Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Computer Sciences

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 1131

Full-Text Articles in Law

No Sword, No Shield, No Problem: Ai In Pro Se Section 1983 Suits, Michaela Calhoun May 2024

No Sword, No Shield, No Problem: Ai In Pro Se Section 1983 Suits, Michaela Calhoun

University of Colorado Law Review Forum

Originating during the Reconstruction era, 42 U.S.C. 1983 emerged as a legislative tool to safeguard individuals’ constitutional rights and liberties. Initially designed to combat state-sanctioned violence, its efficacy has been eroded over time by subsequent judicial and legislative action. Unfortunately, the current state of Section 1983 falls short of this envisioned role, particularly for incarcerated individuals who find themselves navigating the complexities of the federal court system as pro se litigants.

Faced with a landscape devoid of resources, incarcerated individuals struggle to realize their constitutional rights, further perpetuating their collective status as a second-class citizenry—a status imposed by their own …


Discovering Significant Topics From Legal Decisions With Selective Inference, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh Apr 2024

Discovering Significant Topics From Legal Decisions With Selective Inference, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

We propose and evaluate an automated pipeline for discovering significant topics from legal decision texts by passing features synthesized with topic models through penalized regressions and post-selection significance tests. The method identifies case topics significantly correlated with outcomes, topic-word distributions which can be manually interpreted to gain insights about significant topics, and case-topic weights which can be used to identify representative cases for each topic. We demonstrate the method on a new dataset of domain name disputes and a canonical dataset of European Court of Human Rights violation cases. Topic models based on latent semantic analysis as well as language …


Promises And Risks Of Applying Ai Medical Imaging To Early Detection Of Cancers, And Regulation For Ai Medical Imaging, Yiyao Zhang Jan 2024

Promises And Risks Of Applying Ai Medical Imaging To Early Detection Of Cancers, And Regulation For Ai Medical Imaging, Yiyao Zhang

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


The Right To A Glass Box: Rethinking The Use Of Artificial Intelligence In Criminal Justice, Brandon L. Garrett, Cynthia Rudin Jan 2024

The Right To A Glass Box: Rethinking The Use Of Artificial Intelligence In Criminal Justice, Brandon L. Garrett, Cynthia Rudin

Faculty Scholarship

Artificial intelligence (“AI”) increasingly is used to make important decisions that affect individuals and society. As governments and corporations use AI more pervasively, one of the most troubling trends is that developers so often design it to be a “black box.” Designers create AI models too complex for people to understand or they conceal how AI functions. Policymakers and the public increasingly sound alarms about black box AI. A particularly pressing area of concern has been criminal cases, in which a person’s life, liberty, and public safety can be at stake. In the United States and globally, despite concerns that …


Decoding U.S. Tort Liability In Healthcare's Black-Box Ai Era: Lessons From The European Union, Mindy Duffourc, Sara Gerke Jan 2024

Decoding U.S. Tort Liability In Healthcare's Black-Box Ai Era: Lessons From The European Union, Mindy Duffourc, Sara Gerke

Faculty Scholarly Works

The rapid development of sophisticated artificial intelligence (“AI”) tools in healthcare presents new possibilities for improving medical treatment and general health. Currently, such AI tools can perform a wide range of health-related tasks, from specialized autonomous systems that diagnose diabetic retinopathy to general-use generative models like ChatGPT that answer users’ health-related questions. On the other hand, significant liability concerns arise as medical professionals and consumers increasingly turn to AI for health information. This is particularly true for black-box AI because while potentially enhancing the AI’s capability and accuracy, these systems also operate without transparency, making it difficult or even impossible …


Locating Liability For Medical Ai, W. Nicholson Price Ii, I. Glenn Cohen Jan 2024

Locating Liability For Medical Ai, W. Nicholson Price Ii, I. Glenn Cohen

Articles

When medical AI systems fail, who should be responsible, and how? We argue that various features of medical AI complicate the application of existing tort doctrines and render them ineffective at creating incentives for the safe and effective use of medical AI. In addition to complexity and opacity, the problem of contextual bias, where medical AI systems vary substantially in performance from place to place, hampers traditional doctrines. We suggest instead the application of enterprise liability to hospitals—making them broadly liable for negligent injuries occurring within the hospital system—with an important caveat: hospitals must have access to the information needed …


