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Business Organizations Law

2021

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Full-Text Articles in Law

A Gilti Fix For An Employment Tax Glitch, Richard Winchester Sep 2021

A Gilti Fix For An Employment Tax Glitch, Richard Winchester

Pepperdine Law Review

This Article will describe in greater detail the basic contours of such a reform. Before doing so, Part II describes the existing employment tax rules, focusing on the various ways they apply to a self-employed individual. Part III explains how certain self-employed individuals can use the rules to limit their employment tax base and the tax they owe. Part IV describes the distortions and inequities that are produced under the current employment tax rules. Part V recounts legislative efforts to isolate labor income and shows how those efforts came to bear fruit in the GILTI rules and elsewhere in the ...


Bill Ab5 And The Gig Economy, Peter Buckley Aug 2021

Bill Ab5 And The Gig Economy, Peter Buckley

University of Miami Business Law Review

This paper explores California Assembly Bill No. 5 and its effect on the “gig economy.” Notably, this paper takes an in-depth look at companies providing cheap services to California residents and the detrimental effects on California business models by labeling independent contractors as employees. I will contrast the Bill with previous California court decisions on independent contracts and the joint ballot initiatives being jointly proposed by Uber, Lyft, DoorDash, and other gig companies. Within this paper I will refer to workers as “drivers” for the sake of simplicity; however, it should be noted that these companies refer to them as ...


Rock The Cash-Bah! How Alston Presents A New Challenge To The Amateurism Justification And Ways The Ncaa Can Modernize To Remain Afloat, John Y. Doty Aug 2021

Rock The Cash-Bah! How Alston Presents A New Challenge To The Amateurism Justification And Ways The Ncaa Can Modernize To Remain Afloat, John Y. Doty

University of Miami Business Law Review

During the last decade, antitrust litigation involving Division I athletes and the NCAA has resulted in changes to the NCAA’s rules, presenting a threat to amateurism. As athletes have voiced concerns about their likeness being used without permission in video games, the difficulty of balancing sports and academics, and going to bed hungry when millions of dollars in profits are being made off of them, the NCAA has allowed conferences and schools to provide student-athletes with stipends for cost of attendance expenses. However, even though the NCAA has modified its rules, athletes continue to ask for more, and courts ...


Wells Fargo & Co. V. U.S.: A Potential Beginning Of The End Of The Objective Reasonable Basis Tax Penalty Defense, Beckett G. Cantley, Geoffrey C. Dietrich Aug 2021

Wells Fargo & Co. V. U.S.: A Potential Beginning Of The End Of The Objective Reasonable Basis Tax Penalty Defense, Beckett G. Cantley, Geoffrey C. Dietrich

University of Miami Business Law Review

The Internal Revenue Code (“IRC”) § 6662(a) permits the IRS to impose a twenty-percent (20%) accuracy-related penalty to an underpayment of tax, and there are several different defenses to this penalty depending on the facts of the case and the reason for the penalty.3 One of the most common accuracy-related penalties is the negligence penalty.4 Although there are multiple different reasons for the application of an accuracy-related penalty, only one penalty may be applied for each understatement.5 If a taxpayer faces the negligence penalty, one common defense is that the taxpayer’s return position has a reasonable ...


A Means To An End: How The Expansion Of The Federal Arbitration Act Of 1925 By The Supreme Court Created A Loophole For Corporations To Avoid Claims By Consumers And Workers Alike, Brittany L. Pushkin Aug 2021

A Means To An End: How The Expansion Of The Federal Arbitration Act Of 1925 By The Supreme Court Created A Loophole For Corporations To Avoid Claims By Consumers And Workers Alike, Brittany L. Pushkin

University of Miami Business Law Review

A Means to an End: How the Expansion of The Federal Arbitration Act of 1925 by the Supreme Court Created a Loophole for Corporations to Avoid Claims by Consumers and Workers Alike Arbitration is rarely thought of outside the legal and business world by the everyday lay person. Whether we know it or not—all of us, in some capacity, have agreed to a mandatory arbitration clause. A contract for cellular service, an employer-employee arrangement, or an agreement to open a bank account are just a few common examples that lock not only clients, but also employees, in contracts that ...


A More Pixelated Union: A Look At The Path To Unionization In The Video Game Industry Under Trump’S National Labor Relations Board, William C. Selfridge Aug 2021

A More Pixelated Union: A Look At The Path To Unionization In The Video Game Industry Under Trump’S National Labor Relations Board, William C. Selfridge

University of Miami Business Law Review

In the past twenty years, the video game industry has become one of the largest entertainment industries not only in the United States but in the entire world. Yet as video game sales continue to increase at massive rates, it seems the conditions for those making the games have not improved with it, at least according to some in the know. While other entertainment industries have moved to unionize, those in the video game industry have yet to take that leap. To make matters worse, during the administration of President Donald J. Trump, the National Labor Relations Board (“NLRB”) shifted ...


