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Stories From The Negative Spaces: United States V. Thind And The Narrative Of (Non)Whiteness, Joy Kanwar May 2023

Stories From The Negative Spaces: United States V. Thind And The Narrative Of (Non)Whiteness, Joy Kanwar

Mercer Law Review

In the years following September 11, 2001, hate crimes and violent incidents against Sikh people in America rose dramatically. Most of these incidents involved individuals who targeted Sikh people—often men—because of their turbans and beards, which the attackers conflated with their own imagined versions of “9/11 terrorists.” Although the Sikh faith had no relationship to whom these attackers thought they were assaulting, very often someone they believed to be from the Islamic faith, the “visual” told the story—the victim was an outsider, someone who did not belong here and someone who was dangerous for America.

One particularly poignant moment resonated …


Surviving Castro-Huerta: The Historical Perseverance Of The Basic Policy Of Worcester V. Georgia Protecting Tribal Autonomy, Notwithstanding One Supreme Court Opinion’S Errant Narrative To The Contrary, John P. Lavelle May 2023

Surviving Castro-Huerta: The Historical Perseverance Of The Basic Policy Of Worcester V. Georgia Protecting Tribal Autonomy, Notwithstanding One Supreme Court Opinion’S Errant Narrative To The Contrary, John P. Lavelle

Mercer Law Review

Oklahoma v. Castro-Huerta is an unprecedented attack on the autonomy of Native American nations in the United States. The Supreme Court held that Oklahoma had jurisdiction over a crime committed by a non-Indian perpetrator against an Indian victim within the Cherokee Reservation’s boundaries. The decision posits that states presumptively have jurisdiction, concurrent with the federal government, over crimes by non-Indians against Indians in Indian country. But this proposition is at war with a bedrock principle of Indian law, namely, that reservations are essentially “free from state jurisdiction and control,” a policy that “is deeply rooted in the Nation’s history.” That …


32 Shots In The Dark: How Local Governments Can Increase Police Accountability When States Refuse To, Marcia M. Ziegler May 2023

32 Shots In The Dark: How Local Governments Can Increase Police Accountability When States Refuse To, Marcia M. Ziegler

Mercer Law Review

On March 13, 2020, Breonna Taylor was shot to death in her apartment hallway by police officers executing a search warrant. The warrant was based on a false affidavit, the executing officers acted criminally on scene, and in the aftermath, detectives spread misinformation about the case on social media. While there was some limited accountability for the officers involved, many citizens considered the official response to be lackluster. After a period of public protest, Louisville and other cities all over the country have examined options for police reform at the local level. While most law enforcement agencies operate in a …


Being Persuaded To Sleep With Someone In Order To Have A Place To Sleep: The Eleventh Circuit’S Analysis Of Sexual Harassment Claims Under The Fair Housing Act, Stella Preston May 2022

Being Persuaded To Sleep With Someone In Order To Have A Place To Sleep: The Eleventh Circuit’S Analysis Of Sexual Harassment Claims Under The Fair Housing Act, Stella Preston

Mercer Law Review

One of the fundamental ideals the United States was built upon is that its citizens must have their rights and freedoms protected. Historically, however, there have been numerous groups of individuals who have had their civil rights infringed upon, and what is worse, not protected by the legal and political institutions of the country. What the United States is experiencing now is an increase in the widespread fight for those who have historically been discriminated against in one way or another. Citizens these days seem less apt to sit back and silently let injustices go on without any repercussions. In …


From Bostock To Adams: Following The Expansion Of Rights For Transgender Students In Public School Settings, William A. White, M. Chase Collum Apr 2022

From Bostock To Adams: Following The Expansion Of Rights For Transgender Students In Public School Settings, William A. White, M. Chase Collum

Mercer Law Review

Since before the turn of the twenty-first century, it is undeniable that classrooms across the country have undergone a multitude of changes. In 2020, schooling continued through a global pandemic—forcing teachers and students alike to improvise, adapt, and overcome challenges both in the classroom and in their own homes. Now that teachers and students are attempting to return to “normal,” federal courts across the country have passed down a number of decisions that will impact students’ return to the classroom. Specifically, the Supreme Court of the United States’ landmark decision in Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia, (Bostock) …


