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Full-Text Articles in Law

Computationally Assessing Suspicion, Wesley M. Oliver, Morgan A. Gray, Jaromir Savelka, Kevin D. Ashley May 2024

Computationally Assessing Suspicion, Wesley M. Oliver, Morgan A. Gray, Jaromir Savelka, Kevin D. Ashley

University of Cincinnati Law Review

Law enforcement officers performing drug interdiction on interstate highways have to decide nearly every day whether there is reasonable suspicion to detain motorists until a trained dog can sniff for the presence of drugs. The officers’ assessments are often wrong, however, and lead to unnecessary detentions of innocent persons and the suppression of drugs found on guilty ones. We propose a computational method of evaluating suspicion in these encounters and offer experimental results from early efforts demonstrating its feasibility. With the assistance of large language and predictive machine learning models, it appears that judges, advocates, and even police officers could …


The Missing Links: Why Hyperlinks Must Be Treated As Attachments In Electronic Discovery, Lea Malani Bays, Stuart A. Davidson May 2024

The Missing Links: Why Hyperlinks Must Be Treated As Attachments In Electronic Discovery, Lea Malani Bays, Stuart A. Davidson

University of Cincinnati Law Review

This Article sheds light on a unique but centrally important “twenty-first century” issue involving electronic discovery in federal civil litigation that is just beginning to percolate in federal district courts. Historically, courts have held that a document attached to or enclosed with another document must be produced together when produced in response to a discovery request, as that is how the document was “kept in the usual course of business” and how it is “ordinarily maintained or in a reasonably usable form,” as the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure have required for decades. Today, parties are pushing back on whether …


Improving Ethics Surrounding Collegiate-Level Hacking Education: Recommended Implementation Plan & Affiliation With Peer-Led Initiatives, Shannon Morgan, Dr. Sanjay Goel May 2024

Improving Ethics Surrounding Collegiate-Level Hacking Education: Recommended Implementation Plan & Affiliation With Peer-Led Initiatives, Shannon Morgan, Dr. Sanjay Goel

Military Cyber Affairs

Cybersecurity has become a pertinent concern, as novel technological innovations create opportunities for threat actors to exfiltrate sensitive data. To meet the demand for professionals in the workforce, universities have ramped up their academic offerings to provide a broad range of cyber-related programs (e.g., cybersecurity, informatics, information technology, digital forensics, computer science, & engineering). As the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) of hackers evolve, the knowledge and skillset required to be an effective cybersecurity professional have escalated accordingly. Therefore, it is critical to train cyber students both technically and theoretically to actively combat cyber criminals and protect the confidentiality, integrity, …


Using Digital Twins To Protect Biomanufacturing From Cyberattacks, Brenden Fraser-Hevlin, Alec W. Schuler, B. Arda Gozen, Bernard J. Van Wie May 2024

Using Digital Twins To Protect Biomanufacturing From Cyberattacks, Brenden Fraser-Hevlin, Alec W. Schuler, B. Arda Gozen, Bernard J. Van Wie

Military Cyber Affairs

Understanding of the intersection of cyber vulnerabilities and bioprocess regulation is critical with the rise of artificial intelligence and machine learning in manufacturing. We detail a case study in which we model cyberattacks on network-mediated signals from a novel bioreactor, where it is important to control medium feed rates to maintain cell proliferation. We use a digital twin counterpart reactor to compare glucose and oxygen sensor signals from the bioreactor to predictions from a kinetic growth model, allowing discernment of faulty sensors from hacked signals. Our results demonstrate a successful biomanufacturing cyberattack detection system based on fundamental process control principles.