Outsourcing Voting To Ai: Can Chatgpt Advise Index Funds On Proxy Voting Decisions?, Chen Wang Dec 2023

Outsourcing Voting To Ai: Can Chatgpt Advise Index Funds On Proxy Voting Decisions?, Chen Wang

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

Released in November 2022, Chat Generative Pre-training Transformer (“ChatGPT”), has risen rapidly to prominence, and its versatile capabilities have already been shown in a variety of fields. Due to ChatGPT’s advanced features, such as extensive pre-training on diverse data, strong generalization ability, fine-tuning capabilities, and improved reasoning, the use of AI in the legal industry could experience a significant transformation. Since small passive funds with low-cost business models generally lack the financial resources to make informed proxy voting decisions that align with their shareholders’ interests, this Article considers the use of ChatGPT to assist small investment funds, particularly small passive …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia Dec 2023

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


Rising Threat - Deepfakes And National Security In The Age Of Digital Deception, Dougo Kone-Sow Dec 2023

Rising Threat - Deepfakes And National Security In The Age Of Digital Deception, Dougo Kone-Sow

Cybersecurity Undergraduate Research Showcase

This paper delves into the intricate landscape of deepfakes, exploring their genesis, capabilities, and far-reaching implications. The rise of deepfake technology presents an unprecedented threat to American national security, propagating disinformation and manipulation across various media formats. Notably, deepfakes have evolved from a historical backdrop of disinformation campaigns, merging with the advancements of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning to craft convincing but false multimedia content.

Examining the capabilities of deepfakes reveals their potential for misuse, evidenced by instances targeting individuals, companies, and even influencing political events like the 2020 U.S. elections. The paper highlights the direct threats posed by …


Enhanced Privacy-Enabled Face Recognition Using Κ-Identity Optimization, Ryan Karl Dec 2023

Enhanced Privacy-Enabled Face Recognition Using Κ-Identity Optimization, Ryan Karl

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Facial recognition is becoming more and more prevalent in the daily lives of the common person. Law enforcement utilizes facial recognition to find and track suspects. The newest smartphones have the ability to unlock using the user's face. Some door locks utilize facial recognition to allow correct users to enter restricted spaces. The list of applications that use facial recognition will only increase as hardware becomes more cost-effective and more computationally powerful. As this technology becomes more prevalent in our lives, it is important to understand and protect the data provided to these companies. Any data transmitted should be encrypted …


The Unreasonable Effectiveness Of Large Language Models In Zero-Shot Semantic Annotation Of Legal Texts, Jaromir Savelka, Kevin D. Ashley Nov 2023

The Unreasonable Effectiveness Of Large Language Models In Zero-Shot Semantic Annotation Of Legal Texts, Jaromir Savelka, Kevin D. Ashley

Articles

The emergence of ChatGPT has sensitized the general public, including the legal profession, to large language models' (LLMs) potential uses (e.g., document drafting, question answering, and summarization). Although recent studies have shown how well the technology performs in diverse semantic annotation tasks focused on legal texts, an influx of newer, more capable (GPT-4) or cost-effective (GPT-3.5-turbo) models requires another analysis. This paper addresses recent developments in the ability of LLMs to semantically annotate legal texts in zero-shot learning settings. Given the transition to mature generative AI systems, we examine the performance of GPT-4 and GPT-3.5-turbo(-16k), comparing it to the previous …


An Idealist’S Approach For Smart Contract Correctness, Duy Tai Nguyen, Hong Long Pham, Jun Sun, Quang Loc Le Nov 2023

An Idealist’S Approach For Smart Contract Correctness, Duy Tai Nguyen, Hong Long Pham, Jun Sun, Quang Loc Le

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

In this work, we experiment an idealistic approach for smart contract correctness verification and enforcement, based on the assumption that developers are either desired or required to provide a correctness specification due to the importance of smart contracts and the fact that they are immutable after deployment. We design a static verification system with a specification language which supports fully compositional verification (with the help of function specifications, contract invariants, loop invariants and call invariants). Our approach has been implemented in a tool named iContract which automatically proves the correctness of a smart contract statically or checks the unverified part …


