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Business Organizations Law

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2020

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Lending Innovations, Xuan-Thao Nguyen Dec 2020

Lending Innovations, Xuan-Thao Nguyen

Brooklyn Law Review

This article is about innovations. Startups and their founders in the innovation intensive sectors cannot reach their dreams without financing. They cannot turn to banks for loans. Banks, from community to commercial banks, shun startups due to antiquated banking law, business model and high risks associated with tech lending. But there are outlier banks who disrupt the banking business model with lending innovation, fueling startups with loans that allow tech innovations to occur from Silicon Valley to Route 128 of the northeast corridor, and from Shanghai, China to Herzliya, Israel. With qualitative and quantitative patent data, this article demonstrates how ...


The Regulatory Production Of Vaccine Hesitancy, Eugene Mccarthy Dec 2020

The Regulatory Production Of Vaccine Hesitancy, Eugene Mccarthy

Brooklyn Law Review

This article argues that U.S. vaccine law produces the “anti-vax” movement. The anti-vax movement is a growing problem, as more than half of American parents have concerns about vaccinating their children. Remarkably, these “vaccine-hesitant” individuals tend to be highly educated, wealthy, and experienced parents. Three legal structures cause vaccine hesitancy: strict immunization mandates, lax regulatory oversight, and blanket limited liability for vaccine manufacturers. The United States stands alone with regard to its vaccine mandates—no other developed democracy requires its citizens to receive such a large number of childhood vaccines. Meanwhile, the law permits financial conflicts of interest in ...


Directors’ Duty Of Care In Times Of Financial Distress Following The Global Epidemic Crisis, Leon Yehuda Anidjar Dec 2020

Directors’ Duty Of Care In Times Of Financial Distress Following The Global Epidemic Crisis, Leon Yehuda Anidjar

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The global COVID-19 pandemic is causing the large-scale end of life and severe human suffering globally. This massive public health crisis created a significant economic crisis and is reflected in a recession of global production and the collapse of confidence in the functions of markets. Corporations and boards of directors around the world are required to design specific strategies to tackle the negative consequences of the crisis. This is especially true for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that suffered tremendous economic loss, and their continued existence as ongoing concern is under considerable risk. Given these uncertain financial times, this Article ...


Business Law–Corporate Purpose And Benefit Corporations–Making Benefit Corporation Legislation Work For Socially Minded Investors, Cody Mckinney Dec 2020

Business Law–Corporate Purpose And Benefit Corporations–Making Benefit Corporation Legislation Work For Socially Minded Investors, Cody Mckinney

The Arkansas Journal of Social Change and Public Service

No abstract provided.


Assessing The Unethical Phenomenon Behind Hollywood’S Handshake Agreements, Daniel Rico Dec 2020

Assessing The Unethical Phenomenon Behind Hollywood’S Handshake Agreements, Daniel Rico

University of Miami Business Law Review

The Hollywood Film Industry has maintained a unique characteristic of allowing substantial capital investments to regularly proceed on the basis of oral (“handshake”) agreements.1 These handshake agreements result in an uncertain threat of legal enforcement and an increased exposure to contract liability. Nevertheless, handshake contracts have become so prevalent in Hollywood’s entertainment industry that no matter one’s opinion on the merits of using these contracts, attorneys have conformed to this longstanding tradition in order to stay competitive.

As a result, this longstanding practice of conducting business through handshake agreements has contributed to another time-honored Hollywood tradition: contract ...


Unvested: How Equity And The Deferred Payment Gamble In Startups Shortchange Employees Targeted By Discrimination, Katie Black Dec 2020

Unvested: How Equity And The Deferred Payment Gamble In Startups Shortchange Employees Targeted By Discrimination, Katie Black

University of Miami Law Review

The new American Dream is not limited to Silicon Valley. Startups span the nation. They exist in a vast array of sizes and ideologies. Nonetheless, by their very nature, startups are boundary-pushing enterprises. For all the world-altering good they can do, sometimes, that crashing-into-walls mentality comes at the price of pushing human and legal boundaries as well. While the entity tries to grow and create, almost hydraulically using what little human and financial capital it may have to build the once-impossible, startup employees can be left to bear the cost when it is their boundaries that are broken. Discrimination is ...


