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Bankruptcy Law

2018

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Optimal Deterrence And The Preference Gap, Brook Gotberg Dec 2018

Optimal Deterrence And The Preference Gap, Brook Gotberg

BYU Law Review

It is generally understood that the way to discourage particular behavior in individuals is to punish that behavior, on the theory that rational individuals seek to avoid punishment. Laws aimed at deterring behavior operate on the assumption that increasing the likelihood of punishment, the severity of punishment, or both, will decrease the behavior. The success of these laws is evaluated by how much the targeted behavior decreases. The law of preferential transfers—which punishes creditors who have been paid prior to a bankruptcy filing at the expense of other, unpaid creditors—has been defended on the grounds that it deters a race …


Penerapan Saksi Pidana Korporasi Pada Bank Dan Implikasinya, Yudha Ramelan Dec 2018

Penerapan Saksi Pidana Korporasi Pada Bank Dan Implikasinya, Yudha Ramelan

Jurnal Hukum & Pembangunan

A criminal act by corporation is criminal offense that can be asked for criminal liability to the corporation in accordance with the laws and regulations concerning the corporation. Corporation can be punished to pay fine penalties and other additional penalties such as dissolution or revocation of business licenses. As a trust-based financial institution, if a bank commits a crime, the impact caused by the crime is not only detrimental to the bank itself, damages the reputation of the bank but also harms the community of depositors and other parties responsible for handling bank resolutions. Looking at the impact, the application …


“I’Ll Know It When I See It”: Defending The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’S Approach Of Interpreting The Scope Of Unfair, Deceptive, Or Abusive Acts Or Practices (“Udapp”) Through Enforcement Actions, Stephen J. Canzona Dec 2018

“I’Ll Know It When I See It”: Defending The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’S Approach Of Interpreting The Scope Of Unfair, Deceptive, Or Abusive Acts Or Practices (“Udapp”) Through Enforcement Actions, Stephen J. Canzona

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


Absolute Priority Redux: First-Day Orders And Pre-Plan Settlements In Chapter 11 Post-Jevic, Bruce Grohsgal Nov 2018

Absolute Priority Redux: First-Day Orders And Pre-Plan Settlements In Chapter 11 Post-Jevic, Bruce Grohsgal

William & Mary Business Law Review

This Article considers the problem of priority-skipping distributions made by a chapter 11 debtor outside of a plan, following the Supreme Court’s Jevic decision. The Jevic Court extended the absolute priority rule—which under U.S. bankruptcy enactments dictates the order of distributions to creditors under a chapter 11 cramdown plan and in a chapter 7 liquidation—to a chapter 11 case-ending settlement known as a “structured dismissal.”

The Jevic Court limited its holding to a case-ending settlement. It did not extend the absolute priority rule to an interim or pre-plan settlement or other transaction that is not case-ending or to a “first-day” …


Life In The Sweatbox, Pamela Foohey, Robert M. Lawless, Katherine Porter, Deborah Thorne Nov 2018

Life In The Sweatbox, Pamela Foohey, Robert M. Lawless, Katherine Porter, Deborah Thorne

Notre Dame Law Review

The time before a person files bankruptcy is sometimes called the financial “sweatbox.” Using original data from the Consumer Bankruptcy Project, we find that people are living longer in the sweatbox before filing bankruptcy than they have in the past. We also describe the depletion of wealth and well-being that defines people’s time in the sweatbox. For those people who struggle for more than two years before filing bankruptcy—the “long strugglers”—their time in the sweatbox is particularly damaging. During their years in the sweatbox, long strugglers deal with persistent collection calls, go without healthcare, food, and utilities, lose homes and …


Contract Claims And The Willful And Malicious Injury Exception To The Discharge In Bankruptcy, Scott F. Norberg Oct 2018

Contract Claims And The Willful And Malicious Injury Exception To The Discharge In Bankruptcy, Scott F. Norberg

Scott Norberg

No abstract provided.


