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Full-Text Articles in Law

Dol Fiduciary Rule 3.0 Strikeout, Base Knock, Or Home Run?, Antolin Reiber Jun 2024

Dol Fiduciary Rule 3.0 Strikeout, Base Knock, Or Home Run?, Antolin Reiber

DePaul Business & Commercial Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Money Is Morphing - Cryptocurrency Can Morph To Be An Environmentally And Financially Sustainable Alternative To Traditional Banking, Clovia Hamilton Jun 2024

Money Is Morphing - Cryptocurrency Can Morph To Be An Environmentally And Financially Sustainable Alternative To Traditional Banking, Clovia Hamilton

DePaul Business & Commercial Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Survey Evidence In Trademark Actions, Ioana Vasiu And Lucian Vasiu Jun 2024

Survey Evidence In Trademark Actions, Ioana Vasiu And Lucian Vasiu

DePaul Business & Commercial Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Corporate Governance And Compelled Speech: Do State-Imposed Board Diversity Mandates Violate Free Speech?, Salar Ghahramani Jun 2024

Corporate Governance And Compelled Speech: Do State-Imposed Board Diversity Mandates Violate Free Speech?, Salar Ghahramani

DePaul Business & Commercial Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Real Persons Are The Corporations We Made Along The Way, Leonard Brahin Jun 2024

The Real Persons Are The Corporations We Made Along The Way, Leonard Brahin

DePaul Business & Commercial Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Front Matter Jun 2024

Front Matter

DePaul Business & Commercial Law Journal

No abstract provided.


To Err Is Human, To Restore Is (Usually) The Law: Present Entitlement In Restitution’S Discharge-For-Value Rule, Layne S. Keele May 2024

To Err Is Human, To Restore Is (Usually) The Law: Present Entitlement In Restitution’S Discharge-For-Value Rule, Layne S. Keele

Arkansas Law Review

This Article argues that the Second Circuit’s present-entitlement holding and the concurrence’s setoff argument in Citibank v. Brigade Capital do not reflect the state of the law and risk introducing confusion into an already convoluted area of law. First, I will briefly review the district court’s decision in Citibank and its reception among scholars and the marketplace. Next, I will examine the Second Circuit’s opinion, as well as the concurrence and the addendum to the opinion. Finally, I will critique the “present entitlement” requirement that the court grafted onto the discharge-for-value defense. In this critique, I will argue that the …


The U.S. Dual Banking System And Interest Rate Exportation: Challenging The Valid-When-Made Doctrine In California V. Office Of The Comptroller Of The Currency, Todd P. Stephenson May 2024

The U.S. Dual Banking System And Interest Rate Exportation: Challenging The Valid-When-Made Doctrine In California V. Office Of The Comptroller Of The Currency, Todd P. Stephenson

Georgia State University Law Review

This Comment explores the extension of interest rate exportation to nonbank entities through the valid-when-made doctrine and its subsequent legal challenge in the 2022 court case California v. OCC.


Shocking Financed Emissions: The Effect Of Economic Volatility On The Portfolio Footprinting Of Financial Institutions, Ilmi Granoff, Tonya Lee May 2024

Shocking Financed Emissions: The Effect Of Economic Volatility On The Portfolio Footprinting Of Financial Institutions, Ilmi Granoff, Tonya Lee

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

Many financial institutions are now calculating and disclosing their financed emissions, a class of metrics enabling these institutions to calculate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with investment and lending activities. These institutions have widely adopted the metric to estimate exposure to climate-related financial risk associated with GHG-emitting activities and to provide shareholders and investors a picture of how their financial activity impacts global climate change. Financed emissions metrics, despite widespread adoption, face two key methodological challenges: lack of comparability of outputs within and between portfolios, and vulnerability of calculations to portfolio volatility. Markets are naturally volatile, but the economic …


Enforcing The Post-Financial Crisis Ban On Abusive Conduct, Rohit Chopra May 2024

Enforcing The Post-Financial Crisis Ban On Abusive Conduct, Rohit Chopra

UC Irvine Law Review

Government enforcers have long contended with corporate misconduct, from the abuses of corporate power and monopolization of the late 19th and early 20th centuries to the set up to fail products and digital dark patterns of the 21st century. This Article explains the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s (CFPB) Policy Statement on Abusive Acts or Practices, which is appended to this article, and its importance in protecting people from business excesses. The statutory prohibition on illegal abusive conduct was a response to the predatory mortgage lending practices that drove the 2007-2008 financial crisis and sought to reach conduct that might not …