Business Associations, Stuart E. Walker Dec 2020

Business Associations, Stuart E. Walker

Mercer Law Review

This Article surveys noteworthy decisions involving corporations and limited liability companies issued by the Georgia Court of Appeals between June 1, 2019, and May 31, 2020, summarizes an amendment to the Georgia Business Corporation Code and an amendment to the Georgia Nonprofit Corporation Code passed during the 2020 session of the General Assembly, and says a brief word about the status of the new State-wide Business Court.

As far as appellate decisions are concerned, this was a somewhat thin survey period in the area of business associations. But the handful of cases treated here have some lessons to teach the ...


Disruptive Philanthropy: Chan-Zuckerberg, The Limited Liability Company, And The Millionaire Next Door, Dana Brakman Reiser Nov 2020

Disruptive Philanthropy: Chan-Zuckerberg, The Limited Liability Company, And The Millionaire Next Door, Dana Brakman Reiser

Florida Law Review

Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg and his wife, Dr. Priscilla Chan, have pledged to give 99% of their net worth to—in their words—“advance[e] human potential and promot[e] equal opportunity.” To make good on this promise, however, they did not set up a traditional nonprofit, tax-exempt organization. Instead, they founded the Chan-Zuckerberg Initiative, a limited liability company (LLC). The bulk of this Article provides the definitive explanation for this seemingly bizarre choice. Importantly, the philanthropy LLC structure offers donors the flexibility to bolster charitable grantmaking with impact investment and political advocacy, free of the restrictions, penalties, and transparency ...


Fraud Is Now Legal In Texas (For Some People), Val D. Ricks Nov 2020

Fraud Is Now Legal In Texas (For Some People), Val D. Ricks

Texas A&M Law Review

Three intermediate appellate courts in Texas have held that corporate actors— directors, officers, managers, shareholders, and probably common employees and agents—are immune from personal liability for fraud that they themselves commit as long as their deceit relates to or arises from a contractual obligation of the corporation. Similar actors in limited liability companies also enjoy immunity. These courts do not require that the business entities themselves be liable for the fraud. When the entities are not liable, these new holdings leave fraud victims no remedy at all, even if a jury would find fraud. One (or maybe two) Texas ...


Revisiting The License V. Sale Conundrum, Nancy S. Kim Nov 2020

Revisiting The License V. Sale Conundrum, Nancy S. Kim

Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review

This Article seeks to answer a question that has become increasingly more important as commerce moves from the tangible to the intangible—to what extent may a business use a contract to control the use of a fully paid product? The characterization of a transaction as a license or a sale determines what may be done with a product, who controls how the product may be used, and what happens in the event of a dispute. The past generation has seen a seismic shift in the way businesses distribute their products to consumers. Businesses often “license” rather than “sell” their ...


The Corporation Reborn: From Shareholder Primacy To Shared Governance, Grant M. Hayden, Matthew T. Bodie Oct 2020

The Corporation Reborn: From Shareholder Primacy To Shared Governance, Grant M. Hayden, Matthew T. Bodie

Boston College Law Review

The consensus around shareholder primacy is crumbling. Investors, long assumed to be uncomplicated profit-maximizers, are looking for ways to express a wider range of values in allocating their funds. Workers are agitating for greater voice at their workplaces. And prominent legislators have recently proposed corporate law reforms that would put a sizable number of employee representatives on the boards of directors of large public companies. These rumblings of public discontent are echoed in recent corporate law scholarship, which has cataloged the costs of shareholder control, touted the advantages of nonvoting stock, and questioned whether activist holders of various stripes are ...