The Suitability Of South Africa's Business Rescue Procedure In The Reorganization Of Small-To-Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons From Chapter 11 Of The United States Bankruptcy Code., Mikovhe Maphiri Oct 2018

The Suitability Of South Africa's Business Rescue Procedure In The Reorganization Of Small-To-Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons From Chapter 11 Of The United States Bankruptcy Code., Mikovhe Maphiri

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

South African small- to medium-sized enterprises (“SMEs”) are the bread and butter of our economy. Providing much-needed employment and developing the skills of historically disadvantaged persons formally and informally are some of the most significant benefits of SMEs in a developing country such as South Africa. However, despite these significant contributions to the socioeconomic development of the country, SMEs generally have the lowest survival rates in the world as compared to large enterprises globally, resulting in high rates of business failure and the loss of jobs which these entities create. The Companies Act of 2008 replaces the previous judicial management …


Bankruptcy—Student Loans For Life, The Discharge Of Student Loans Under 11 U.S.C. § 523 (A)(8)—Using The Eighth Circuit's Totality-Of-The-Circumstances Test And The Partial Discharge Method, Richard D. Burke Iii Oct 2018

Bankruptcy—Student Loans For Life, The Discharge Of Student Loans Under 11 U.S.C. § 523 (A)(8)—Using The Eighth Circuit's Totality-Of-The-Circumstances Test And The Partial Discharge Method, Richard D. Burke Iii

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Market For Corporate Control In The Zone Of Insolvency: Symposium Introduction, Edward J. Janger Oct 2018

The Market For Corporate Control In The Zone Of Insolvency: Symposium Introduction, Edward J. Janger

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

No abstract provided.


Bankruptcy Fiduciary Duties In The World Of Claims Trading, John A.E. Pottow Oct 2018

Bankruptcy Fiduciary Duties In The World Of Claims Trading, John A.E. Pottow

Articles

In earlier work, I explored the role of fiduciary duties in the bankruptcy trustee's administration of a debtor's estate, noting the absence of any explicit demarcation of those duties in the Bankruptcy Code. In this piece, I report the highlights of that analysis and see to what extent (if any) fiduciary duties can inform policy prescriptions for the issue of bankruptcy claims trading, colorfully referred to by some as the world of "bankruptcy M&A." My initial take is pessimistic. Fiduciary duties, at least as traditionally conceived in bankruptcy, are unlikely to provide much help. But there is still a source …


Corporate Distress, Credit Default Swaps, And Defaults: Information And Traditional, Contingent, And Empty Creditors, Henry T. C. Hu Oct 2018

Corporate Distress, Credit Default Swaps, And Defaults: Information And Traditional, Contingent, And Empty Creditors, Henry T. C. Hu

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Federal securities law seeks to ensure the quality and quantity of information that corporations make publicly available. Informational asymmetries associated with companies in financial distress, but not in bankruptcy, have received little attention. This Article explores some important asymmetries in this context that are curious in their origin, nature, and impact. The asymmetries are especially curious because of the impact of a world with credit default swaps (CDS) and CDS-driven debt “decoupling.” The Article explores two categories of asymmetries. The first relates to information on the company itself. Here, the Article suggests there is fresh evidence for the belief that …


Transparency In Corporate Groups, Jay Lawrence Westbrook Oct 2018

Transparency In Corporate Groups, Jay Lawrence Westbrook

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

This Article addresses a remarkable blind spot in American law: the failure to apply the well-established principles of secured credit to prevent inefficiency, confusion, and fraud in the manipulation of the webs of subsidiaries within corporate groups. In particular, “asset partitioning” has been a fashionable subject in which the central problem of non-transparency has been often mentioned but little addressed. This Article offers a concept for a new system of corporate disclosure for the benefit of creditors and other stakeholders. It would require disclosure of corporate structures and allocations of assets among affiliates to the extent the affiliates are to …


Insider Trading: Are Insolvent Firms Different?, Andrew Verstein Oct 2018

Insider Trading: Are Insolvent Firms Different?, Andrew Verstein

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Federal law restricts insider trading. Yet these restrictions operate differently on insolvent or bankrupt firms. The law is more constraining in some respects: federal law extensively regulates the trading of residual claims in solvent firms but not insolvent firms. However, the law is more constraining in other respects: insider trading law does little to limit debt-trading at solvent firms, but a bankruptcy enmeshes all creditors in a web of insider trading rules. This Article identifies insolvency’s economic and legal influence on insider trading law and then normatively evaluates this transformation.