The Hottest Employee Benefit Of 2020: Employers Offer To Repay Employees’ Student Loan Debt, Anne Kotlarz Aug 2021

The Hottest Employee Benefit Of 2020: Employers Offer To Repay Employees’ Student Loan Debt, Anne Kotlarz

University of Miami Business Law Review

The Student Loans Crisis has spread like wildfire reaching a whopping $1.56 trillion worth of debt. What started off as the Federal government’s initiative to encourage Americans to invest in their future through obtaining secondary education, has turned into a systemic crisis that burns just as hot as global warming. Lobbyists are currently petitioning Congress to enact meaningful legislation to extinguish the flames of the growing student loan debt. Most notably, the private sector is proposing congressional reform to amend the tax code to enable employers to offer employees student loan repayment assistance tax-free. This article delves into ...


Taking The Long View On Shorting: Market Manipulation And Gme, Andrew Steiner Aug 2021

Taking The Long View On Shorting: Market Manipulation And Gme, Andrew Steiner

SLU Law Journal Online

In this article, Andrew Steiner provides an overview of the events surrounding the GameStop short squeeze coordinated by retail investors on the internet forum WallStreetBets over the last year and the possible legal fallout. While some traditional institutional investors call for regulatory intervention, retail investors have pointed the finger at trading app Robinhood.


Heads Up! Arkansas Has A New Llc Act, Carol Goforth Aug 2021

Heads Up! Arkansas Has A New Llc Act, Carol Goforth

Arkansas Law Notes

This past legislative session Senate Bill 601, sponsored by Senator Jonathan Dismang, was enacted into law, becoming Ark. Act 1041 on April 30, 2021. This act repeals the old LLC Act and adopts the Uniform Limited Liability Company Act (“ULLCA”), with minimal changes from the uniform language. This short piece points out some basic information about the Arkansas ULLCA and some of the major changes in Arkansas law applicable to LLCs. While lawyers will obviously need to consult the new statute when actual issues arise, this article should at least provide a “heads up” notice to practitioners with LLCs or ...


Personal Data Privacy And Protective Federal Legislation: An Exploration Of Constituent Position On The Need For Legislation To Control Data Reliant Organizations Collecting And Monetizing Internet-Obtained Personal Data, Giovanni De Meo Aug 2021

Personal Data Privacy And Protective Federal Legislation: An Exploration Of Constituent Position On The Need For Legislation To Control Data Reliant Organizations Collecting And Monetizing Internet-Obtained Personal Data, Giovanni De Meo

Dissertations

In the past twenty years, the business of online personal data collection has grown at the same rapid pace as the internet itself, fostering a multibillion-dollar personal data collection and commercialization industry. Unlike many other large industries, there has been no major federal legislation enacted to monitor or control the activities of organizations dealing in this flourishing industry. The combination of these factors together with the lack of prior research encouraged this research designed to understand how much voters know about this topic and whether there is interest in seeing legislation enacted to protect individual personal data privacy.

To address ...


Influence Through Intimidation: Evidence From Business Lobbying And The Regulatory Process, Alex Acs, Cary Coglianese Jul 2021

Influence Through Intimidation: Evidence From Business Lobbying And The Regulatory Process, Alex Acs, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Interest group influence in the policy process is often assumed to occur through a mechanism of exchange, persuasion, or subsidy. Here, we explore how business groups may also exert influence by intimidating policymakers—a form of persuasion, but one based not on the provision of policy information but of political information. We develop a theory where a business firm lobbies a regulator to communicate political information about its capacity to commit to future influence-seeking activities that would sanction the regulator. The regulator assesses the credibility of this message by evaluating the firm’s commitment to lobbying. Guided by our theory ...


Litigating California Contracts, Curtis E.A. Karnow Jul 2021

Litigating California Contracts, Curtis E.A. Karnow

Hastings Business Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Masthead Jul 2021

Masthead

Hastings Business Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Financial Benchmark Control As Monopoly Power, Sharon E. Foster Jul 2021

Financial Benchmark Control As Monopoly Power, Sharon E. Foster

Hastings Business Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Cinderella’S Slipper: A Better Approach To Regulating Cryptoassets As Securities, Carol R. Goforth Jul 2021

Cinderella’S Slipper: A Better Approach To Regulating Cryptoassets As Securities, Carol R. Goforth

Hastings Business Law Journal

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seeks both to protect investors and to promote efficient capital formation, but in the context of cryptoassets these goals sometimes collide. The SEC vigorously reacts to fraudulent offerings of cryptoassets but has had to do so by forcing crypto into an antiquated framework designed with very different interests in mind. Even worse than the convoluted and complex arguments needed to force crypto into the existing category of “investment contracts,” once crypto is treated as a security, a host of onerous and inapt disclosure requirements and regulations follows. Developers, promoters, exchanges, and others who might ...


