treaty were jeopardized by mad cows, and no one had heard of Chapter 15. Now, all three universalist projects are up and running, putting universalism in a comfortable state of ascendancy. The paradigm has not been without critics, however, the most persistent and eloquent of which has been Professor Lynn LoPucki. LoPucki has periodically attacked universalism on a number of grounds. These grievances include a sovereigntist complaint of universalism's insensitivity to …


Greed And Pride In International Bankruptcy: The Problems Of And Proposed Solutions To 'Local Interests', John A. E. Pottow Jan 2006

Greed And Pride In International Bankruptcy: The Problems Of And Proposed Solutions To 'Local Interests', John A. E. Pottow

Articles

The collapses of Yukos, Parmalat, and other international juggernauts have focused scholarly attention on the failure of multinational enterprises. Even what one might consider "American" companies, such as Chicago-based United Airlines, have made clear in their restructuring plans that their operations have profound effects on the dozens of nations around the globe where they transact business. Government and quasi-government reform efforts to regulate these cross-border insolvencies have abounded, including among others, the UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency. UNCITRAL is also building on World Bank and INSOL efforts at promulgating a Legislative Guide for "best practices" bankruptcy codes. Scholars vary …


Law, Norms, And Legal Change: Global And Local In China And Japan, Nicholas C. Howson, Mark D. West Jan 2006

Law, Norms, And Legal Change: Global And Local In China And Japan, Nicholas C. Howson, Mark D. West

Articles

The editors of the Michigan Journal of International Law have boldly brought together four articles and commentary that focus on different aspects of the same problem in China and Japan: the relationship between domestic legal change and foreign and/or "international" law and regulation, "soft" agreements, norms, or even cultural practices. The compilation is bold in part because scholarship on change in East Asian law and legal systems often suffers from one of two defects. First, it often focuses on purely domestic phenomena in only one system, ignoring the comparative connections. Second, scholars often attack the problem from an exclusively comparative …


Procedural Incrementalism: A Model For International Bankruptcy, John A. E. Pottow Jan 2005

Procedural Incrementalism: A Model For International Bankruptcy, John A. E. Pottow

Articles

The headline-grabbing business failures of late have brought increased attention to the relatively unresolved area of multinational bankruptcies. Parmalat, Global Crossing, and United Airlines are among the few international juggernauts that have foundered. In the financial meltdowns of these cross-border institutions, assets and creditors are dispersed throughout commercial environments that rarely end neatly at national borders. There has been heated debate, both in scholarly literature and the practical battlefield, over how best to resolve these transnational insolvencies, and there is nothing yet approaching a consensus. Reform efforts of various stripes have almost uniformly failed to gain meaningful international support. At …


Introduction: The Yahoo! Case And Conflict Of Laws In The Cyberage, Mathias Reimann Jan 2003

Introduction: The Yahoo! Case And Conflict Of Laws In The Cyberage, Mathias Reimann

Michigan Journal of International Law

Three years ago, two French public interest groups, La Ligue Contre le Racisme et L'Antisemitisme (LICRA) and LUnion des Etudiants Juifs De France (UEJF), sued Yahoo! Inc., a Delaware corporation headquartered near Santa Barbara, California, in the Tribunal de Grande Instance in Paris. The undisputed facts underlying the complaint were that: Yahoo! Inc. operated, inter alia, an auction website on which various Nazi memorabilia (such as flags, stamps, and military souvenirs) were offered for sale; the respective Yahoo! Inc. website was accessible in France; and the display of the Nazi memorabilia was illegal under French law. The French plaintiffs sought …


Yahoo! Cyber-Collision Of Cultures: Who Regulates?, Horatia Muir Watt Jan 2003

Yahoo! Cyber-Collision Of Cultures: Who Regulates?, Horatia Muir Watt

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article furthers this comparison of cyberconflicts and the real world, attempting to ascertain what lessons, if any, can be drawn from it. Part I of the Article explores the interests at stake in cyberconflicts and the relationship between technology and the law. Part II uses the French Yahoo! court's decision to show that real-world conceptions of prescriptive jurisdiction retain their legitimacy in cyberspace. Finally, Part III notes that the prospect of near perfect compliance offered by Internet technology provides the opportunity to engineer mature, well-calibrated solutions to international regulatory conflicts, which might then even serve as a model in …