Characterizing Advanced Persistent Threats Through The Lens Of Cyber Attack Flows, Logan Zeien, Caleb Chang, Ltc Ekzhin Ear, Dr. Shouhuai Xu May 2024

Characterizing Advanced Persistent Threats Through The Lens Of Cyber Attack Flows, Logan Zeien, Caleb Chang, Ltc Ekzhin Ear, Dr. Shouhuai Xu

Military Cyber Affairs

Effective cyber defense must build upon a deep understanding of real-world cyberattacks to guide the design and deployment of appropriate defensive measures against current and future attacks. In this abridged paper (of which the full paper is available online), we present important concepts for understanding Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs), our methodology to characterize APTs through the lens of attack flows, and a detailed case study of APT28 that demonstrates our method’s viability to draw useful insights. This paper makes three technical contributions. First, we propose a novel method of constructing attack flows to describe APTs. This abstraction allows technical audiences, …


Securing The Void: Assessing The Dynamic Threat Landscape Of Space, Brianna Bace, Dr. Unal Tatar May 2024

Securing The Void: Assessing The Dynamic Threat Landscape Of Space, Brianna Bace, Dr. Unal Tatar

Military Cyber Affairs

Outer space is a strategic and multifaceted domain that is a crossroads for political, military, and economic interests. From a defense perspective, the U.S. military and intelligence community rely heavily on satellite networks to meet national security objectives and execute military operations and intelligence gathering. This paper examines the evolving threat landscape of the space sector, encompassing natural and man-made perils, emphasizing the rise of cyber threats and the complexity introduced by dual-use technology and commercialization. It also explores the implications for security and resilience, advocating for collaborative efforts among international organizations, governments, and industry to safeguard the space sector.


Commercial Enablers Of China’S Cyber-Intelligence And Information Operations, Ethan Mansour, Victor Mukora May 2024

Commercial Enablers Of China’S Cyber-Intelligence And Information Operations, Ethan Mansour, Victor Mukora

Military Cyber Affairs

In a globally commercialized information environment, China uses evolving commercial enabler networks to position and project its goals. They do this through cyber, intelligence, and information operations. This paper breaks down the types of commercial enablers and how they are used operationally. It will also address the CCP's strategy to gather and influence foreign and domestic populations throughout cyberspace. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for mitigating the influence of PRC commercial enablers.


Aiming For Fairness: An Exploration Into Getty Images V. Stability Ai And Its Importance In The Landscape Of Modern Copyright Law, Matthew Coulter Apr 2024

Aiming For Fairness: An Exploration Into Getty Images V. Stability Ai And Its Importance In The Landscape Of Modern Copyright Law, Matthew Coulter

DePaul Journal of Art, Technology & Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


A Timeless Principle: Copyright Before The Statute Of Anne, Victoria Lieberman Apr 2024

A Timeless Principle: Copyright Before The Statute Of Anne, Victoria Lieberman

DePaul Journal of Art, Technology & Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Innovation At A Crossroads: The Supreme Court's Influence On Pharmaceuticals, Trade Policies, And Public Health, Beau Reeves Apr 2024

Innovation At A Crossroads: The Supreme Court's Influence On Pharmaceuticals, Trade Policies, And Public Health, Beau Reeves

DePaul Journal of Art, Technology & Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Beautifying The Human Experience: The Road To Knocking Out The Knockoff Industry Through Adaptions To Copyright & Design Patent Protections For Clothing, Moira Mccabe Apr 2024

Beautifying The Human Experience: The Road To Knocking Out The Knockoff Industry Through Adaptions To Copyright & Design Patent Protections For Clothing, Moira Mccabe

DePaul Journal of Art, Technology & Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Machines Like Me: A Proposal On The Admissibility Of Artificially Intelligent Expert Testimony, Andrew W. Jurs, Scott Devito Apr 2024

Machines Like Me: A Proposal On The Admissibility Of Artificially Intelligent Expert Testimony, Andrew W. Jurs, Scott Devito

Pepperdine Law Review

With the rapidly expanding sophistication of artificial intelligence systems, their reliability, and cost-effectiveness for solving problems, the current trend of admitting testimony based on artificially intelligent (AI) systems is only likely to grow. In that context, it is imperative for us to ask what rules of evidence judges today should use relating to such evidence. To answer that question, we provide an in-depth review of expert systems, machine learning systems, and neural networks. Based on that analysis, we contend that evidence from only certain types of AI systems meet the requirements for admissibility, while other systems do not. The break …


All Eyez On Rap & Hip-Hop: Analyzing How Black Expression Is Criminalized And The Language Of The Rap Act Of 2022, Maia Young Apr 2024

