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Full-Text Articles in Law

Virginia's Next Challenge: Economic And Educational Opportunity, Mark R. Warner Nov 2004

Virginia's Next Challenge: Economic And Educational Opportunity, Mark R. Warner

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


With All Deliberate Speed: Civil Human Rights Litigation As A Tool For Social Change, Beth Van Schaack Nov 2004

With All Deliberate Speed: Civil Human Rights Litigation As A Tool For Social Change, Beth Van Schaack

Vanderbilt Law Review

It has been said that Fildrtiga v. Peha-Irala is the Brown v. Board of Education of human rights litigation. Like Brown, Fildrtiga presents one of those rare "breakthrough moments" in law. In Fildrtiga, the Second Circuit confirmed that victims of human rights abuses abroad could seek legal redress in United States courts under the then-obscure Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA). Fildrtiga thus inaugurated a steady line of cases in U.S. courts invoking the ATCA and related statutes to adjudicate international human rights claims. For a variety of reasons, including the very existence of these statutes, civil litigation has emerged as …


Brown, The Civil Rights Movement, And The Silent Litigation Revolution, Stephen C. Yeazell Nov 2004

Brown, The Civil Rights Movement, And The Silent Litigation Revolution, Stephen C. Yeazell

Vanderbilt Law Review

One doubts that Robert Carter, Thurgood Marshall, Spottswood Robinson, Jack Greenberg and the rest of the legal team that argued Brown v. Board of Education spent much time thinking about mass torts. Nonetheless, it is entirely appropriate that a commemoration of their achievements include not only that topic but also international human rights and health care, as well as the more expected ones of education and social welfare. Brown was part of a revolution, and revolutions often have collateral effects as important as their immediate consequences. The civil rights movement followed the same pattern.

As an immediate consequence, that movement …


For The Rest Of Their Lives: Seniors And The Fair Housing Act, Robert G. Schwemm, Michael Allen Oct 2004

For The Rest Of Their Lives: Seniors And The Fair Housing Act, Robert G. Schwemm, Michael Allen

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

America's population is growing older. According to the 2000 census, more than 35 million people in the United States (12% of the total population) are over 65 years old. These figures are expected to grow dramatically in the early decades of the twenty-first century as the "Baby Boom" generation reaches retirement age and as improvements in health care make it possible for more people to live to an advanced age.

Providing housing for this segment of the American population is already a massive industry and one that will certainly grow as the number of, older persons increases. One of the …


Causation And Attenuation In The Slavery Reparations Debate, Kaimipono D. Wenger Aug 2004

Causation And Attenuation In The Slavery Reparations Debate, Kaimipono D. Wenger

ExpressO

Recent discussions of reparations have noted the difficulty reparations advocates have in showing causation. Criticisms of reparations have focused on the attenuated nature of the harm, suggesting that modern claimants are not connected to slaves, that modern payers are not connected to slave owners, and that modern disadvantages cannot be connected to slavery.

This Article examines attenuation concerns and finds that they come in three related but distinct varieties: Victim attenuation, wrongdoer attenuation, and act attenuation. These three components, defined in this Article, show themselves in a number of interrelated legal and moral arguments. They have important strategic consequences, and …


Cognitive Dissonance Theory: A Case Study Of Loving V. Virginia, Bowers V. Hard Wick, And Lawrence V. Texas, Andrea Celina Coleman Apr 2004

Cognitive Dissonance Theory: A Case Study Of Loving V. Virginia, Bowers V. Hard Wick, And Lawrence V. Texas, Andrea Celina Coleman

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


More Than Segregation, Racial Identity: The Neglected Question In Plessy V. Ferguson, Thomas J. Davis Apr 2004

More Than Segregation, Racial Identity: The Neglected Question In Plessy V. Ferguson, Thomas J. Davis

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Give Them Their Due: An African-American Reparations Program Based On The Native American Federal Aid Model, Mishael A. Danielson, Alexis Pimentel Apr 2004

Give Them Their Due: An African-American Reparations Program Based On The Native American Federal Aid Model, Mishael A. Danielson, Alexis Pimentel

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Dr. King, Bull Connor, And Persuasive Narratives, Shaun B. Spencer Jan 2004

Dr. King, Bull Connor, And Persuasive Narratives, Shaun B. Spencer

Faculty Publications

This article describes an in-class exercise that illustrates the use of persuasive narrative techniques in a U.S. Supreme Court decision. The article first describes the background to the Supreme Court’s decision in Walker v. City of Birmingham. Next, the article examines persuasive narrative techniques through the lens of an in-class exercise in which students identify the Justices’ narrative devices and consider how those devices preview the Justices’ legal arguments. Finally, the article describes why the Walker case and the exercise are valuable not only to teach persuasive narratives, but also to raise broader issues of lawyering and social justice.


