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Commercial Law

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 278

Full-Text Articles in Law

En El Do De La Unión Europea: Registro De Denominaciones De Origen Protegidas, Indicaciones Geográficas Protegidas, Etc., Luis González Vaqué, Cristina Vidreras Pérez Dec 2014

En El Do De La Unión Europea: Registro De Denominaciones De Origen Protegidas, Indicaciones Geográficas Protegidas, Etc., Luis González Vaqué, Cristina Vidreras Pérez

Luis González Vaqué

No abstract provided.


Cookie Monster: Balancing Internet Privacy With Commerce, Technology And Terrorism, Nichoel Forrett Dec 2014

Cookie Monster: Balancing Internet Privacy With Commerce, Technology And Terrorism, Nichoel Forrett

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Commentary On The International Sales Law. The 1980 Vienna Sales Convention. C.M. Bianca And M.J. Bonell Et Al. Milan, Italy: Guiffre 1987. Pp. 678 Plus Appendices And Index., Joseph J. Darby Dec 2014

Book Review: Commentary On The International Sales Law. The 1980 Vienna Sales Convention. C.M. Bianca And M.J. Bonell Et Al. Milan, Italy: Guiffre 1987. Pp. 678 Plus Appendices And Index., Joseph J. Darby

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Omnibus Trade And Competitiveness Act Of 1988: Putting The Brakes On Foreign Investment, Christopher J. Foreman Dec 2014

Omnibus Trade And Competitiveness Act Of 1988: Putting The Brakes On Foreign Investment, Christopher J. Foreman

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Merchants Of Wall Street: Banking, Commerce, And Commodities, Saule T. Omarova Dec 2014

The Merchants Of Wall Street: Banking, Commerce, And Commodities, Saule T. Omarova

Saule T. Omarova

This Article explores the legal, regulatory, policy, and theoretical aspects of an ongoing transformation of large U.S. banking organizations into global merchants of physical commodities and energy. In the absence of detailed and reliable information, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions as to the social efficiency and desirability of allowing this transformation to continue. What we can already ascertain about U.S. financial institutions' physical commodity assets and activities, however, raises potentially serious public policy concerns that must be addressed through a fully-informed public deliberation. Even if big U.S. FHCs were, in fact, to scale down their physical commodity operations …


Beyond Finance: Permissible Commercial Activities Of U.S. Financial Holding Companies, Saule T. Omarova Dec 2014

Beyond Finance: Permissible Commercial Activities Of U.S. Financial Holding Companies, Saule T. Omarova

Saule T. Omarova

!is essay explains the legal basis for, and examines public policy implications of, recent expansion of large U.S. financial holding companies’ non-financial business activities. Despite its potentially significant impact on economic growth and systemic stability, this phenomenon of financial conglomeration beyond finance remains poorly understood. Yet, any truly comprehensive and effective reform of financial services regulation must address public policy issues that arise when “too-big-to-fail” banks grow even bigger and more systemically significant by combining finance with commerce.


Commercial Letters Of Confirmation In International Trade: Austrian, French, German And Swiss Law And Uniform Law Under The 1980 Sales Convention, Michael Esser Dec 2014

Commercial Letters Of Confirmation In International Trade: Austrian, French, German And Swiss Law And Uniform Law Under The 1980 Sales Convention, Michael Esser

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Insource The Shareholding Of Outsourced Employees: A Global Stock Ownership Plan, Robert C. Hockett Dec 2014

Insource The Shareholding Of Outsourced Employees: A Global Stock Ownership Plan, Robert C. Hockett

Robert C. Hockett

With the American economy stalled and another federal election campaign season well underway, the “outsourcing” of American jobs is again on the public agenda. Latest figures indicate not only that claims for joblessness benefits are up, but also that the rate of American job-exportation has more than doubled since the last electoral cycle. This year’s political candidates have been quick to take note. In consequence, more than at any time since the early 1990s, continued American participation in the World Trade Organization, in the North American Free Trade Agreement, and in the processes of global economic integration more generally appear …


Bretton Woods 1.0: A Constructive Retrieval For Sustainable Finance, Robert Hockett Dec 2014

Bretton Woods 1.0: A Constructive Retrieval For Sustainable Finance, Robert Hockett

Robert C. Hockett

Global trade imbalance and domestic financial fragility are intimately related. When a nation runs persistently massive current account deficits to maintain global liquidity as has the United States now for decades, its central bank effectively relinquishes exchange rate flexibility to become a de facto central bank to the world. That in turn prevents the bank from playing its essential credit-modulatory role at home, at least absent strict capital controls that are difficult to administer and have long been taboo. And this can in turn render credit-fueled asset price bubbles and busts all but impossible to prevent, irrespective of the nation's …