Bankruptcy Fiduciary Duties In The World Of Claims Trading, John A. E. Pottow Oct 2018

Bankruptcy Fiduciary Duties In The World Of Claims Trading, John A. E. Pottow

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

In earlier work, I explored the role of fiduciary duties in the bankruptcy trustee’s administration of a debtor’s estate, noting the absence of any explicit demarcation of those duties in the Bankruptcy Code. In this piece, I report the highlights of that analysis and see to what extent (if any) fiduciary duties can inform policy prescriptions for the issue of bankruptcy claims trading, colorfully referred to by some as the world of “bankruptcy M&A.” My initial take is pessimistic. Fiduciary duties, at least as traditionally conceived in bankruptcy, are unlikely to provide much help. But there is still a source …


Corporate Governance And Bankruptcy, Daniel J.H. Greenwood Oct 2018

Corporate Governance And Bankruptcy, Daniel J.H. Greenwood

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Ordinary corporate law invests enormous authority in corporate leaders, largely without accountability either to those they govern or to the judiciary, in defiance of much of what we know about effective governance procedure. Instead, we rely on the markets in which the corporation participates as the primary check on incumbent officials. Regardless of whether relying on markets is sufficient in the ordinary course, corporate insolvency is the markets’ verdict that incumbent management has failed. Accordingly, in bankruptcy and insolvency more generally, the law ought to abandon its ordinary deference to the corporate powers that be and instead impose standard good …


Private Benefits Without Control? Modern Chapter 11 And The Market For Corporate Control, Oscar Couwenberg, Stephen J. Lubben Oct 2018

Private Benefits Without Control? Modern Chapter 11 And The Market For Corporate Control, Oscar Couwenberg, Stephen J. Lubben

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Outside of bankruptcy, a board of directors’ decision to take control rights away from existing shareholders and grant them to another is subject to heightened fiduciary duties. As the sale of control represents a kind of end game, shareholders have one last chance to realize the full value for their investment. In such a context, their interests warrant special protection. A similar sale of control can happen in a chapter 11 procedure when a bankruptcy plan revamps the capital structure of the firm. In such a restructuring of the firm, control rights can be newly created, redefined and redistributed to …


Badges Of Opportunism: Principles For Policing Restructuring Support Agreements, Edward J. Janger, Adam J. Levitin Oct 2018

Badges Of Opportunism: Principles For Policing Restructuring Support Agreements, Edward J. Janger, Adam J. Levitin

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Bankruptcy is a market for corporate control. Current bankruptcy practice offers two alternative mechanisms for effectuating changes in control of a firm: (1) a pre-plan all-asset sale under section 363(b) of the Bankruptcy Code; or (2) an asset sale or recapitalization pursuant to a plan of reorganization under section 1129 of the Code. Pre-plan sales under section 363(b) are fast, but lack the procedural protections associated with a restructuring or sale pursuant to a plan. Plan confirmation can be costly and uncertain, however. Restructuring support agreements (“RSAs”)—contractual agreements to support a future restructuring that has certain agreed-upon characteristics—appear to offer …


The Devious Debtor: 11 U.S.C. § 523(A)(2)(B) And The Need For A More Equitable Outcome, Torie Levine Oct 2018

The Devious Debtor: 11 U.S.C. § 523(A)(2)(B) And The Need For A More Equitable Outcome, Torie Levine

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Section 523(a)(2)(A) of the Bankruptcy Code prohibits debtors from discharging debts for money, property, services, or credit obtained by false pretenses, a false representation, or actual fraud other than a statement respecting the debtor’s financial condition. Under § 523(a)(2)(B), if those debts are obtained by a statement respecting the debtor’s financial condition, then the statement must be in writing for the debt to be discharged. A conflict among the circuit courts arose as to whether a statement about a single asset can be a statement respecting the debtor’s financial condition. The majority of the courts applied a narrow interpretation to …


Backstop, Not Bailout: The Case For Preserving The Orderly Liquidation Authority Under Dodd-Frank, Mark R. Maciuch Oct 2018

Backstop, Not Bailout: The Case For Preserving The Orderly Liquidation Authority Under Dodd-Frank, Mark R. Maciuch

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

The Trump Administration and Republicans have initiated efforts to repeal certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank), one of which is the Orderly Liquidation Authority (OLA) under Title II of Dodd-Frank. Critics of the OLA argue that it enables, rather than prevents, future bailouts funded by taxpayers. These critics are concerned with the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation’s (FDIC) discretion to decide when and how to resolve distressed financial firms, as well as the FDIC’s access to large amounts of funds from the U.S. Department of the Treasury to carry out these functions. Proponents of …