A Call To Leadership: The Future Of Race Relations In Virginia, Rodney A. Smolla Jan 2004

A Call To Leadership: The Future Of Race Relations In Virginia, Rodney A. Smolla

Scholarly Articles

Not available.


Will Employment Discrimination Class Actions Survive?, Melissa Hart Jan 2004

Will Employment Discrimination Class Actions Survive?, Melissa Hart

Publications

Recent years have witnessed increasing attacks on the appropriateness of certification of employment discrimination class action claims. The shift is often attributed to amendments to federal antidiscrimination laws in the Civil Rights Act of 1991. This paper argues, however, that the changes wrought by the 1991 amendments need not pose a barrier to resolution of employment discrimination claims through class litigation. The addition of compensatory and punitive damages and a jury-trial right may increase the level of scrutiny and perhaps the level of judicial involvement necessary in an employment discrimination class action. But they do not render such a class …


Precursors Of Rosa Parks: Maryland Transportation Cases Between The Civil War And The Beginning Of World War I, David S. Bogen Jan 2004

Precursors Of Rosa Parks: Maryland Transportation Cases Between The Civil War And The Beginning Of World War I, David S. Bogen

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.


Meade V. Dennistone: The Naacp's Test Case To "...Sue Jim Crow Out Of Maryland With The Fourteenth Amendment", Garrett Power Jan 2004

Meade V. Dennistone: The Naacp's Test Case To "...Sue Jim Crow Out Of Maryland With The Fourteenth Amendment", Garrett Power

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.


The New Post 9/11 America Or The Making Of King George: A Review Of Executive Power In The Effort To Combat Global Terrorism As It Relates To The Power Of The Purse, Woodrow E. Turner Jan 2004

The New Post 9/11 America Or The Making Of King George: A Review Of Executive Power In The Effort To Combat Global Terrorism As It Relates To The Power Of The Purse, Woodrow E. Turner

West Virginia Law Review

No abstract provided.


A Thirteenth Amendment Framework For Combating Racial Profiling, William M. Carter Jr. Jan 2004

A Thirteenth Amendment Framework For Combating Racial Profiling, William M. Carter Jr.

Articles

Law enforcement officers’ use of race to single persons out for criminal suspicion (“racial profiling”) is the subject of much scrutiny and debate. This Article provides a new understanding of racial profiling. While scholars have correctly concluded that racial profiling should be considered a violation of the Fourth Amendment, the Fourteenth Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause, and existing federal statutes, this Article contends that the use of race as a proxy for criminality is also a badge and incident of slavery in violation of the Thirteenth Amendment.

Racial profiling is not only a denial of the right to equal treatment, but …


The Logic And Experience Of Law: Lawrence V. Texas And The Politics Of Privacy, Danaya C. Wright Jan 2004

The Logic And Experience Of Law: Lawrence V. Texas And The Politics Of Privacy, Danaya C. Wright

UF Law Faculty Publications

The U.S. Supreme Court's June 2003 decision in Lawrence v. Texas may prove to be one of the most important civil rights cases of the twenty-first century. It may do for gay and lesbian people what Brown v. Board of Education did for African-Americans and Roe v. Wade did for women. While I certainly hope so, my enthusiasm is tempered by the fact that discrimination on the basis of race or gender has not disappeared. Will Lawrence signal meaningful change, or will its revolutionary possibilities be stifled by endless cycles of excuse and redefinition? The case is important, but I …


Comparing Remedies For School Desegregation And Employment Discrimination, Candace Kovacic-Fleischer Jan 2004