All Eyez On Rap & Hip-Hop: Analyzing How Black Expression Is Criminalized And The Language Of The Rap Act Of 2022, Maia Young

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

The Black existence, in the United States of America, has always been regarded as a conditional right. Conventionally, Blackness must always be nonviolent and non-disruptive to safely exist. Because of this, Blackness cannot be confined to restraints and disrupts these conventions with acts of joy and creative expression. Black creativity is both unconventional and sacred. Black creative expression documents, preserves, and unifies cultural lived experiences, from a first-hand lens of those oppressed. Creative and artistic expression celebrates the myriad of stories that are a part of the collective Black experience. Yet, Black creative expression is now being weaponized by prosecutors …


Constitutional Rights Of Artificial Intelligence, Mizuki Hashiguchi Apr 2024

Constitutional Rights Of Artificial Intelligence, Mizuki Hashiguchi

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

On February 8, 2022, the Italian Parliament approved constitutional amendments to protect the environment. A member of Parliament stated that the environment is an element of Italy, and that safeguarding the environment means safeguarding humans. The need to protect the environment seems to have become a critical component of public conscience. Likewise, if society perceives that artificial intelligence is vitally important for humanity, does constitutional law allow constitutional rights for artificial intelligence to be created?

Extending constitutional rights to artificial intelligence may be consistent with the jurisprudential history of rights. Constitutional rights have undergone metamorphosis over time to protect new …


Rembrandt’S Missing Piece: Ai Art And The Fallacies Of Copyright Law, Eleni Polymenopoulou Apr 2024

Rembrandt’S Missing Piece: Ai Art And The Fallacies Of Copyright Law, Eleni Polymenopoulou

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

This article discusses contemporary problems related to Artificial Intelligence (AI), law and the visual arts. It suggests that the fallacies of copyright law are already visible in legal conundrums raised by AI in the creative sector. These include, for instance, the lack of uniformity in relation to creations’ copyrightability, the massive scale of copyright infringement affecting visual artists and the creative industry, and the difficulties in implementing media regulation and cyber-regulation. The deeply cherished ‘human authorship’ criterion that was sustained recently by a US Federal Appeals Court in Thaler, in particular, is a short-term solution to the legal challenges …


Foreword, Deborah W. Denno, Erica Valencia-Graham Apr 2024

Foreword, Deborah W. Denno, Erica Valencia-Graham

Fordham Law Review

This Foreword overviews an unprecedented Symposium on these wide ranging topics titled The New AI: The Legal and Ethical Implications of ChatGPT and Other Emerging Technologies. Hosted by the Fordham Law Review and cosponsored by Fordham University School of Law’s Neuroscience and Law Center on November 3, 2023, the Symposium brought together attorneys, judges, professors, and scientists to explore the opportunities and risks presented by AI, especially GenAI like ChatGPT. The discussion raised complex questions concerning AI sentience and personal privacy, as well as the future of legal ethics, education, and employment. Although the AI industry uniformly predicts ever more …


Ai, Algorithms, And Awful Humans, Daniel J. Solove, Hideyuki Matsumi Apr 2024

Ai, Algorithms, And Awful Humans, Daniel J. Solove, Hideyuki Matsumi

Fordham Law Review

A profound shift is occurring in the way many decisions are made, with machines taking greater roles in the decision-making process. Two arguments are often advanced to justify the increasing use of automation and algorithms in decisions. The “Awful Human Argument” asserts that human decision-making is often awful and that machines can decide better than humans. Another argument, the “Better Together Argument,” posits that machines can augment and improve human decision-making. These arguments exert a powerful influence on law and policy.

In this Essay, we contend that in the context of making decisions about humans, these arguments are far too …


Of Another Mind: Ai And The Attachment Of Human Ethical Obligations, Katherine B. Forrest Apr 2024

Of Another Mind: Ai And The Attachment Of Human Ethical Obligations, Katherine B. Forrest

Fordham Law Review

We are entering a new world. A world in which we humans will be confronted with our intellectual limitations as we watch the evolution of artificial intelligence (AI) that we have created meet and exceed our capabilities. I have a few predictions about this—based first on how technology changes occur, with a layer of how human nature reacts to those changes.