The Fiduciary Duty Of Dissent, Joseph W. Yockey Apr 2024

The Fiduciary Duty Of Dissent, Joseph W. Yockey

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


Educating Deal Lawyers For The Digital Age, Heather Hughes Apr 2024

Educating Deal Lawyers For The Digital Age, Heather Hughes

Fordham Law Review

Courses and programs that address law and emerging technologies are proliferating in U.S. law schools. Technology-related issues pervade the curriculum. This Essay presents two instances in which new technologies present challenges for deal lawyers. It explores how exposing students to closing opinions practice can prepare them to engage these challenges. Both examples involve common commercial contexts and lessons relevant to students of business associations and of the Uniform Commercial Code. The first, which deals with enforceability opinion letters, presents technical legal difficulties arising from recent developments in law and technology. The second, involving complex doctrines at the heart of financial …


A Look Back In Time: Analyzing The Success And Value Of The 2014 Amendments To Rule 2a-7 And Reporting On Form N-Cr In Light Of The March 2020 Market Events, Jocelyn Near Apr 2024

A Look Back In Time: Analyzing The Success And Value Of The 2014 Amendments To Rule 2a-7 And Reporting On Form N-Cr In Light Of The March 2020 Market Events, Jocelyn Near

Catholic University Law Review

Money market funds have frequently been a target of regulation by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Perhaps the most expansive regulation came as a response to the 2008 financial crisis, in which the Reserve Primary Fund “broke the buck.” The SEC’s misguided 2014 reforms exacerbated the inherent risks of money market funds, including the risk of runs and first mover advantage, particularly with the implementation of Form N-CR. Form N-CR requires a money market fund to publicly report when various events occur, including when a retail or government money market fund’s current net asset value per share deviates downward …


The Truth About Fibs (Financial Institution Bonds) In Mississippi: When Express Terms Conflict With Statutory Requirements, Ronald J. Rychlak Apr 2024

The Truth About Fibs (Financial Institution Bonds) In Mississippi: When Express Terms Conflict With Statutory Requirements, Ronald J. Rychlak

Mississippi College Law Review

In Mississippi, Financial Institution Bonds (FIBs) are statutorily-required financial instruments that cover officers or employees of a bank (or other financial institution) to protect financial institutions against losses caused by matters such as dishonesty; forgery; fraud; kidnapping, ransom, or extortion; and counterfeiting. State statutes set forth the terms that are to be included in the FIB, but standard forms are promulgated by the Surety Association of America (SAA) or on special forms drafted by the surety.

A problem can arise if the terms on the executed bond form do not coincide with the requirements of the state statute.


Crypto-Counterfeiting, Joshua Fairfield Apr 2024

Crypto-Counterfeiting, Joshua Fairfield

William & Mary Business Law Review

The current crypto winter has given rise to a range of legal challenges. One of the most important sets of legal challenges goes to the heart of cryptocurrency. Cryptocurrency was intended to be non-duplicatable at will, that is, not to be counterfeitable. Blockchain technology is supposed to prevent token counterfeiting through a combination of game theory and cryptography that prevents normal users from simply ordering the system to generate more tokens for their benefit.

The difficulty is that blockchain software is still software. People in charge can order and program the software to generate many more tokens for those individuals’ …


Achieving Gender Equality In Venture Capital: The Case For Federal Regulatory Intervention, Janhvi Patel Apr 2024

Achieving Gender Equality In Venture Capital: The Case For Federal Regulatory Intervention, Janhvi Patel

William & Mary Business Law Review

Gender inequality is a pervasive issue in venture capital financing, with studies consistently revealing the severe disadvantage female entrepreneurs face when raising private funds for their companies. Research has shown that female founders receive only a fraction of the total venture capital dollars invested each year, despite launching companies that outperform those founded by men. Gender bias among investors, a lack of diversity in decision-making teams, and regulatory inaction are major contributors to this inequality. The consequences of gender inequality in venture capital financing extend beyond the financial impact; such inequalities perpetuate systemic gender stereotypes and impede the full realization …