Milking The Estate, David R. Hague Oct 2018

Milking The Estate, David R. Hague

Faculty Articles

Recent Chapter 7 bankruptcy cases are exposing a widespread problem. Chapter 7 trustees are retaining their own law firms to represent them and then in clear breach of their fiduciary duties to creditors-requesting illegitimate legal fees to be paid by the estate. This practice is immoral and particularly harmful to creditors. Indeed, every dollar paid to the trustee and his firm is a dollar that will not be distributed to creditors. The Bankruptcy Code, remarkably, allows a trustee to retain his own law firm to represent him in his capacity as a trustee. But this inherently conflicted arrangement is not …


A Fresh Start To Bankruptcy Exemptions, Gary E. Sullivan Sep 2018

A Fresh Start To Bankruptcy Exemptions, Gary E. Sullivan

BYU Law Review

Bankruptcy has broadly failed to deliver “fresh starts” to debtors. Too often, debtors return to states of financial distress following bankruptcy. Although bankruptcy delivers a clean slate through the discharge of debts, the efficacy of a fresh start depends on a second factor: property exemptions. While discharge frees a debtor from her existing debts, property exemptions determine what property the debtor retains upon exiting bankruptcy. For many debtors, insufficient and suboptimal property exemption laws undermine fresh starts. In fact, under current bankruptcy law, each state can reject federal bankruptcy exemptions by opting out. Bankrupt debtors in “opt-out” states are forced …


Perlindungan Nasabah Terkait Praktik Pembukaan Rahasia Bank Oleh Pegawai Bank Dalam Proses Penegakan Hukum Tindak Pidana Pencucian Uang Dihubungkan Dengan Asas Kepastian Hukum, Hendrik Agus Sutiawan, Etty Mulyati, Ijud Tajudin Sep 2018

Perlindungan Nasabah Terkait Praktik Pembukaan Rahasia Bank Oleh Pegawai Bank Dalam Proses Penegakan Hukum Tindak Pidana Pencucian Uang Dihubungkan Dengan Asas Kepastian Hukum, Hendrik Agus Sutiawan, Etty Mulyati, Ijud Tajudin

Jurnal Hukum & Pembangunan

Bank secrets are essential elements and logical consequences of the bank's business character as a trust institution. Bank secrecy is a form of legal protection for depositors. The purpose of this study is to know how the protection of customers and how law enforcement against the opening of bank secrets by Bank Employee in the process of investigating money laundering crime connected with the principle of legal certainty. This research method using normative juridical approach method, that is an approach used to know that a law in accordance with applicable provisions. The research specification is analytical descriptive, using qualitative juridical …


A Rash Decision In Sunnyslope: Confusion Lingers Over Collateral Valuation, Michael D. Manzo Sep 2018

A Rash Decision In Sunnyslope: Confusion Lingers Over Collateral Valuation, Michael D. Manzo

St. John's Law Review

(Excerpt)

This Comment argues that the Ninth Circuit’s Sunnyslope decision misconstrued the Rash Court’s holding and is divorced from the text and structure of the Code. Rash does not provide a brightline rule that answers valuation questions in cramdowns; it offers a flexible standard that is compatible with the Code’s protections for both debtors and secured creditors. Further, this Comment also argues that Sunnyslope could have been answered not as a valuation issue, but as a lien priority issue. In any event, the Ninth Circuit completely missed the mark in interpreting the Supreme Court’s holding in Rash and in understanding …


Layering, Conversion, And Drifting: A Comparative Analysis Of Path Dependent Change In Consumer Insolvency Systems, Megan Mcdermott Sep 2018

Layering, Conversion, And Drifting: A Comparative Analysis Of Path Dependent Change In Consumer Insolvency Systems, Megan Mcdermott

Chicago-Kent Law Review

The past twenty-five years have been marked by major developments in consumer insolvency systems around the world. The threshold challenge for comparative scholars is to keep up with the changes occurring in individual countries, as a necessary—but preliminary—step toward broader comparisons of the historical, social, and institutional forces in consumer bankruptcy. In order for deeper work to take place, though, the field needs consensus on what factors are most useful to analyze. Moreover, the dynamic environment of consumer insolvency requires a framework for analysis that is flexible and adaptable enough to provide insights notwithstanding the rapid changes in the field. …


The Ammanati Affair: Seven Centuries Old, And Not Feeling The Age, Eugenio Vaccari Sep 2018

The Ammanati Affair: Seven Centuries Old, And Not Feeling The Age, Eugenio Vaccari

Chicago-Kent Law Review

The enactments of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency and the European Regulations on insolvency proceedings have promoted an incremental approach towards substantive harmonization. This strategy has not remained unquestioned. One of the major criticisms is that such a course of actions overlooks the nature of the issues currently raised in multi-national and cross-disciplinary bankruptcy procedures.