Enforcement Of Foreign Judgements, The First Amendment, And Internet Speech: Notes For The Next Yahoo! V. Licra, Molly S. Van Houweling Jan 2003

Enforcement Of Foreign Judgements, The First Amendment, And Internet Speech: Notes For The Next Yahoo! V. Licra, Molly S. Van Houweling

Michigan Journal of International Law

The Article begins with a review of the relevant rules governing enforcement of foreign judgments in the United States. Part II explains how courts have unpersuasively applied these rules when refusing to enforce foreign libel judgments. Part III then explains how the Yahoo! court adopted much of this faulty reasoning. Finally, Part IV explains the considerations that better justify judicial refusal to enforce speech-restrictive foreign judgments, especially those triggered by Internet speech. The Article concludes that the prospect that U.S. Internet speakers will choose to speak only to a U.S. audience-even when their speech would be legal everywhere-is the most …


A Solution To The Yahoo! Problem? The Ec E-Commerce Directive As A Model For International Cooperation On Internet Choice Of Law, Mark F. Kightlinger Jan 2003

A Solution To The Yahoo! Problem? The Ec E-Commerce Directive As A Model For International Cooperation On Internet Choice Of Law, Mark F. Kightlinger

Michigan Journal of International Law

Instead of attacking or defending the French or the U.S. courts, this Article proposes to focus on the Yahoo! case from a different perspective. As is argued in Section III.D below, disputes like the Yahoo! case over which country's laws apply to a website and its operator seem likely to proliferate as Internet usage expands, demanding significant enforcement resources from countries and posing important compliance challenges for companies and other organizations operating on the Internet. Thus, it may be useful to consider developing an international agreement that would address, and in many instances resolve, such disputes about "jurisdiction to prescribe” …


The Myth Of Choice Of Law: Rethinking Conflicts, Kermit Roosevelt Iii Jan 1999

The Myth Of Choice Of Law: Rethinking Conflicts, Kermit Roosevelt Iii

Michigan Law Review

Choice of law is a mess. That much has become a truism. It is a "dismal swamp," a morass of confusion, a body of doctrine "killed by a realism intended to save it," and now "universally said to be a disaster." One way to demonstrate its tribulations would be to look at the academic dissensus and the hopelessly underdeterminative Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws. Another would be to examine the Supreme Court's abdication of the task of articulating constitutional constraints on state choice-of-law rules. This article will do both. At the outset, though, I want to suggest that one …


Jurisdiction In Cyberspace: A Theory Of International Spaces, Darrel C. Menthe Jun 1998

Jurisdiction In Cyberspace: A Theory Of International Spaces, Darrel C. Menthe

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Unfortunately, when the law confronts cyberspace the usual mode of analysis is analogy, asking not "What is cyberspace?" but "What is cyberspace like?" The answers are varied: a glorified telephone, a bookstore, a bulletin board. I propose that we look at cyberspace not in these prosaic terms, but rather through the lens of international law in order to give cyberspace meaning in our jurisprudence. The thesis of this paper is that there exists in international law a type of territory which I call "international space." Currently there are three such international spaces: Antarctica, outer space, and the high seas. For …


Choosing Law In Cyberspace: Copyright Conflicts On Global Networks, Andreas P. Reindl Jan 1998

Choosing Law In Cyberspace: Copyright Conflicts On Global Networks, Andreas P. Reindl

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article contends that in the digital era, the current system of national, territorially limited copyright laws requires a flexible copyright choice of law regime. To promote certainty and predictability in the choosing of the copyright law applicable to acts of exploitation, choice of law rules should use the location of a user as the principal factor to determine the applicable copyright law. In appropriate circumstances, the choice of law rules should allow the application of a multitude of national copyright laws to single acts of use on digital networks. This article also argues that a broad application of flexible …