Development And Application Of Business Valuation Methods By The Delaware Courts, Edmund H. Mantell, Edward Shea Jul 2021

Development And Application Of Business Valuation Methods By The Delaware Courts, Edmund H. Mantell, Edward Shea

Hastings Business Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Bart: The Enron Of Public Transit The Need For Csr In U.S. Public Transportation, Nicole Mirkazemi Jul 2021

Bart: The Enron Of Public Transit The Need For Csr In U.S. Public Transportation, Nicole Mirkazemi

Hastings Business Law Journal

No abstract provided.


How The “Exception” Becomes The Standard, Margeaux Bergman Jul 2021

How The “Exception” Becomes The Standard, Margeaux Bergman

Hastings Business Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Pathways To Just, Equitable And Sustainable Trade And Investment Regimes, Tomaso Ferrando, Nicolas Perrone, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe, Kangping Du Jul 2021

Pathways To Just, Equitable And Sustainable Trade And Investment Regimes, Tomaso Ferrando, Nicolas Perrone, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe, Kangping Du

Reports & Public Policy Documents

In this report we discuss what a Fair, Just and Equitable approach to the global, liberalized and hyper-competitive system of global trade and investments should be. The global market for goods and capital affect the life of producers and workers, stimulates the run towards cheaper products and puts farmers and workers against each other. The current vision of trade and investments is based on the silencing of gendered and reproductive labour and is responsible for the increase in inequality and relative poverty. Furthermore, it stimulates the extraction of commodities and contributes to the degradation of the planet, it has a ...


Widening The Lens On Content Moderation, Jenna Ruddock, Justin Sherman Jul 2021

Widening The Lens On Content Moderation, Jenna Ruddock, Justin Sherman

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

No abstract provided.


Marchand V. Barnhill'S Impact On The Duty Of Oversight: New Factors To Assess Directors' Liability For Breaching The Duty Of Oversight, Katherine M. King Jun 2021

Marchand V. Barnhill'S Impact On The Duty Of Oversight: New Factors To Assess Directors' Liability For Breaching The Duty Of Oversight, Katherine M. King

Boston College Law Review

In 2019, in Marchand v. Barnhill, the Delaware Supreme Court reversed the dismissal of a complaint alleging that the defendants, Blue Bell directors, breached their duty of oversight. In doing so, the court invoked two new factors—whether the corporation is monoline and whether it is heavily regulated—to consider when evaluating claims against directors for an oversight failure. These factors inform whether a court can identify an essential compliance concern, such that a court can infer the directors violated their obligation to act in good faith by consciously disregarding a known duty. This inference allows a court to find ...


Consumer Protection In Ecommerce: A Case Study Of Egypt, Heba Habib Jun 2021

Consumer Protection In Ecommerce: A Case Study Of Egypt, Heba Habib

Theses and Dissertations

This paper examines electronic contract regulation in the context of business-to-consumer transactions. The technological advancement and cross-border nature of e-commerce have posed significant challenges to the Egyptian legal framework highlighting the limitations of general commercial contract rules with regards to electronic contracts. This thesis argues that access to the courts is hindered by restrictive terms in the electronic contracts over which the Egyptian law has no jurisdictional power. Accordingly, private institutions set the rules in the e-contracts and enforce them through private methods leaving no room for state intervention to ensure the protection of consumers. Hence, the application of national ...


"There Is No Planet 'B'": How U.S. Music Festival Production Companies Can Reduce Their Negative Environmental Impact By Incorporating As A Benefit Corporation, Bryce Ballard Jun 2021

"There Is No Planet 'B'": How U.S. Music Festival Production Companies Can Reduce Their Negative Environmental Impact By Incorporating As A Benefit Corporation, Bryce Ballard

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

The music festival industry in the United States is growing exponentially each year, both in terms of fan attendance and the money being produced by concession, merchandise, and ticket sales. However, there is also a growing realization that there are several negative externalities associated with the growth of the music festival industry, not the least of which is the environmental damage that follows in the wake of music festivals.

The scene at most music festivals in the United States today is the same: a caravan of vehicles lined up single-file waiting to enter the campgrounds, camping tents of various sizes ...