Startup Partnerships, Christine Hurt Oct 2020

Startup Partnerships, Christine Hurt

Boston College Law Review

Every business firm that is created must be categorized as some type of entity from the moment it begins to have value, either positive value or negative value. For many firms, the entity is simply a sole proprietorship. But if there is not a “sole” owner, then the entity must be something else, and if the owners have not incorporated as a corporation, limited liability company, or limited partnership, then that “something else” is a general partnership. In this way, the most important law that governs startup companies may in fact be partnership law. Through the application of state partnership ...


Enough Is As Good As A Feast, Noah C. Chauvin Oct 2020

Enough Is As Good As A Feast, Noah C. Chauvin

Seattle University Law Review

Ipse Dixit, the podcast on legal scholarship, provides a valuable service to the legal community and particularly to the legal academy. The podcast’s hosts skillfully interview guests about their legal and law-related scholarship, helping those guests communicate their ideas clearly and concisely. In this review essay, I argue that Ipse Dixit has made a major contribution to legal scholarship by demonstrating in its interview episodes that law review articles are neither the only nor the best way of communicating scholarly ideas. This contribution should be considered “scholarship,” because one of the primary goals of scholarship is to communicate new ...


A Purpose-Based Theory Of Corporate Law, Asaf Raz Oct 2020

A Purpose-Based Theory Of Corporate Law, Asaf Raz

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


Antitrust Changeup: How A Single Antitrust Reform Could Be A Home Run For Minor League Baseball Players, Jeremy Ulm Oct 2020

Antitrust Changeup: How A Single Antitrust Reform Could Be A Home Run For Minor League Baseball Players, Jeremy Ulm

Dickinson Law Review

In 1890, Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act to protect competition in the marketplace. Federal antitrust law has developed to prevent businesses from exerting unfair power on their employees and customers. Specifically, the Sherman Act prevents competitors from reaching unreasonable agreements amongst themselves and from monopolizing markets. However, not all industries have these protections.

Historically, federal antitrust law has not governed the “Business of Baseball.” The Supreme Court had the opportunity to apply antitrust law to baseball in Federal Baseball Club, Incorporated v. National League of Professional Baseball Clubs; however, the Court held that the Business of Baseball was not ...


A False Sense Of Security: How Congress And The Sec Are Dropping The Ball On Cryptocurrency, Tessa E. Shurr Oct 2020

A False Sense Of Security: How Congress And The Sec Are Dropping The Ball On Cryptocurrency, Tessa E. Shurr

Dickinson Law Review

Today, companies use blockchain technology and digital assets for a variety of purposes. This Comment analyzes the digital token. If the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) views a digital token as a security, then the issuer of the digital token must comply with the registration and extensive disclosure requirements of federal securities laws.

To determine whether a digital asset is a security, the SEC relies on the test that the Supreme Court established in SEC v. W.J. Howey Co. Rather than enforcing a statute or agency rule, the SEC enforces securities laws by applying the Howey test on a ...


Blockchain Stock Ledgers, Kevin V. Tu Oct 2020

Blockchain Stock Ledgers, Kevin V. Tu

Indiana Law Journal

American corporate law contains a seemingly innocuous mandate. Corporations must maintain appropriate books and records, including a stock ledger with the corporation's shareholders and stock ownership. The importance of accurate stock ownership records is obvious. Corporations must know who owns each of its outstanding shares at any point in time. Among other things, this allows corporations to determine who receives dividends and who is entitled to vote. In theory, keeping accurate records of stock ownership should be a simple matter. But despite diligent efforts, serious share discrepancies plague corporations, and reconciliation is often functionally impossible. Doing so may require ...