Bostock: An Inevitable Guarantee Of Heightened Scrutiny For Sexual Orientation And Transgender Classifications, Kaleb Byars Jan 2022

Bostock: An Inevitable Guarantee Of Heightened Scrutiny For Sexual Orientation And Transgender Classifications, Kaleb Byars

Articles

n June 2020, the Supreme Court decided Bostock v. Clayton County. In Bostock, the Court held that discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and transgender status per se constitutes discrimination "because of sex" for purposes of Title VIL But Bostock inspires the question of whether its holding and reasoning apply in other contexts, including the Equal Protection Clause context. While the Supreme Court has held intermediate scrutiny applies to sex classifications analyzed under the Equal Protection Clause, the Court has yet to elucidate the level of scrutiny that applies to LGBTQ classifications. Meanwhile, state and federal courts …


No Shirt, No Shoes, No Mask, No Entry, And (Hopefully) No Lawsuits Under The Georgia Covid-19 Business Safety Act!, Franklin Schrum May 2021

No Shirt, No Shoes, No Mask, No Entry, And (Hopefully) No Lawsuits Under The Georgia Covid-19 Business Safety Act!, Franklin Schrum

Mercer Law Review

The COVID-19 Pandemic continues to send shockwaves throughout the United States and all other nations by impacting much more than just the way we live and go about our normal day. Today, in most states, it is considered a common norm to see someone wearing a mask, frequently using sanitizer, or even stocking up on an abnormal amount of household items like toilet paper. Globally, over a million lives have been lost, businesses have become bankrupt, and the economy initially fallen substantially due to the Pandemic. Prominent retailers such as Brooks Brothers, J. Crew, and JCPenney have all filed for …


Should Technology Be Trusted? The Detrimental Role Of Video Footage In A Qualified Immunity Analysis, Shreya H. Shah May 2021

Should Technology Be Trusted? The Detrimental Role Of Video Footage In A Qualified Immunity Analysis, Shreya H. Shah

Mercer Law Review

Mr. Sureshbhai Patel, an Indian grandfather, experienced a traumatic encounter with law enforcement while walking peacefully in his neighborhood. During the encounter, the officer used excessive force and rendered Patel forever partially paralyzed. Confident in the fact that two dashboard cameras equipped with audio and video capabilities captured the incident, Patel introduced the footage to the court. Despite overcoming qualified immunity on summary judgment, Patel’s hopes that the footage would provide clear and accurate imaging of the incident quickly faded away. Whether using a body camera, dashboard camera, bystander cell phone, or an affixed video surveillance camera, these devices are …


Civil Unrest And The Role Of The Attorney General: A Comparison Of Ramsey Clark To William Barr, Lonnie T. Brown Jr. May 2021

Civil Unrest And The Role Of The Attorney General: A Comparison Of Ramsey Clark To William Barr, Lonnie T. Brown Jr.

Mercer Law Review

This article compares and contrasts the manner in which former Attorneys General Ramsey Clark and William Barr dealt with racially-motivated civil unrest. Clark faced this challenge multiple times during the tumultuous late 1960s. Barr, on the other hand, dealt with such unrest in 1992 and again in 2020 following the police-killing of George Floyd. The respective strategies taken by these two men reveal much about their personal values and how those may have, rightly or wrongly, shaped their perspectives on the attorney general’s role. More importantly, Clark’s and Barr’s conflicting approaches in carrying out their responsibilities in addressing social discord …


After Bostock: 11th Circuit Extends Landmark Case And Strikes Down School’S Transgender Bathroom Policy Under Title Ix And The Equal Protection Clause, Ben T. Tuten Mar 2021

After Bostock: 11th Circuit Extends Landmark Case And Strikes Down School’S Transgender Bathroom Policy Under Title Ix And The Equal Protection Clause, Ben T. Tuten

Mercer Law Review

When Drew Adams walked into Nease High School one fall day and was told that he could no longer use the boy’s restroom at school, he could never have known that years down the road his case would be so important to so many others. In the past decade, there has been a heated debate over transgender rights broadly, and specifically whether it was permissible to ban transgender persons from using the bathroom corresponding to their gender identity.