Depaul Digest Oct 2023

Depaul Digest

DePaul Magazine

College of Education Professor Jason Goulah fosters hope, happiness and global citizenship through DePaul’s Institute for Daisaku Ikeda Studies in Education. Associate Journalism Professor Jill Hopke shares how to talk about climate change. News briefs from DePaul’s 10 colleges and schools: Occupational Therapy Standardized Patient Program, Financial Planning Certificate program, Business Education in Technology and Analytics Hub, Racial Justice Initiative, Teacher Quality Partnership grant, Intimate Partner Violence and Brain Injury collaboration, School of Music Career Closet, Sports Photojournalism course, DePaul Migration Collaborative’s Solutions Lab, Inclusive Screenwriting courses. New appointments: School of Music Dean John Milbauer, College of Education Dean Jennifer …


Link Tank Oct 2023

Link Tank

DePaul Magazine

A new JD certificate program in information technology, cybersecurity and data privacy provides DePaul University students with proficiency in both law and tech.


Executive Order On The Safe, Secure, And Trustworthy Development And Use Of Artificial Intelligence, Joseph R. Biden Oct 2023

Executive Order On The Safe, Secure, And Trustworthy Development And Use Of Artificial Intelligence, Joseph R. Biden

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

Section 1. Purpose. Artificial intelligence (AI) holds extraordinary potential for both promise and peril. Responsible AI use has the potential to help solve urgent challenges while making our world more prosperous, productive, innovative, and secure. At the same time, irresponsible use could exacerbate societal harms such as fraud, discrimination, bias, and disinformation; displace and disempower workers; stifle competition; and pose risks to national security. Harnessing AI for good and realizing its myriad benefits requires mitigating its substantial risks. This endeavor demands a society-wide effort that includes government, the private sector, academia, and civil society.

My Administration places the highest urgency …


Integrating Nist And Iso Cybersecurity Audit And Risk Assessment Frameworks Into Cameroonian Law, Bernard Ngalim Oct 2023

Integrating Nist And Iso Cybersecurity Audit And Risk Assessment Frameworks Into Cameroonian Law, Bernard Ngalim

Journal of Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

This paper reviews cybersecurity laws and regulations in Cameroon, focusing on cybersecurity and information security audits and risk assessments. The importance of cybersecurity risk assessment and the implementation of security controls to cure deficiencies noted during risk assessments or audits is a critical step in developing cybersecurity resilience. Cameroon's cybersecurity legal framework provides for audits but does not explicitly enumerate controls. Consequently, integrating relevant controls from the NIST frameworks and ISO Standards can improve the cybersecurity posture in Cameroon while waiting for a comprehensive revision of the legal framework. NIST and ISO are internationally recognized as best practices in information …


Privacy Harm And Non-Compliance From A Legal Perspective, Suvineetha Herath, Haywood Gelman, Lisa Mckee Oct 2023

Privacy Harm And Non-Compliance From A Legal Perspective, Suvineetha Herath, Haywood Gelman, Lisa Mckee

Journal of Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

In today's data-sharing paradigm, personal data has become a valuable resource that intensifies the risk of unauthorized access and data breach. Increased data mining techniques used to analyze big data have posed significant risks to data security and privacy. Consequently, data breaches are a significant threat to individual privacy. Privacy is a multifaceted concept covering many areas, including the right to access, erasure, and rectify personal data. This paper explores the legal aspects of privacy harm and how they transform into legal action. Privacy harm is the negative impact to an individual as a result of the unauthorized release, gathering, …


The Library & Generative Ai, Nat Gustafson-Sundell, Mark Mccullough Aug 2023

The Library & Generative Ai, Nat Gustafson-Sundell, Mark Mccullough

Library Services Publications

A demonstration of several AI tools, including ChatGPT, ChatPDF, Consensus, and more. The focus of the session is on potential student uses of the tools and related library initiatives, so we address the limits of ChatGPT as an information source. Librarians can help students learn how to use these tools responsibly and provide leadership on campus as AI is integrated into assignments.