This Article focuses on the Anglo/American bankruptcy tradition. It adopts a doctrinal methodology to question the conclusion that “collectivity” is and should be a procedural, objective, and secondary notion in light of two case studies. It suggests that in the context of cross-border, …


A Canadian Lens On Third Party Litigation Funding In The American Bankruptcy Context, Stephanie Ben-Ishai, Emily Uza Sep 2018

A Canadian Lens On Third Party Litigation Funding In The American Bankruptcy Context, Stephanie Ben-Ishai, Emily Uza

Chicago-Kent Law Review

This Article offers two major recommendations to expand the use of third party litigation funding (“TPLF”) into the U.S. insolvency context. As seen in the Canadian context, courts have accepted the use of litigation funding agreements fitting within certain parameters. If U.S. courts follow suit, friction against the implementation of TPLF can be mitigated. Alternatively, regulation may occur through legislative and regulatory models to govern and set out precisely what types of arrangements are permitted. Involving entities such as the SEC may expedite the acceptance of TPLF, but special attention is necessary not to intermingle notions of fiduciaries into the …


When Borders Dissolve, Laura N. Coordes Sep 2018

When Borders Dissolve, Laura N. Coordes

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Scholars have long sought to apply principles from U.S. bankruptcy law to sovereign debt restructurings. Chapter 9 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, used to adjust the debts of municipalities, has been a particular source of inspiration, and several proposals currently exist to adapt chapter 9 to address the challenges of sovereign debt restructuring.

The difficulties of applying chapter 9 in practice, however, have demonstrated the limitations of a one-size-fits-all solution to municipal distress. Similarly, attempts to adapt chapter 9 to apply uniformly to a broad range of sovereign states may be ineffective. A recurring problem lies in the fact that …


Modularity In Cross-Border Insolvency, Andrew B. Dawson Sep 2018

Modularity In Cross-Border Insolvency, Andrew B. Dawson

Chicago-Kent Law Review

This Article proposes a framework for thinking about the design structure of the Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency. The Model Law has been successful by many metrics; however, it has faced various implementation challenges. As leading scholar Professor Jay Westbrook has noted, thinking about these problems requires thinking about the Model Law as a system. To understand the system, it is necessary to understand its architecture, and I argue that this architecture is best understood as reflecting a modular design structure, i.e., one that divides complex systems into a hierarchical system of self-contained components. Modularity has provided insights into other …


The Avoidance Of Pre-Bankruptcy Transactions: An Economic And Comparative Approach, Aurelio Gurrea-Martínez Sep 2018

The Avoidance Of Pre-Bankruptcy Transactions: An Economic And Comparative Approach, Aurelio Gurrea-Martínez

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Most insolvency jurisdictions provide several mechanisms to reverse transactions entered into by a debtor prior to the commencement of the bankruptcy procedure. These mechanisms, generally known as claw-back actions or avoidance provisions, may fulfil several economic goals. First, they act as an ex post alignment of incentives between factually insolvent debtors and their creditors, since the latter become the residual claimants of an insolvent firm, but they do not have any control over the debtor’s assets while the company is not yet subject to a bankruptcy procedure. Thus, avoidance powers may prevent or, at least, reverse opportunistic behaviors faced by …


Infinite Jest: The Otiose Quest For Completeness In Validating Insolvency Judgments, Bruce A. Markell Sep 2018

Infinite Jest: The Otiose Quest For Completeness In Validating Insolvency Judgments, Bruce A. Markell

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Universalism in cross-border bankruptcies strives to reduce waste, and harmonize restructuring and recoveries. Universalism’s avatar is UNCITRAL’s 1997 Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvencies (Model Law). Underlying the Model Law, however, is an implicit assumption that court orders entered in the proceeding where the debtor’s center of main interests is located will be respected in all other states in which the debtor has assets or operations. That assumption may have been incorrect, as shown by cases such as the United Kingdom’s Rubin v. Eurofinance, S.A.

This Article looks at UNCITRAL’s reaction to Rubin: its new Model Law on Recognition …