The landscape changed in June 2020 with the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Bostock v. Clayton County. In Bostock, the Court expanded …


Intersection Of Alcohol Law And Women's Rights, Mary Jane Saunders Oct 2020

Intersection Of Alcohol Law And Women's Rights, Mary Jane Saunders

Presentations

In this inaugural fall forum, Mary Jane D. Saunders (j.D. '81), Vice President and General Counsel of the Beer Institute, shared her extensive knowledge and experience on alcohol law and how it affected women's rights throughout American history.

Co-sponsored by the Association of Women Law Students.


Racially Neutral In Form, Racially Discriminatory In Fact: The Implications For Voting Rights Of Giving Disproportionate Racial Impact The Constitutional Importance It Deserves, Gary J. Simson May 2020

Racially Neutral In Form, Racially Discriminatory In Fact: The Implications For Voting Rights Of Giving Disproportionate Racial Impact The Constitutional Importance It Deserves, Gary J. Simson

Mercer Law Review

In two decisions in the mid-1970s, Washington v. Davis and Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp., the U.S. Supreme Court made clear that proving that a law racially neutral on its face disproportionately disadvantages racial minorities does not establish a violation of the Equal Protection Clause or even create a presumption that such a violation has occurred. Disproportionate racial impact “is not irrelevant,” the Court explained, but “it is not the sole touchstone of an invidious racial discrimination forbidden by the Constitution.” The key, according to the Court, lies in proving that the law was the …


“You Can't Afford To Flinch In The Face Of Duty”: Judge William Augustus Bootle And The Desegregation Of The University Of Georgia, Patrick Emery Longan Jan 2019

“You Can't Afford To Flinch In The Face Of Duty”: Judge William Augustus Bootle And The Desegregation Of The University Of Georgia, Patrick Emery Longan

Articles

On January 6, 1961, United States District Judge William Augustus Bootle granted a permanent injunction that required the University of Georgia to admit its first two black students, Hamilton E. Holmes and Charlayne A. Hunter. The backlash began immediately. Newspaper editorials condemned the decision. The Governor of Georgia threatened to close the University. Students rioted. A man escaped from an insane asylum, armed himself and went looking for Charlayne Hunter at her dormitory. Judge Bootle received numerous critical letters, including some that were threatening. Yet Judge Bootle’s attitude was that he did no more than what his position as a …


Employment Discrimination, John E. Duvall Jul 2018

Employment Discrimination, John E. Duvall

Mercer Law Review

Several interesting and noteworthy employment discrimination cases were on the docket of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit during the survey period, and one Supreme Court of the United States employment decision was announced during the period as well. The vast majority of the Eleventh Circuit's employment discrimination cases continue to be decided in unpublished opinions, most of which were per curiam opinions affirming grants of summary judgments to defendant employers. This year's Article is focused on reported decisions, commenting only on two unpublished decisions. In addition to the cases discussed in this Article, by the …


Racial Justice And Federal Habeas Corpus As Postconviction Relief From State Convictions, Leroy Pernell Mar 2018

Racial Justice And Federal Habeas Corpus As Postconviction Relief From State Convictions, Leroy Pernell

Mercer Law Review

It is the purpose of this Article not to simply document the influence of race on our criminal system and its role in the current racial crisis of overrepresentation of minorities in our prisons, but rather to focus on the future and importance of a key tool in the struggle for racial equity--federal habeas corpus as a postconviction remedy. By looking first at the racial context of several "landmark" criminal justice reform decisions, this Article considers how race serves as the root of the procedural due process reform that began in earnest during the Warren Court. This Article then notes …


Employer Beware: Changing The Landscape Of Employment Discrimination Claims At The Summary Judgment Stage, Matthew Bottoms Jul 2017