The Macroprudential Turn: From Institutional “Safety And Soundness” To “Systemic Stability” In Financial Supervision, Robert C. Hockett Dec 2014

The Macroprudential Turn: From Institutional “Safety And Soundness” To “Systemic Stability” In Financial Supervision, Robert C. Hockett

Robert C. Hockett

This Working Paper is no longer available. The published version of this article is available at: http://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/facpub/1405/ Since the global financial dramas of 2008-09, authorities on financial regulation have come increasingly to counsel the inclusion of macroprudential policy instruments in the standard ‘toolkit’ of finance-regulatory measures employed by financial supervisors. The hallmark of this perspective is its focus not simply on the safety and soundness of individual financial institutions, as is characteristic of the traditional ‘microprudential’ perspective, but also on certain structural features of financial systems that can imperil such systems as wholes. Systemic ‘financial stability’ thus comes to supplement, …


An Empirical Survey Of Price Fixing Conspiracies, George A. Hay, Daniel Kelley Dec 2014

An Empirical Survey Of Price Fixing Conspiracies, George A. Hay, Daniel Kelley

George A. Hay

This paper reports on a study of recent Antitrust Division horizontal price fixing cases. The objective of the study was to determine if there has been a specific set of characteristics associated with the product or product markets that have been the subjects of price fixing. If such a pattern exists, it might provide empirical insight into some aspects of oligopoly behavior. From a policy point of view, any pattern that is found could be used in a positive enforcement program designed to investigate the "most likely" areas of price fixing. Section I reviews the academic literature which has dealt …


Import Controls On Foreign Oil: Reply, George A. Hay Dec 2014

Import Controls On Foreign Oil: Reply, George A. Hay

George A. Hay

The position of Ryan Amacher, Robert Tollison, and Thomas Willett (ATW) can be summarized as follows: Assuming that the domestic industry behaves like a profit-maximizing monopoly, if the quota on imported crude oil is replaced by a tariff that is by assumption set so as to achieve the same domestic price of crude oil, the market power of the dominant domestic firms is "severely constrained." In response I would contend that 1) their assumption about the level of the tariff differs from what I had assumed; 2) their conclusion about the market power of the dominant firms is subject to …


The Meaning Of "Agreement" Under The Sherman Act: Thoughts From The "Facilitating Practices" Experience, George A. Hay Dec 2014

The Meaning Of "Agreement" Under The Sherman Act: Thoughts From The "Facilitating Practices" Experience, George A. Hay

George A. Hay

While the Economic Policy Office was involved in a number of interesting and important matters during the six years I was Director (1973–1979), for the most part my involvement in individual investigations and cases was vicarious, i.e., supervising, supporting, and advising the staff economists assigned to the particular matter. The one major exception – a matter in which I became personally involved in an intensive way – was the General Electric (GE)-Westinghouse price signaling matter. In what follows, I provide a brief summary of what transpired in the GE-Westinghouse matter and then trace through some of the longer term consequences …


British And European Community Regulation Of The British Beer Market: Tapping Into The Tied-House System (Cheers!), David A. Everreste Dec 2014

British And European Community Regulation Of The British Beer Market: Tapping Into The Tied-House System (Cheers!), David A. Everreste

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Summary Of In Re: Cay Clubs, 130 Nev., 130 Nev. Adv. Op. 92, Adam Wynott Dec 2014

Summary Of In Re: Cay Clubs, 130 Nev., 130 Nev. Adv. Op. 92, Adam Wynott

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

The Court concluded that NRS 87.160(1) may impose partnership liability on a joint venture based on the partnership-by-estoppel doctrine and that the statute may apply to any claim that relies on the doctrine’s element of reasonable reliance. The Court clarified the statute’s meaning, stating that a partnership by estoppel requires (1) consent, manifested expressly or impliedly from the liable party’s conduct; (2) credit, not limited to financial credit, given by one party to the other; (3) and reasonable reliance by one party on the other party’s representation of a partnership or joint venture.


La Escasa Significación De Los Registros Públicos, Daniel Echaiz Moreno Dec 2014

La Escasa Significación De Los Registros Públicos, Daniel Echaiz Moreno

Daniel Echaiz Moreno

No abstract provided.