Mechanisms To Reduce Cyber Threats And Risks, Saad Alsuwaileh Jul 2023

Mechanisms To Reduce Cyber Threats And Risks, Saad Alsuwaileh

Journal of Police and Legal Sciences

Addressing the mechanisms of reducing cyber threats and risks Research Because cyberspace is an important arena for various international interactions, especially in recent times in light of the increase in cyber-attacks between some countries, which affects their national security. In this context, many countries are trying to make an effort to develop their capabilities to be used in any cyber-attack, or to take adequate preventive measures to protect them from any possible cyberattacks, especially in light of the impact of these attacks on vital places and institutions such as banks and ministries or on important facilities such as water and …


Ways To Participate In Ongoing Regulation Around Artificial Intelligence Ethics In The United States, Wilhelmina Randtke Jul 2023

Ways To Participate In Ongoing Regulation Around Artificial Intelligence Ethics In The United States, Wilhelmina Randtke

Library Faculty Presentations

In January 2021, the US passed the National Artificial Intelligence Initiative Act of 2020. The goal is a cohesive federal AI initiative, and part of that is safety, ethics, and transparency. The act includes funding appropriations for 2021-2025, and roll out takes place over that time. In implementing this law, there is recent and ongoing activity to regulate AI in the US. Regular calls for public participation go out to the public on www.federalregister.gov in the form of open ended questions on which input is requested, and feedback on reports or action plans.

The linked data community is uniquely positioned …


An Ml Based Digital Forensics Software For Triage Analysis Through Face Recognition, Gaurav Gogia, Parag H. Rughani Jul 2023

An Ml Based Digital Forensics Software For Triage Analysis Through Face Recognition, Gaurav Gogia, Parag H. Rughani

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Since the past few years, the complexity and heterogeneity of digital crimes has increased exponentially, which has made the digital evidence & digital forensics paramount for both criminal investigation and civil litigation cases. Some of the routine digital forensic analysis tasks are cumbersome and can increase the number of pending cases especially when there is a shortage of domain experts. While the work is not very complex, the sheer scale can be taxing. With the current scenarios and future predictions, crimes are only going to become more complex and the precedent of collecting and examining digital evidence is only going …


Testing Automated Driving Systems By Breaking Many Laws Efficiently, Xiaodong Zhang, Wei Zhao, Yang Sun, Jun Sun, Yulong Shen, Xuewen Dong, Zijiang Yang Jul 2023

Testing Automated Driving Systems By Breaking Many Laws Efficiently, Xiaodong Zhang, Wei Zhao, Yang Sun, Jun Sun, Yulong Shen, Xuewen Dong, Zijiang Yang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

An automated driving system (ADS), as the brain of an autonomous vehicle (AV), should be tested thoroughly ahead of deployment. ADS must satisfy a complex set of rules to ensure road safety, e.g., the existing traffic laws and possibly future laws that are dedicated to AVs. To comprehensively test an ADS, we would like to systematically discover diverse scenarios in which certain traffic law is violated. The challenge is that (1) there are many traffic laws (e.g., 13 testable articles in Chinese traffic laws and 16 testable articles in Singapore traffic laws, with 81 and 43 violation situations respectively); and …


Trust And Robotics: A Multi-Staged Decision-Making Approach To Robots In Community, Wenxi Zhang, Willow Wong, Mark Findlay Jun 2023

Trust And Robotics: A Multi-Staged Decision-Making Approach To Robots In Community, Wenxi Zhang, Willow Wong, Mark Findlay

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

With the desired outcome of social good within the wider robotics ecosystem, trust is identified as the central adhesive of the human–robot interaction (HRI) interface. However, building trust between humans and robots involves more than improving the machine’s technical reliability or trustworthiness in function. This paper presents a holistic, community-based approach to trust-building, where trust is understood as a multifaceted and multi-staged looped relation that depends heavily on context and human perceptions. Building on past literature that identifies dispositional and learned stages of trust, our proposed decision to trust model considers more extensively the human and situational factors influencing how …


The Negative Economic Impacts Of Money Laundering In Kenya, Thailand And France, Peyton Tollaksen May 2023

The Negative Economic Impacts Of Money Laundering In Kenya, Thailand And France, Peyton Tollaksen

Mathematics and Computer Science Capstones

Cybercrime has grown exponentially around the world due to consistently changing technology and the craftiness of cybercriminals often outpacing that of security officers. In the past three decades, cybercrime has been expedited and globally expanded due to the accumulated experience of these criminals, who take advantage of the new found black market, cryptocurrency, and other operations. According to a report published by the Center for Strategic and International Studies titled, “Economic Impact of Cybercrime,” it was found that, “close to $600 billion, nearly one percent of global GDP, is lost to cybercrime each year” (2018). Unfortunately, this number will only …


What Senior U.S. Leaders Say We Should Know About Cyber, Dr. Joseph H. Schafer May 2023

What Senior U.S. Leaders Say We Should Know About Cyber, Dr. Joseph H. Schafer

Military Cyber Affairs

On April 6, 2023, the Atlantic Council’s Cyber Statecraft Initiative hosted a panel discussion on the new National Cybersecurity Strategy. The panel featured four senior officials from the Office of the National Cyber Director (ONCD), the Department of State (DoS), the Department of Justice (DoJ), and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The author attended and asked each official to identify the most important elements that policymakers and strategists must understand about cyber. This article highlights historical and recent struggles to express cyber policy, the responses from these officials, and the author’s ongoing research to improve national security cyber policy.