Choosing Law With An Eye On The Prize, Russell J. Weintraub Jan 1994

Choosing Law With An Eye On The Prize, Russell J. Weintraub

Michigan Journal of International Law

Review of Choice of Law and Multistate Justice by Friedrich K. Juenger


Interstate Consolidation: A Comparison Of The Ali Project With The Uniform Transfer Of Litigation Act (American Law Institute Complex Litigation Project: A Symposium, In Memoriam Donald Theodore Trautman), Edward H. Cooper Jan 1994

Interstate Consolidation: A Comparison Of The Ali Project With The Uniform Transfer Of Litigation Act (American Law Institute Complex Litigation Project: A Symposium, In Memoriam Donald Theodore Trautman), Edward H. Cooper

Articles

The Uniform Transfer of Litigation Act (UTLA) was undertaken for purposes simpler than the mass consolidation of multiparty, multiforum litigation. It seeks to create an effective tool that can be used to reduce some of the artificial barriers that tradition has erected around the sovereign separateness of the many different court systems in this country. The fact of separate sovereignty must be recognized, however, and to this end consent of both transferring and receiving courts is required. Within the consent requirement, transfer from the court system of one sovereign to the court system of another can improve on present practices …


Interstate Preemption: The Right To Travel, The Right To Life, And The Right To Die, Lea Brilmayer Mar 1993

Interstate Preemption: The Right To Travel, The Right To Life, And The Right To Die, Lea Brilmayer

Michigan Law Review

State laws differ, and they differ on issues of tremendous importance to the ways that we conduct our lives. Abortion and the right to die are two issues on which state law intersects with deeply held moral convictions, and on which state laws vary. With so much hanging in the balance, it is not surprising that those who find themselves outvoted or outmaneuvered in local political processes sometimes seek a legal climate more compatible with their beliefs about human decency and dignity. The right to "vote with one's feet" - to travel or move to another state and trade a …


"But Whoever Treasures Freedom…": The Right To Travel And Extraterritorial Abortions, Seth F. Kreimer Mar 1993

"But Whoever Treasures Freedom…": The Right To Travel And Extraterritorial Abortions, Seth F. Kreimer

Michigan Law Review

In a prior article, I addressed the problem of extraterritorial abortions under the assumption that the federal constitutional right of reproductive choice would be repudiated by the Supreme Court on Justice Scalia's theory that such rights lack sufficiently deep roots in the history and traditions surrounding the framing of the Constitution and the Fourteenth Amendment. I argued there that a constitutional methodology that relied on traditions and expectations of the Framers would provide a strong basis for concluding that the Constitution imposes severe limits on states' power to project their moralities extraterritorially. If Justice Scalia is serious about a regard …


Conflict Of Constitutions? No Thanks: A Response To Professors Brilmayer And Kreimer, Gerald L. Neuman Mar 1993

Conflict Of Constitutions? No Thanks: A Response To Professors Brilmayer And Kreimer, Gerald L. Neuman

Michigan Law Review

This colloquy was organized around the unpleasant hypothesis that the Supreme Court would overrule Roe v. Wade and that Congress would not fill the resulting void with federal legislation. The abortion debate would then move to the states, where local majorities could enact their own resolutions. If the local majorities were large enough, they could even write their local resolutions into their state constitutions. The contrasting state constitutions that could result might then replicate the comparativists' current juxtaposition between the U.S. Constitution and the constitutions of Germany and Ireland. In some states, prohibition of abortion would be constitutionally required, while …


Teaching Conflicts, Improving The Odds, Gene R. Shreve May 1992

Teaching Conflicts, Improving The Odds, Gene R. Shreve

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Conflict of Laws: Cases, Materials and Problems by David H. Vernon, Louise Weinberg, William L. Reynolds, and William M. Richman