My first prediction is that we may not initially recognize AI’s actual capabilities. We will find ways of describing what AI can do as somehow mimicry—the advances of a stochastic parrot, perhaps; we will not want to recognize our …


Chatgpt, Large Language Models, And Law, Harry Surden Apr 2024

Chatgpt, Large Language Models, And Law, Harry Surden

Fordham Law Review

This Essay explores Artificial Intelligence (AI) Large Language Models (LLMs) like ChatGPT/GPT-4, detailing the advances and challenges in applying AI to law. It first explains how these AI technologies work at an understandable level. It then examines the significant evolution of LLMs since 2022 and their improved capabilities in understanding and generating complex documents, such as legal texts. Finally, this Essay discusses the limitations of these technologies, offering a balanced view of their potential role in legal work.


The Unregulated World Of Your Most Personal Of Personal Information: A Proposal For A Federal Biometric Information Privacy Law, Isabel M. Vuyk Mar 2024

The Unregulated World Of Your Most Personal Of Personal Information: A Proposal For A Federal Biometric Information Privacy Law, Isabel M. Vuyk

The University of Cincinnati Intellectual Property and Computer Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Why Outlaw Laws?: An Argument For A Probationary Period For Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems Under Meaningful Human Control., Katherine E. Vuyk Mar 2024

Why Outlaw Laws?: An Argument For A Probationary Period For Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems Under Meaningful Human Control., Katherine E. Vuyk

The University of Cincinnati Intellectual Property and Computer Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Someone Please Do Something: The Fight For Web Accessibility Rages On, James Mazzone Feb 2024

Someone Please Do Something: The Fight For Web Accessibility Rages On, James Mazzone

West Virginia Law Review

When the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”) was enacted in 1990, no one could have envisioned the way technology would dominate society as it does today. Title III, Public Accommodations, of the ADA was enacted to allow disabled individuals the opportunity to fully enjoy equal access to goods and services offered to the public. Title III has traditionally been applied to physical, stand-alone locations such as hotels, shopping centers, and restaurants. However, almost every facet of an American’s life today involves a screen emitting a bright light. Additionally, businesses of all sizes are facing mountains of web accessibility litigation due …


Robots As Pirates, Henry H. Perritt Jr. Jan 2024

Robots As Pirates, Henry H. Perritt Jr.

Catholic University Law Review

Generative AI has created much excitement over its potential to create new works of authorship in the literary and graphical realms. Its underling machine-learning technology works by analyzing the relations among elements of preexisting material in enormous databases assembled from publicly available and licensed sources. Its algorithms “learn” to predict “what comes next” in different types of expression. A complete system thus can become glib in creating new factual summaries, essays, fictional stories and images.

A number of authors of the raw material used by Generative AI engines claim that the machine learning process infringes their copyrights. Careful evaluation of …


From Alpha To Omegle: A.M. V. Omegle And The Shift Towards Product Liability For Harm Incurred Online, Preston Buchanan Jan 2024

From Alpha To Omegle: A.M. V. Omegle And The Shift Towards Product Liability For Harm Incurred Online, Preston Buchanan

University of Miami Business Law Review

But for the Internet, many of our interactions with others would be impossible. From socializing to shopping, and, increasingly, working and attending class, the Internet greatly facilitates the ease of our daily lives. However, we frequently neglect to consider that our conduits to the Internet have the potential to lead to harm and injury. When the Internet was in its infancy, and primarily was a repository of information, Congress recognized the threat of continual lawsuits against online entities stemming from the content created by their users. The Communications Decency Act of 1996 arose to mitigate the seemingly Herculean task for …


Virtual Stardom: The Case For Protecting The Intellectual Property Rights Of Digital Celebrities As Software, Alexander Plansky Jan 2024

Virtual Stardom: The Case For Protecting The Intellectual Property Rights Of Digital Celebrities As Software, Alexander Plansky