Legal Liability For Corporations Doing Business In The West Bank: An Analysis Of Corporate Liability And A Shareholder Proposal Solution For Mitigating Risky Business Activity, Mila Kelly Jun 2021

Legal Liability For Corporations Doing Business In The West Bank: An Analysis Of Corporate Liability And A Shareholder Proposal Solution For Mitigating Risky Business Activity, Mila Kelly

William & Mary Business Law Review

For over half a century, Israeli Settlements in the occupied West Bank have expanded significantly in both land and economic activity. While this expansion has not been without criticism from the international community over fear of humanitarian law violations, global businesses have not shied away from the profitability of this region. This engagement in corporate activity within any disputed territory comes with its fair share of business risk, including legal liability for complicity in purported human rights violations.

This Note will examine the hypothetical liability for corporations doing business in the West Bank and explain how international law and the ...


The Separation Of Voting And Control: The Role Of Contract In Corporate Governance, Gabriel V. Rauterberg Jun 2021

The Separation Of Voting And Control: The Role Of Contract In Corporate Governance, Gabriel V. Rauterberg

Articles

The default rules of corporate law make shareholders’ control rights a function of their voting power. Whether a director is elected or a merger is approved depends on how shareholders vote. Yet, in private corporations shareholders routinely alter their rights by contract. This phenomenon of shareholder agreements—contracts among the owners of a firm— has received far less attention than it deserves, mainly because detailed data about the actual contents of shareholder agreements has been lacking. Private companies disclose little, and shareholder agreements are thought to play a trivial or nonexistent role in public companies. I show that this is ...


Deal Protection Devices, Albert H. Choi Jun 2021

Deal Protection Devices, Albert H. Choi

Articles

In mergers and acquisitions transactions, a buyer and a seller will often agree to contractual mechanisms (deal protection devices) to deter third parties from jumping the deal and to compensate a disappointed buyer. With the help of auction theory, this Article analyzes various deal protection devices, while focusing on the two most commonly used mechanisms: match rights and target termination fees. A match right gives the buyer a right to “match” a third party’s offer so as to prevent the third party from snatching the target away, while a termination fee compensates the buyer when a third party acquires ...


The Challenges Of Nonprofit Governance, Peter Molk, D. Daniel Sokol May 2021

The Challenges Of Nonprofit Governance, Peter Molk, D. Daniel Sokol

Boston College Law Review

The stakes for proper nonprofit governance are extremely high. Over 1.5 million nonprofits are registered with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), collectively employing twelve million people and accounting for 5.6% of U.S. gross domestic profit. Yet whereas for-profit companies have significant checks on the behavior of boards and management, nonprofit firms lack many of the same types of internal and external governance control mechanisms. COVID-19 is just the latest shock to expose the lack of preparedness and capability of many nonprofit boards in fulfilling their essential governance functions. This Article contributes to the corporate governance literature by ...


A New Kind Of Pitch: The Rise Of Sports Dedicated Private Equity Funds And The Future Of The Single Entity Defense, Chase Browndorf May 2021

A New Kind Of Pitch: The Rise Of Sports Dedicated Private Equity Funds And The Future Of The Single Entity Defense, Chase Browndorf

Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Treble, Treble Toil And Trouble: The New Per Se Rule As A Protection Against The Curse Of The "Supreme Evil", Seth Konopasek May 2021

Treble, Treble Toil And Trouble: The New Per Se Rule As A Protection Against The Curse Of The "Supreme Evil", Seth Konopasek

William & Mary Business Law Review

The Supreme Court has called collusion between firms the “supreme evil” of antitrust. Despite public and private enforcement efforts, collusive firms and the cartels they form cost American consumers billions of dollars a year and undermine the virtues of our free market economy. The Chicago School theory of antitrust enforcement, which has dominated antitrust scholarship, vehemently disapproves of private antitrust actions that enable plaintiffs to recover treble damages. Recent scholarship, however, has rejected the Chicago School’s concerns of overdeterrence and embraced the treble damages remedy. This Note follows the recent scholarship and proposes the New Per Se Rule, which ...


Blurred Lines: Disparate Impact And Disparate Treatment Challenges To Subjective Decisions-- The Case Of Reductions In Force, Allan King, Alexandra Hemenway May 2021

Blurred Lines: Disparate Impact And Disparate Treatment Challenges To Subjective Decisions-- The Case Of Reductions In Force, Allan King, Alexandra Hemenway

William & Mary Business Law Review

Subjective employment decisions may be challenged under disparate treatment (intentional discrimination) and/or disparate impact (the discriminatory consequences of a neutral policy) theories of discrimination. However, these theories and supporting evidence often are conflated when the criteria for selecting employees are ill-defined or unrecorded. In those instances, the process by which employees are selected merges with the selections themselves, these legal theories converge as well. This Article critically discusses how courts have struggled to distinguish these theories in cases alleging a discriminatory reduction in force. It suggests how these cases should be submitted to juries, to preserve the liability and ...