An Emergency Brake For The Age Of Instantaneous Bank Runs, Nicholas L. Georgakopoulos Apr 2024

An Emergency Brake For The Age Of Instantaneous Bank Runs, Nicholas L. Georgakopoulos

William & Mary Business Law Review

Businesses missing payroll because some bank executives made wrong bets about interest rates is the seed of contagion that financial regulation aims to prevent. Yet, exactly that happened when Silicon Valley Bank failed in March of 2023. Future bank runs will be faster and larger. This Article proposes a regime that would prevent bank runs from hurting the nonfinancial economy. A bank experiencing a run should be allowed to delay withdrawal requests until next Monday (after its run will have been addressed by management or regulators). Exceptions should include payroll, deal closings, and individuals’ payments under the insured limit. By …


Future Foresight And Its Impact On The Application Of Iso 22301 Business Continuity Management System In The Commercial Banking Sector In Jordan, ثروت الحوامدة, حنان بو طه Mar 2024

Future Foresight And Its Impact On The Application Of Iso 22301 Business Continuity Management System In The Commercial Banking Sector In Jordan, ثروت الحوامدة, حنان بو طه

Jerash for Research and Studies Journal مجلة جرش للبحوث والدراسات

The study aimed to identifying the effect of future foresight in the application of the ISO 22301 standard for business continuity management system in the commercial banking sector in Jordan. Whose number is (400) employees, the study sample consisted of (196) employees, were randomly selected. The study followed the descriptive and analytical approach. The questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. The results of the study showed that the relative importance of the future foresight was high, and the relative importance of applying the ISO 22301 standard for business continuity management system was high, as it came after …


Emerging Technologies And Perfection Of Security Interests: A Financial University Of Uncertainty, Elizabeth M. Wagenbach Mar 2024

Emerging Technologies And Perfection Of Security Interests: A Financial University Of Uncertainty, Elizabeth M. Wagenbach

Brooklyn Law Review

Since the founding of Bitcoin in 2009, digital assets, such as cryptocurrency, have exploded in popularity. Cryptocurrency has been associated with stories of immense profit and immense loss. The lucky transactors have been able to capitalize on the price fluctuations of cryptocurrency, while the unlucky transactors became victims of the same volatility, losing tremendous amounts of money. The novelty and ingenuity of cryptocurrency has been coupled with mass confusion to transactors and regulators alike. These early days of cryptocurrency have been characterized by a sort of regulatory tug of war that is a direct result of confusion of what cryptocurrency …


In The Midst Of Bankruptcy: How Cryptocurrency's Classification Affects Creditors Who Were Once Customers, Mia Qu Mar 2024

In The Midst Of Bankruptcy: How Cryptocurrency's Classification Affects Creditors Who Were Once Customers, Mia Qu

Washington Law Review

In 2022, Congress proposed the Digital Commodities Consumer Protection Act to amend the Commodity Exchange Act and define a new type of commodity: digital commodity. The definition of digital commodity encompasses cryptocurrency and provides the Commodity Futures Trading Commission with jurisdiction over digital asset transactions. This definition of digital commodity has two important implications. First, it signals the lawmakers’ tendency to generalize cryptocurrency as a commodity. Second, it brings complications into how creditors—especially individual crypto account holders—can recover in the recent bankruptcy cases involving prominent crypto companies. This Comment contains four components. First, it provides a brief explanation of cryptocurrency …


Getting Merger Guidelines Right, Keith N. Hylton Feb 2024

Getting Merger Guidelines Right, Keith N. Hylton

Faculty Scholarship

This paper is on the new Merger Guidelines. It makes several arguments. First, that the Guidelines should be understood as existing in a political equilibrium. Second, that the new structural presumption of the Merger Guidelines (HHI = 1,800) is too strict, and that an economically reasonable revision in the structural presumption would have increased rather than decreased the threshold. Whereas the new Guidelines lowers the threshold to HHI 1,800 from HHI 2,500, an economically reasonable revision would have increased the threshold to HHI 3,200. I justify this argument using a bare-bones model of Cournot competition. Third, it seems unlikely, …


From Crypto Wild West To Regulated Frontier: Unleashing The Potential Of Blockchain Technology, Pawan Jain Feb 2024