La Elusión Tributaria: Análisis Crítico De La Actual Normatividad Y Propuestas Para Una Futura Reforma, Daniel Echaiz Moreno Dec 2014

La Elusión Tributaria: Análisis Crítico De La Actual Normatividad Y Propuestas Para Una Futura Reforma, Daniel Echaiz Moreno

Daniel Echaiz Moreno

No abstract provided.


¿Cabe La Impugnación Y/O La Nulidad De Los Acuerdos Del Directorio?, Daniel Echaiz Moreno Dec 2014

¿Cabe La Impugnación Y/O La Nulidad De Los Acuerdos Del Directorio?, Daniel Echaiz Moreno

Daniel Echaiz Moreno

No abstract provided.


Compliance With Most Favored Customer Clauses: Giving Meaning To Ambiguous Terms While Avoiding False Claims Act Allegations, Mitchell S. Ettinger, James C. Altman Dec 2014

Compliance With Most Favored Customer Clauses: Giving Meaning To Ambiguous Terms While Avoiding False Claims Act Allegations, Mitchell S. Ettinger, James C. Altman

Notre Dame Law Review Reflection

Federal and state contracting authorities more frequently are including Most Favored Customer (MFC) clauses in contracts for procurement of privately manufactured products. These clauses seek to ensure that the contracting authority (typically a federal or state agency) receives at least as favorable pricing as other customers making similar purchases. For example, the government agency may request that the contractor warrant that the prices it charges under the contract will be as favorable as those offered to other parties purchasing similar products of similar quantity under similar terms and conditions. In theory, the request to be treated equally to others making …


Contract Law Update 2014, Yihan Goh Dec 2014

Contract Law Update 2014, Yihan Goh

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

With the end of 2014 almost upon us, it is apposite to take stock of the more important developments in Singapore contract law in the year. This entry examines four cases that straddle important developments across various fields in contract law, namely, formation, terms, breach and illegality. In each case, it can be seen that the Singapore courts are anxious to consolidate existing law, and to chart new courses where relevant and appropriate.


Coming Up Short: The United States' Second-Best Strategies For Corralling Purely Speculative Derivatives, Timothy E. Lynch Dec 2014

Coming Up Short: The United States' Second-Best Strategies For Corralling Purely Speculative Derivatives, Timothy E. Lynch

Faculty Works

Purely speculative derivatives (PSDs) are derivatives in which neither counterparty is engaged in hedging. Unless used for entertainment purposes, PSDs are irrational, less-than-zero-sum transactions. Entities that engage in PSDs jeopardize their stakeholders and increase systemic risk. PSDs can also increase moral hazard, be used for regulatory arbitrage, and redirect resources away from efficient allocation of market capital. PSDs should be unenforceable, void for public policy reasons, except where expressly permitted to provide gambling entertainment, enhance price discovery, or increase liquidity for hedgers. In the U.S., however, PSDs are often legal and enforceable, even after the financial crisis of 2008 that …


Class Actions Suits Vs. Arbitration Clause (Mexico), Jorge E. De Hoyos Walther Nov 2014

Class Actions Suits Vs. Arbitration Clause (Mexico), Jorge E. De Hoyos Walther

Jorge E De Hoyos Walther

On September 24, 2014, the Mexican Supreme Court (SCJN) issued a landmark decision in the world of arbitration and class action suits. In summary, SCJN upheld that it is possible to file a class action suit, even though an arbitration clause is included in the agreement that governs the business relationship


Activist Compensation Of Board Nominees & The Middle Ground Response, Adam Prestidge Nov 2014

Activist Compensation Of Board Nominees & The Middle Ground Response, Adam Prestidge

Adam Prestidge

Shareholder activism has taken an increasingly high-profile and polarizing role in investing and corporate governance. Moves by shareholder activists, and the policy behind those moves, constantly appear in corporate headlines. One of shareholder activists’ primary methods of enacting changes in companies is to nominate directors to the board, and often those director nominees are highly-compensated by the shareholder activist itself. Some in the corporate world oppose this practice, arguing that it creates a significant conflict of interest and can damage the company in the short term, while others argue that the practice is a necessary tool for investors that may …


The Pitfalls Of The (Perfect) Market Benchmark: The Case Of Countervailing Duty Law, Wentong Zheng Nov 2014

The Pitfalls Of The (Perfect) Market Benchmark: The Case Of Countervailing Duty Law, Wentong Zheng

Wentong Zheng

Markets have long been used as benchmarks for economic value in various areas of law. However, a crucial question has received less than adequate attention: what type of market should be used in the market benchmark? More specifically, given all the imperfections one typically finds in day-to-day markets, how perfect does a market have to be in order to qualify as a benchmark for economic value? This Article discusses this question using countervailing duty law as a case study. Countervailing duty law allows the United States to impose countervailing duties on imported merchandise to offset subsidies conferred by foreign governments …