Real Insider Trading, Michael A. Perino Oct 2020

Real Insider Trading, Michael A. Perino

Washington and Lee Law Review

In popular rhetoric, insider trading cases are about leveling the playing field between elite market participants and ordinary investors. Academic critiques vary. Some depict an untethered insider trading doctrine that enforcers use to expand their power and enhance their discretion. Others see enforcers beset with agency cost problems who bring predominantly simple, easily resolved cases to create the veneer of vigorous enforcement. The debate has, to this point, been based mostly on anecdote and conjecture rather than empirical evidence. This Article addresses that gap by collecting extensive data on 465 individual defendants in civil, criminal, and administrative actions to assess ...


The Independent Board As Shield, Gregory H. Shill Oct 2020

The Independent Board As Shield, Gregory H. Shill

Washington and Lee Law Review

The fiduciary duty of loyalty bars CEOs and other executives from managing companies for personal gain. In the modern public corporation, this restriction is reinforced by a pair of institutions: the independent board of directors and the business judgment rule. In isolation, each structure arguably promotes manager fidelity to shareholder interests—but together, they enable manager prioritization. This marks a particularly striking turn for the independent board. Its origin story and raison d’être lie in protecting shareholders from opportunism by managers, but it functions as a shield for managers instead.

Numerous defects in the design and practice of the ...


The Bleeding Edge: Theranos And The Growing Risk Of An Unregulated Private Securities Market, Theodore O'Brien Sep 2020

The Bleeding Edge: Theranos And The Growing Risk Of An Unregulated Private Securities Market, Theodore O'Brien

University of Miami Business Law Review

America’s securities laws and regulations, most of which were created in the early twentieth century, are increasingly irrelevant to the most dynamic emerging companies. Today, companies with sufficient investor interest can raise ample capital through private and exempt offerings, all while eschewing the public exchanges and the associated burdens of the initial public offering, public disclosures, and regulatory scrutiny. Airbnb, Inc., for example, quickly tapped private investors for $1 billion in April of 2020, adding to the estimated $4.4 billion the company had previouslyraised.2 The fundamental shift from public to private companies is evidenced by the so-called ...


Airdrops: “Free” Tokens Are Not Free From Regulatory Compliance, Bridgett S. Bauer Esq. Sep 2020

Airdrops: “Free” Tokens Are Not Free From Regulatory Compliance, Bridgett S. Bauer Esq.

University of Miami Business Law Review

No abstract provided.


The United States: Big Data, Little Regulation, Megan Valent Sep 2020

The United States: Big Data, Little Regulation, Megan Valent

University of Miami Business Law Review

In the United States today, there is no single law to address the privacy concerns associated with the collection of consumer data. Lawmakers have introduced policies that seek to address data privacy at the federal level, but Congress has not yet acted to create a comprehensive law to protect consumers. On the contrary, in 2016, the European Union passed its General Data Protection Regulation to address the dangers associated with “Big Data” and to give consumers control over their data.

Unfortunately, in the United States consumers are often unaware of how their data is being handled and what is done ...


Smart Contracts: Implications On Liability And Competence, Ryan Hasting Sep 2020

Smart Contracts: Implications On Liability And Competence, Ryan Hasting

University of Miami Business Law Review

Smart contracts are increasingly popular in business and law. Smart contracts are also becoming increasingly complex. Advances in technology allow smart contracts to handle far more intricate transactions than the traditional—and simple— vending machine example. With increased complexity comes increased responsibility. When parties rely on an attorney to review or draft a smart contract, that attorney must understand what he or she is reading or writing. Smart contracts, however, are not written in a language most attorneys can understand, let alone write. While a general description of the contract may be translated into plain English, the contract itself is ...


Uber And The Need For Particularized Regulation, Kayla Marie Heckman Sep 2020

Uber And The Need For Particularized Regulation, Kayla Marie Heckman

University of Miami Business Law Review

With technology constantly evolving, the law must evolve with it. Uber Technologies, Inc. (“Uber”) has transformed the transportation industry by making transportation readily available with the touch of a button on one’s mobile phone. Uber is now one of the leading companies in transportation and operates worldwide. While this expansion has been great for consumers, it has come with significant drawbacks and challenges. Uber threatens the taxi industry, the cities in which it operates, and even its own drivers. This Note will discuss how Uber’s rapid growth is disrupting transportation in major cities quicker than its impact can ...