Conflict Of Laws: Foundations And Future Directions, Craig Y. Allison May 1992

Conflict Of Laws: Foundations And Future Directions, Craig Y. Allison

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Conflict of Laws: Foundations and Future Directions by Lea Brilmayer


Companies In The European Community: Are The Conflict-Of-Law Rules Ready For 1992?, Andreas Reindl Jan 1990

Companies In The European Community: Are The Conflict-Of-Law Rules Ready For 1992?, Andreas Reindl

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article describes the current situation in the emerging integrated system of the European Community, focusing on the potential conflict between Community rules on the freedom of establishment and national conflict-of-law rules relating to companies. In the first part, I shall outline the relevant provisions of EC law and the two conflict-of-law concepts presently exhibited in the national laws of the Member States. In the second part, I shall discuss three cases in which the European Court of Justice recently addressed this subject. In the third part, I shall analyze the impact of the Court's opinions, and finally outline options …


The International Law Of State Responsibility: Revolution Or Evolution?, Pierre-Marie Dupuy Jan 1989

The International Law Of State Responsibility: Revolution Or Evolution?, Pierre-Marie Dupuy

Michigan Journal of International Law

After briefly summarizing the classical doctrine of state responsibility, Part One will discuss whether extending compensation to the harmful consequences of certain hazardous activities necessarily involves the recognition of a "liability for lawful conduct" without any link to traditional ideas of state responsibility. Part Two, starting again from responsibility for wrongful acts, will discuss whether raising a new category, the breach of an "essential obligation" or "international crimes," confers not only an obligation to make reparations, but a right, in both the victim state and the non-victim states, to sanction the responsible state.


State Law Of Patent Exploitation, Edward H. Cooper Jan 1972

State Law Of Patent Exploitation, Edward H. Cooper

Articles

The main purpose of the present inquiry is to determine whether second thoughts support or undermine the instinctive supposition that the doctrines surrounding cooperative use of patents should be federal. The original creator of a patented invention is seldom in a position to exploit its commercial potential alone; even if the invention is created by the employee of a vast enterprise, it is almost inevitable that the patent will be assigned to his employer. Patent licensing plays a vitally important role in the development of many inventions. The contract doctrines surrounding such transactions, and various other consensual undertakings relating to …


Conflict-Of-Laws Rules By Treaty: Recognition Of Companies In A Regional Market, Eric Stein Jun 1970

Conflict-Of-Laws Rules By Treaty: Recognition Of Companies In A Regional Market, Eric Stein

Michigan Law Review

The term "recognition" has many meanings. We speak in family law of a "recognized child," in public international law of recognizing a newly emerged state or newly installed government, and in private international law (conflict of laws) of recognizing foreign judgments or legal persons. In both public and private international law, it is the nation-state that grants or denies recognition. In public international law, the "recognizing" nation-state expresses "a value judgment acknowledging that a given fact situation is in accord with the exigencies of the international legal order." In private international law (or conflict of laws), on the other hand, …


Choice Of Law In Secured Personal Property Transactions: The Impact Of Article 9 Of The Uniform Commercial Code, Russell J. Weintraub Mar 1970

Choice Of Law In Secured Personal Property Transactions: The Impact Of Article 9 Of The Uniform Commercial Code, Russell J. Weintraub

Michigan Law Review

It is likely that, in view of the adoption in forty-nine states of the Uniform Commercial Code (Code), particularly of article 9 dealing with secured transactions, the incidence of interstate conflict-of- laws problems concerning commercial transactions in personal property will be greatly reduced. The reason for this anticipated reduction is that the Code creates uniformity in the applicable law governing the rights and duties both between the secured creditor and the debtor and between the secured creditor and third parties who challenge the secured creditor's right to enjoy his security interest.


Cramton & Currie: Conflict Of Laws: Cases--Comments--Questions, Robert A. Leflar Jan 1969

Cramton & Currie: Conflict Of Laws: Cases--Comments--Questions, Robert A. Leflar

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Conflict of Laws: Cases--Comments--Questions by Roger C. Cramton and David P. Currie