Enforcement Of Noncompete Agreements: Protecting The Public Interest Through An Entrepreneurial Approach, Griffin Toronjo Pivateau Nov 2014

Enforcement Of Noncompete Agreements: Protecting The Public Interest Through An Entrepreneurial Approach, Griffin Toronjo Pivateau

Griffin Toronjo Pivateau

Enforcement of Noncompete Agreements: Protecting the Public Interest Through an Entrepreneurial Approach

The enforcement of noncompete agreements is variable, differing between courts, between states, and between contexts. Analysis of a noncompete agreement tends not only to be fact-dependent, but location-dependent as well. Some states enforce virtually all noncompete agreements; other states refuse to enforce any noncompete agreements. Courts determine reasonableness without regard to the terms of the agreement. A noncompete agreement is a unique type of contract, as the normal contract standard of mutual agreement supported by consideration falls to the wayside. Instead, reasonableness becomes the key to enforceability.

To …


Comparing The Equivalency Of The New Crs, Bba, And Us Ben Owner Reporting Forms, What’S A Financial Institution To Do?, William Byrnes Nov 2014

Comparing The Equivalency Of The New Crs, Bba, And Us Ben Owner Reporting Forms, What’S A Financial Institution To Do?, William Byrnes

William H. Byrnes

No abstract provided.


Who Sits On Texas Corporate Boards? Texas Corporate Directors: Who They Are & What They Do, Lawrence J. Trautman Nov 2014

Who Sits On Texas Corporate Boards? Texas Corporate Directors: Who They Are & What They Do, Lawrence J. Trautman

Lawrence J. Trautman Sr.

Corporate directors play an important role in governing American business, in the capital formation process, and are fundamental to the stewardship of economic growth. Texas businesses play a disproportionately important role among the states in aggregate U.S. job creation, responsible for 37% of all net new American jobs since the post 2008-2009 recovery began. It is the job of the board of directors to govern the corporation. The duties and responsibilities of a corporate director include: the duty of care; duty of loyalty; and duty of good faith. This paper results from the author’s previously assembled biographical data for most …


Demand Promissory Notes And Commercial Loans: Balancing Freedom Of Contract & Good Faith, George A. Nation Iii Nov 2014

Demand Promissory Notes And Commercial Loans: Balancing Freedom Of Contract & Good Faith, George A. Nation Iii

George A Nation III

Promissory notes are ubiquitous in commercial lending. The promissory note represents the borrowers promise to repay and is governed by the Uniform Commercial Code’s Article 3. Under Article 3, promissory notes are either demand instruments or time instruments. In general, the holder of a demand instrument may decide to demand payment at any time and for any reason, while the holder of a time note must wait for payment until the arrival of the specific repayment date or dates included in the note. For this reason, time notes usually contain an acceleration clause. An acceleration clause allows the holder to …


Corporate Claims Against Director For Paying Bribes On Company's Behalf: Ho Kang Peng V Scintronix (Formerly Ttl Holdings), Wai Yee Wan Nov 2014

Corporate Claims Against Director For Paying Bribes On Company's Behalf: Ho Kang Peng V Scintronix (Formerly Ttl Holdings), Wai Yee Wan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Can a company recover the value of the bribe from a director who has paid the bribe, on behalf of the company, to a third party to secure certain benefits for the company, and where it is not alleged that the director had personally benefitted from the bribe? This question raises several complex issues relating to directors’ standard of care, corporate authorisation and corporate illegality, which were considered by the recent decision of the Singapore Court of Appeal in Ho Kang Peng v Scintronix Corp (formerly known as TTL Holdings).


Teoría General De Los Signos Distintivos, Juan Carlos Riofrío Martínez-Villalba Oct 2014

Teoría General De Los Signos Distintivos, Juan Carlos Riofrío Martínez-Villalba

Juan Carlos Riofrío Martínez-Villalba

La presente investigación delinea de forma sistemática una teoría general para todo género de signos distintivos. Para este propósito se vale de las investigaciones parciales que la propiedad industrial y otras ramas del derecho han realizado de algunos signos distintivos particulares, como las marcas, las indicaciones geográficas, los sellos de calidad, los nombres de pila, los nombres comerciales, entre otros. Se usa un método inductivo que recoge leyes, jurisprudencia y doctrina de varios lugares del mundo. En cuanto a la estructura, luego de una introducción, se determinar cuál es el conjunto de los signos distintivos que será el universo a …