Some Legal And Practical Challenges In The Investigation Of Cybercrime, Ritz Carr Apr 2023

Some Legal And Practical Challenges In The Investigation Of Cybercrime, Ritz Carr

Cybersecurity Undergraduate Research Showcase

According to the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3), in 2021, the United States lost around $6.9 billion to cybercrime. In 2022, that number grew to over $10.2 billion (IC3, 2022). In one of many efforts to combat cybercrimes, at least 40 states “introduced or considered more than 250 bills or resolutions that deal significantly with cybersecurity” with 24 states officially enacting a total of 41 bills (National Conference on State Legislatures, 2022).

The world of cybercrime evolves each day. Nevertheless, challenges arise when we investigate and prosecute cybercrime, which will be examined in the following collection of essays that highlight …


An Intelligent Path For Improving Diversity At Law Firms (Un)Artificially, Rimsha Syeda Apr 2023

An Intelligent Path For Improving Diversity At Law Firms (Un)Artificially, Rimsha Syeda

Michigan Technology Law Review

Most law firms are struggling when it comes to diversity and inclusion. There are fewer women in law firms compared to men. The majority of lawyers—81%—are White, despite White people making up only about 65% of the law school population. Lawyers of color remain underrepresented with the historic high being only 28.32%. By comparison, 13.4% of the United States population is Black and 5.9% is Asian. The biases that perpetuate this lack of diversity in law firms begin during the hiring process and extend to associate retainment. For example, an applicant’s resume reveals a lot, including the prestige of the …


The Importance Of Accessible Government Data In Advancing Environmental Justice, Frank D. Lomonte, Daniel Delgado Apr 2023

The Importance Of Accessible Government Data In Advancing Environmental Justice, Frank D. Lomonte, Daniel Delgado

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

Part I of this Article sets forth the history and animating principles of the environmental justice movement in the United States during the 1970s, which developed as an adjunct to the larger civil rights movement. Part II then turns to the role of documents and data in exposing where toxins present a risk to public health and where documentation habitually falls short. It discusses how freedom of information laws can unlock access to the documents and data that quantify environmental hazards but also how those laws fail to produce reliable results because of the influence of regulated industries. Part III …


Regulating Artificial Intelligence In International Investment Law, Mark Mclaughlin Apr 2023

Regulating Artificial Intelligence In International Investment Law, Mark Mclaughlin

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The interaction between artificial intelligence (AI) and international investment treaties is an uncharted territory of international law. Concerns over the national security, safety, and privacy implications of AI are spurring regulators into action around the world. States have imposed restrictions on data transfer, utilised automated decision-making, mandated algorithmic transparency, and limited market access. This article explores the interaction between AI regulation and standards of investment protection. It is argued that the current framework provides an unpredictable legal environment in which to adjudicate the contested norms and ethics of AI. Treaties should be recalibrated to reinforce their anti-protectionist origins, embed human-centric …


Of Inventorship And Patent Ownership: Examining The Intersection Between Artificial Intelligence And Patent Law, Cheng Lim Saw, Zheng Wen Samuel Chan Mar 2023

Of Inventorship And Patent Ownership: Examining The Intersection Between Artificial Intelligence And Patent Law, Cheng Lim Saw, Zheng Wen Samuel Chan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Artificial intelligence (“AI”) has garnered much attention in recent years, with capabilities spanning the operation of self-driving cars to the emulation of the great artistic masters of old. The field has now been ostensibly enlarged in light of the professed abilities of AI machines to autonomously generate patentable inventions. This article examines the present state of AI technology and the suitability of existing patent law frameworks in accommodating it. Looking ahead, the authors also offer two recommendations in a bid to anticipate and resolve the challenges that future developments in AI technology might pose to patent law. In particular, the …