University of Miami Business Law Review

For the past several decades, technology has allowed us to create digital human beings that both resemble actual celebrities (living or deceased) or entirely virtual personalities from scratch. In the near future, this technology is expected to become even more advanced and widespread to the point where there may be entirely virtual celebrities who are just as popular as their flesh-and-blood counterparts—if not more so. This raises intellectual property questions of how these near-future digital actors and musicians should be classified, and who will receive the proceeds from their performances and appearances. Since, in the near-term, these entities will probably …


Privacy’S Next Act, Erik Lampmann-Shaver Jan 2024

Privacy’S Next Act, Erik Lampmann-Shaver

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

This Article identifies and describes three data privacy policy developments from recent legislative sessions that may seem unrelated, but which I contend together offer clues about privacy law’s future over the short-to-medium term.

The first is the proliferation, worldwide and in U.S. states, of legislative proposals and statutes referred to as “age-appropriate design codes.” Originating in the United Kingdom, age-appropriate design codes typically apply to online services “directed to children” and subject such services to transparency, default settings, and other requirements. Chief among them is an implied obligation to conduct ongoing assessments of whether a service could be deemed “directed …


Limits Of Algorithmic Fair Use, Jacob Alhadeff, Cooper Cuene, Max Del Real Jan 2024

Limits Of Algorithmic Fair Use, Jacob Alhadeff, Cooper Cuene, Max Del Real

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

In this article, we apply historical copyright principles to the evolving state of text-to-image generation and explore the implications of emerging technological constructs for copyright’s fair use doctrine. Artificial intelligence (“AI”) is frequently trained on copyrighted works, which usually involves extensive copying without owners’ authorization. Such copying could constitute prima facie copyright infringement, but existing guidance suggests fair use should apply to most machine learning contexts. Mark Lemley and Bryan Casey argue that training machine learning (“ML”) models on copyrighted material should generally be permitted under fair use when the model’s outputs transcends the purpose of its inputs. Their arguments …


Coded Social Control: China’S Normalization Of Biometric Surveillance In The Post Covid-19 Era, Michelle Miao Jan 2024

Coded Social Control: China’S Normalization Of Biometric Surveillance In The Post Covid-19 Era, Michelle Miao

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

This article investigates the longevity of health QR codes, a digital instrument of pandemic surveillance, in post-COVID China. From 2020 to 2022, China widely used this tri-color tool to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. A commonly held assumption is that health QR codes have become obsolete in post-pandemic China. This study challenges such an assumption. It reveals their persistence and integration - through mobile apps and online platforms - beyond the COVID-19 public health emergency. A prolonged, expanded and normalized use of tools which were originally intended for contact tracing and pandemic surveillance raises critical legal and ethical concerns. Moreover, their …


Quantifying Civil Recovery In Hybrid Antitrust-Data Protection Harms, Jose Maria Marella Jan 2024

Quantifying Civil Recovery In Hybrid Antitrust-Data Protection Harms, Jose Maria Marella

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

If digital platforms are found liable on hybrid antitrust-data protection violations, by how much should individual users be compensated? While traditional antitrust literature offers some estimation techniques, these methods were developed mostly around the idea that anti-competitive conduct manifests in supra-competitive prices, lost profits, or lost customers, all of which are easily quantifiable using commercially available evidence.

In digital markets, where antitrust violations are often intertwined with data protection issues, several complications arise. First, unlike transactions covered by traditional treble damage estimation techniques, “data-for-services” dealings are not evidenced by receipts. Second, personal data valuation is highly contextual and prone to …


New Rules For A New Era: Regulating Artificial Intelligence In The Legal Field, Hunter Cyran Jan 2024

New Rules For A New Era: Regulating Artificial Intelligence In The Legal Field, Hunter Cyran

Journal of Law, Technology, & the Internet

As Artificial Intelligence (AI) continues to evolve at a rapid pace, many industries have already started integrating new technologies to reduce costs and labor. While this is practical for some industries, the legal industry should be cautious before fully integrating AI. Some legal-service providers are already developing and offering new AI products. But the legal industry must approach these new products with some skepticism. While AI may eventually bring positive changes to the legal industry, AI currently has many flaws. This can create negative unintended consequences for attorneys and judges that are unaware of these flaws. Further, AI is not …