Comparing Remedies For School Desegregation And Employment Discrimination, Candace Kovacic-Fleischer

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

INTRODUCTION: Ten years after the Supreme Court decided Brown v. Board of Education, now a symbol of the beginning of the end of racial discrimination, Congress passed Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title VII opened the workplace to all races and women in ways that had not previously existed. While discrimination in the workplace has not disappeared in the forty years since Title VII's enactment, one sees minorities and women in a greater variety of jobs, and at higher levels, than one would have seen a generation ago. The promise of Brown, however, has not been …


Different But Equal: The Human Rights Of Persons With Intellectual Disabilities, Harold Hongju Koh Jan 2004

Different But Equal: The Human Rights Of Persons With Intellectual Disabilities, Harold Hongju Koh

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.


Federalism Re-Constructed: The Eleventh Amendment's Illogical Impact On Congress' Power, Marcia L. Mccormick Jan 2004

Federalism Re-Constructed: The Eleventh Amendment's Illogical Impact On Congress' Power, Marcia L. Mccormick

All Faculty Scholarship

The Constitution is designed to protect individual liberty and equality by diffusing power among the three branches of the federal government and between the federal and state governments, and by providing a minimum level of protection for individual rights. Yet, the Supreme Court seems to think that federalism is about protecting states as states rather than balancing governmental power to protect individuals. In the name of federalism, the Supreme Court has been paring away at Congress' power to enact civil rights legislation. In doing so, it has transformed the Fourteenth Amendment into a vehicle for protecting states rights rather than …


Anomalies, Warts And All: Four Score Of Liberty, Privacy And Equality, Francisco Valdes Jan 2004

Anomalies, Warts And All: Four Score Of Liberty, Privacy And Equality, Francisco Valdes

Articles

Lawrence was decided exactly eighty years after the first liberty-privacy case, and in the midst of a fierce kulturkampf striving to roll back civil rights generally. In this Article, Professor Valdes situates Lawrence in the context formed both by these four score of liberty-privacy jurisprudence that precede it as well as by the politics of backlash that envelop it today. After canvassing the landmark rulings from Meyer in 1923 to Lawrence in 2003, in the process acknowledging both their emancipatory strengths and their traditionalist instrumentalism, Professor Valdes concludes that Lawrence is a long overdue recognition of the prior precedents and …


Racism As 'The National Crucial Sin': Theology And Derrick Bell, George H. Taylor Jan 2004

Racism As 'The National Crucial Sin': Theology And Derrick Bell, George H. Taylor

Articles

The Article probes a paradox that lies at the heart of the work of critical race scholar Derrick Bell. Bell claims on the one hand that racism is permanent, and yet on the other he argues that the fight against racism is both necessary and meaningful. Although Bell's thesis of racism's permanence has been criticized for rendering action for racial justice unavailing, the Article advances an understanding of Bell that supports and defends the integrity of his paradox. The Article draws upon the work of Protestant theologian Reinhold Niebuhr and Niebuhr's paradox that social action is both necessary and meaningful …


Revisiting Title Ix's Feminist Legacy: Moving Beyond The Three-Part Test, Deborah Brake Jan 2004

Revisiting Title Ix's Feminist Legacy: Moving Beyond The Three-Part Test, Deborah Brake

Articles

This essay addresses three issues surrounding Title IX's application to women's sports that have been largely eclipsed by the recent controversy over Title IX's three-part test: the increasingly male composition of athletic leadership positions; the focus on cutting men's sports as a remedy to discrimination against women; and the role of revenue and massive spending on men's elite sports in justifying gender inequality in sports. The essay links each of these issues to broader questions and concerns in discrimination law more generally, and concludes that deeper cultural change is needed to fulfill Title IX's promise.