Employer Beware: Changing The Landscape Of Employment Discrimination Claims At The Summary Judgment Stage, Matthew Bottoms

Mercer Law Review

In Quigg v. Thomas County School District, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit changed the summary judgment framework for mixed-motive employment discrimination cases. The ruling in Quigg will affect both employers and employees and will lead to more mixed-motive discrimination claims reaching the jury, rather than being dismissed through summary judgment. The newly-adopted framework takes the burden-shifting standard out of summary judgment, and many commentators consider it a much more plaintiff-friendly framework. Under the new framework, in order to survive a motion for summary judgment on a mixed-motive discrimination claim, all the plaintiff must do …


Employment Discrimination, Peter Reed Corbin, John E. Duvall Jul 2017

Employment Discrimination, Peter Reed Corbin, John E. Duvall

Mercer Law Review

The field of Employment Discrimination continued to be alive and well during the 2016 survey period. Although the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit continued its recent trend of issuing the vast majority of its employment discrimination cases as unpublished opinions (often per curiam opinions affirming a summary judgment for the employer), the court of appeals rendered far more published opinions during the survey period than has recently been its practice. The Eleventh Circuit issued six published Title VII opinions, and fifteen published employment discrimination opinions overall. For instance, in Villarreal v. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., …


Compliance Requires Inspection: The Failure Of Gender Equal Pay Efforts In The United States, Renalia Dubose Mar 2017

Compliance Requires Inspection: The Failure Of Gender Equal Pay Efforts In The United States, Renalia Dubose

Mercer Law Review

On Friday, January 29, 2016, President Barack Obama expanded a previous executive order by requiring the Department of Labor to collect wage data based on gender, race, and ethnicity from contractors with at least 100 employees doing business with the federal government. That previous executive order was the April 8, 2014 Executive Order 13665 entitled Non-Retaliation for Disclosure of Compensation Information and was designed to amend the September 24, 1965 Executive Order 11246 entitled Equal Employment Opportunity by President Lyndon Johnson. Executive Order 13665 was issued to require transparency concerning compensation among private entities doing business with the federal government …


Employment Discrimination, Peter Reed Corbin, John E. Duvall Jul 2016

Employment Discrimination, Peter Reed Corbin, John E. Duvall

Mercer Law Review

Clearly the most significant case handed down during the 2015 survey period was the March 2015 decision by the United States Supreme Court in Young v. United Parcel Service, Inc. In Young, the Supreme Court decided that the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) does, in fact, require employers to offer workplace accommodations to pregnant employees in order to remain on the job. This case has almost certainly required a host of employers to review and probably revise the leave policies they had in place prior to the decision being handed down. Otherwise, the 2015 survey period was a busy, …


An Onerous Burden: The Impact Of Nassar Upon Mcdonnell Douglas In The Eleventh Circuit, Alec Chappell Jul 2016

An Onerous Burden: The Impact Of Nassar Upon Mcdonnell Douglas In The Eleventh Circuit, Alec Chappell

Mercer Law Review

Following a flood of employment discrimination and retaliation cases, the United States Supreme Court in University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center v. Nassar announced that an employee alleging retaliation must prove that the employer's motive to retaliate constituted a "but for" cause of the actions adverse to the employee. In addition to creating an awkward and unprecedented union of employment law and traditional tort principles of causation,' this decision upended the conventional application of the framework set forth in McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green and left the lower courts to pick up the pieces. ...

This Comment explores the responses …


Symposium Transcript: Justice In The Deep South: Learning From History, Charting Our Future May 2016

Symposium Transcript: Justice In The Deep South: Learning From History, Charting Our Future

Mercer Law Review

No abstract provided.


Keynote Address, Stephen B. Bright May 2016

Keynote Address, Stephen B. Bright

Mercer Law Review

No abstract provided.


Session Two: Learning From Struggles May 2016

Session Two: Learning From Struggles

Mercer Law Review

No abstract provided.