Bank Resolution And Creditor Distribution: The Tension Shaping Global Banking –Part Ii: The Cross-Border Dimension, David Ramos, Javier Solana Sep 2020

Bank Resolution And Creditor Distribution: The Tension Shaping Global Banking –Part Ii: The Cross-Border Dimension, David Ramos, Javier Solana

University of Miami Business Law Review

New bank resolution frameworks that aim to address the complex task of managing the collapse of a large financial institution stand in considerable tension with basic principles and policy objectives of insolvency law. In this two-part study, we present an analytical framework that aims at helping us understand how this tension can undermine the effectiveness of the new bank resolution frameworks. In the first part of this article, we introduced our three-layered framework and explored its first two layers: the group dimension, and the duality of crisis-prevention and crisis-management tools. In this Part II, we explore the last layer: the ...


Modernizing The Fair And Equitable Treatment Standards In The Energy Charter Treaty, Sydney Thurman-Baldwin Sep 2020

Modernizing The Fair And Equitable Treatment Standards In The Energy Charter Treaty, Sydney Thurman-Baldwin

University of Miami Business Law Review

As oil and gas continue to be hot commodities for national economies, the number of international arbitrations in the energy sector has continued to rise in recent years. As the utilization of International Arbitration continues to rise in Energy disputes, so does the invocation of The Energy Charter Treaty (“ECT”). The ECT promotes inter-governmental cooperation with contracting parties in the energy sector through its provisions on investment protection, provisions on trade, transit of energy, energy efficiency, environmental protection and dispute resolution. These provisions are considered to be the cornerstone of the treaty, fostering a ‘level playing field’ for foreign investments ...


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review Sep 2020

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

Table of Contents


Visions Of The Republic Symposium: Facts And Fictions Of Corporate Executive Accountability, Masaki Iwasaki Aug 2020

Visions Of The Republic Symposium: Facts And Fictions Of Corporate Executive Accountability, Masaki Iwasaki

Fordham Law Review Online

U.S. Senator and former Democratic presidential contender Elizabeth Warren recently proposed the Corporate Executive Accountability Act, a bill that lowers the level of mental state required to prosecute executives for any corporate crime. A nationwide debate has been raging over this Act, but most arguments have focused on the appropriateness of the relaxed requirement, and the whole picture of executive accountability is vague. This Essay reveals what the facts and fictions of corporate executive accountability are, focusing on the degree of punishment of criminal executives. The author presents the estimates of expected direct and indirect punishments of executives and ...


Democracy, Deference, And Compromise: Understanding And Reforming Campaign Finance Jurisprudence, Scott P. Bloomberg Aug 2020

Democracy, Deference, And Compromise: Understanding And Reforming Campaign Finance Jurisprudence, Scott P. Bloomberg

Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review

In Citizens United, the Supreme Court interpreted the government’s interest in preventing corruption as being limited to preventing quid pro quo— cash-for-votes—corruption. This narrow interpretation drastically circumscribed legislatures’ abilities to regulate the financing of elections, in turn prompting scholars to propose a number of reforms for broadening the government interest in campaign finance cases. These reforms include urging the Court to recognize a new government interest such as political equality, to adopt a broader understanding of corruption, and to be more deferential to legislatures in defining corruption.

Building upon that body of scholarship, this Article begins with a ...


The Foreign Investment Risk Review Modernization Act: The Double-Edged Sword Of U.S. Foreign Investment Regulations, J. Russell Blakey Aug 2020

The Foreign Investment Risk Review Modernization Act: The Double-Edged Sword Of U.S. Foreign Investment Regulations, J. Russell Blakey

Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review

No abstract provided.