When Equality Leaves Everyone Worse Off: The Problem Of Leveling Down In Equality Law, Deborah Brake Jan 2004

When Equality Leaves Everyone Worse Off: The Problem Of Leveling Down In Equality Law, Deborah Brake

Articles

This Article addresses the problem of leveling down as a response to discrimination. Existing case law and legal scholarship generally assume that inequality may be remedied in one of two ways: improving the lot of the disfavored group to match that of the most favored group, or worsening the treatment of the favored group until they fare as badly as everyone else. The term "leveling down" refers to the latter response. This Article contends that courts and commentators have overstated the flexibility of equality rights in accepting leveling down as a response to inequality, and proposes a new framework that …


Is There A Place For Race As A Legal Concept, Sharona Hoffman Jan 2004

Is There A Place For Race As A Legal Concept, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

What does "race" mean? The word "race" is omnipresent in American social, political, and legal discourse. The concept of "race" is central to contemporary debate about affirmative action, racial profiling, hate crimes, health inequities, and many other issues. Nevertheless, the best research in genetics, medicine, and the social sciences reveals that the concept of "race" is elusive and has no reliable definition.

This article argues that "race" is an unnecessary and potentially pernicious concept. As evidenced by the history of slavery, segregation, the Holocaust, and other human tragedies, the idea of "race" can perpetuate prejudices and misconceptions and serve as …


Women Choosing Diverse Workplaces: A Rational Preference With Disturbing Implications For Both Occupational Segregation And Economic Analysis Of Law, Scott A. Moss Jan 2004

Women Choosing Diverse Workplaces: A Rational Preference With Disturbing Implications For Both Occupational Segregation And Economic Analysis Of Law, Scott A. Moss

Publications

Despite women's dramatic labor market gains, there remains a striking degree of occupational segregation by gender. Analysts typically blame discrimination or women's work/family priorities. This Article offers a different explanation.

It is hard for women choosing jobs or occupations to know where they will face discrimination, particularly since recent judicial decisions eliminated certain employer signals that once differentiated fair and discriminatory firms. One way women can effectuate a preference for nondiscriminatory workplaces is by choosing gender-diverse workplaces. Nondiverse workplaces often are not female-friendly, and discrimination may be the reason they are nondiverse. In economic terms, women rationally use level of …


Processing Civil Rights Summary Judgment And Consumer Discrimination Claims, Deseriee A. Kennedy Jan 2004

Processing Civil Rights Summary Judgment And Consumer Discrimination Claims, Deseriee A. Kennedy

Scholarly Works

No abstract provided.


Grutter And Gratz: A Critical Analysis, Lackland H. Bloom Jr. Jan 2004

Grutter And Gratz: A Critical Analysis, Lackland H. Bloom Jr.

Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters

This Article will analyze the Grutter and Gratz opinions, especially Justice O'Connor's important opinion for the majority in Grutter, and will consider the significance of these decisions in terms of university admissions policy, justifications for racial preferences, and equal protection doctrine. The article will conclude that the Court's defense of the use of racial preferences does not square well with the Powell opinion in Bakke on which it relied so heavily. It will suggest that the Court could have offered a more persuasive explanation for the result it reached but probably felt precluded by precedent from doing so.


Understanding The Mark: Race, Stigma, And Equality In Context, Robin A. Lenhardt Jan 2004

Understanding The Mark: Race, Stigma, And Equality In Context, Robin A. Lenhardt

Faculty Scholarship

In its Fourteenth Amendment jurisprudence, the Supreme Court regards intentional discrimination as the principal source of racial injury in the United States. In this Article, R.A. Lenhardt argues that racial stigma, not intentional discrimination, constitutes the main source of racial harm and that courts must take the social science insight that most racialized conduct or thought is unconscious, rather than intentional, into account in their constitutional analyses of acts or policies challenged on the grounds of race. Drawing on the social science work of Erving Goffman and the ground-breaking work of Charles H. Lawrence, Professor Lenhardt argues that courts should …


Comparing Remedies For School Desegregation And Employment Discrimination.Pdf, Candace Kovacic-Fleischer Dec 2003

Comparing Remedies For School Desegregation And Employment Discrimination.Pdf, Candace Kovacic-Fleischer

Candace Kovacic-Fleischer

INTRODUCTION: Ten years after the Supreme Court decided Brown v. Board of Education, now a symbol of the beginning of the end of racial discrimination, Congress passed Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title VII opened the workplace to all races and women in ways that had not previously existed. While discrimination in the workplace has not disappeared in the forty years since Title VII's enactment, one sees minorities and women in a greater variety of jobs, and at higher levels, than one would have seen a generation ago. The promise of Brown, however, has not been …