Session Three: Learning From Innovators May 2016

Session Three: Learning From Innovators

Mercer Law Review

No abstract provided.


How The Narrative About Louisiana's Non-Unanimous Criminal Jury System Became A Person Of Interest In The Case Against Justice In The Deep South, Angela A. Allen-Bell May 2016

How The Narrative About Louisiana's Non-Unanimous Criminal Jury System Became A Person Of Interest In The Case Against Justice In The Deep South, Angela A. Allen-Bell

Mercer Law Review

Stories are central to what lawyers do; yet, to the average member of the legal community, they exist only inconspicuously. In actuality, all cases start with a story. As lawyers do their work, that initial story grows and evolves. When judges enter the picture, the story is revised and, ultimately, the final chapter is written; then, the process begins again with an entirely different cast of characters. This Article advocates against impersonal, mechanized systems of justice that are built upon defendants, dockets, cases, quotas, formulas, and rapidity. This Article calls for the justice community to see cases in a highly …


In Search Of The Beloved Community, Robert L. Rhodes Jr., Tremaine Reese May 2016

In Search Of The Beloved Community, Robert L. Rhodes Jr., Tremaine Reese

Mercer Law Review

This Article describes the process by which the Georgia Appleseed Center for Law & Justice (Georgia Appleseed) has engaged Georgians in crucial conversations about critical issues concerning the relationship among law enforcement officers and the community members they serve. We also discuss how Georgia Appleseed is working to have the content of these conversations foster change to law and policy designed to enhance police community relations.

This is a story half told. As of the date of publication of this Article, the fact-gathering and legal research described below will have been completed and public advocacy for change will have commenced. …


#Sayhername #Blackwomenslivesmatter: State Violence In Policing The Black Female Body, Teri A. Mcmurtry-Chubb May 2016

#Sayhername #Blackwomenslivesmatter: State Violence In Policing The Black Female Body, Teri A. Mcmurtry-Chubb

Mercer Law Review

On June 30, 1974, Alberta Williams King was shot and killed in the sanctuary of Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, Georgia as she played the organ for Sunday morning service. Mrs. King, seventy years old, was the mother of the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. News of her death was overshadowed by four Black men: her son, killed six years previously; the shooting of a "young Black man" in Atlanta on June 26, 1974, who was out on parole; Maynard Jackson, then newly elected as Atlanta's first Black mayor; and her assailant, a Black man, a Vietnam War veteran …


Justice In The Deep South: Learning From History, Charting Our Future: An Introduction, Sarah Gerwig-Moore May 2016

Justice In The Deep South: Learning From History, Charting Our Future: An Introduction, Sarah Gerwig-Moore

Mercer Law Review

Opinions differ on the principal role of academic institutions. Should Universities be primarily concerned with scholarship and research? With classroom instruction? With producing well-rounded citizens? Mercer University has long been committed to each of these three priorities. Decades before I joined the faculty at Mercer Law School, schools within the University were already working to make public service a priority, in addition to teaching and scholarship.

Following suit, this year's Mercer Law Review Symposium boldly moved to address controversial social justice issues.' The Symposium, "Justice in the Deep South: Learning From History, Charting Our Future," featured a powerful and varied …


Session One: Learning From Souther History And Culture May 2016

Session One: Learning From Souther History And Culture

Mercer Law Review

No abstract provided.


Binary Imprisonment: Transgender Inmates Ensnared Within The System And Confined To Assigned Gender, Danielle Matricardi May 2016

Binary Imprisonment: Transgender Inmates Ensnared Within The System And Confined To Assigned Gender, Danielle Matricardi

Mercer Law Review

It is June 26, 2015. The sun is shining, and the grass is wet with morning dew. Those unaware sip their coffee on the way to work, perplexed why so many rainbow flags clutter their morning commute. Celebrations are breaking out across the Nation. The United States Supreme Court has legalized same-sex marriage. Finally, the day has come when people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBTQ) are given the same rights as their heterosexual brothers and sisters. If only there was any truth to such idealism. To the contrary, there are still debilitating injustices against members of …