From Crypto Wild West To Regulated Frontier: Unleashing The Potential Of Blockchain Technology, Pawan Jain

West Virginia Law Review

The emergence of blockchain technology has transformed the financial landscape in many ways. From creating new cryptocurrencies to facilitating decentralized exchanges and smart contracts, blockchain has the potential to disrupt traditional financial institutions and reshape the way we conduct business. However, the adoption of blockchain technology has also raised concerns about its potential risks and challenges, such as its susceptibility to fraud, market manipulation, and money laundering. These concerns have led to calls for regulating blockchain technology to mitigate these risks and ensure the integrity and stability of financial markets. Recent collapses in the crypto market caused by the bankruptcy …


From Canonical Law To Offshore Finance: Confessing To Priests And Bankers In Luxembourg, Samuel Weeks Feb 2024

From Canonical Law To Offshore Finance: Confessing To Priests And Bankers In Luxembourg, Samuel Weeks

Journal of Global Catholicism

In this article, I address two recurring tendencies that I heard during a recent period of research on banking secrecy in Luxembourg. First, my banker interviewees frequently mentioned personal transgressions for why many of their clients hide assets “offshore.” The wrongdoings my interlocutors cited included not only clients’ tax evasion, bankruptcy, and avoidance of liability – but also divorce, adultery, and the existence of out-of-wedlock children. Second, with a similar frequency, my interviewees drew parallels between the secrecy laws covering bankers and those afforded to other professionals in the country. Article 458 of Luxembourg’s Penal Code, dating from the nineteenth …


Covid-19 Risk Factors And Boilerplate Disclosure, Stephen J. Choi, Mitu Gulati, Xuan Liu, Adam C. Pritchard Feb 2024

Covid-19 Risk Factors And Boilerplate Disclosure, Stephen J. Choi, Mitu Gulati, Xuan Liu, Adam C. Pritchard

Law & Economics Working Papers

The SEC mandates that public companies assess new information that changes the risks that they face and disclose these if there has been a “material” change. Does that theory work in practice? Or are companies copying and repeating the same generic disclosures? Using the shock of the COVID-19 pandemic, we explore these questions. Overall, we find considerable rote copying of boilerplate disclosures. Further, the factors that correlate with deviations from the boilerplate seem related more to the resources that companies have (large companies change updated disclosures more) and litigation risks (companies vulnerable to shareholder litigation update more) rather than general …


Money Talks: Implementing Open Banking In The United States, Hailey Marie Petit Feb 2024

Money Talks: Implementing Open Banking In The United States, Hailey Marie Petit

Arkansas Law Review

An open banking system exists when a third-party financial service provider has access to consumer financial information. What if the United States could be on the forefront of the next banking industry change? A well implemented system would mean a new, accessible way to make a transaction. This Comment will explore how the United States can implement an open banking system. First, this Comment defines open banking against the backdrop of the traditional transaction model. Next, this Comment describes the United Kingdom’s adoption of open banking, focusing on the benefits and detriments created by its adoption. Third, this Comment describes …


Where You Lead, I Will Follow: Professional Athletes' Ability To Influence Loyal Fans' Cryptocurrency Investments And The Broader Need For Cryptocurrency Regulation, Anna D'Eramo Feb 2024

Where You Lead, I Will Follow: Professional Athletes' Ability To Influence Loyal Fans' Cryptocurrency Investments And The Broader Need For Cryptocurrency Regulation, Anna D'Eramo

Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Retail Investors And Corporate Governance: Evidence From Zero-Commission Trading, Dhruv Aggarwal, Albert H. Choi, Yoon-Ho Alex Lee Feb 2024

Retail Investors And Corporate Governance: Evidence From Zero-Commission Trading, Dhruv Aggarwal, Albert H. Choi, Yoon-Ho Alex Lee

Law & Economics Working Papers

We examine the effects of the sudden abolition of trading commissions by major online brokerages in 2019, which lowered stock market entry costs for retail investors, on corporate governance. Firms already popular with retail investors experienced positive abnormal returns around the abolition of commissions. Firms with positive abnormal returns in response to commission-free trading subsequently saw a decrease in institutional ownership, a decrease in shareholder voting, and a deterioration in environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) metrics. Finally, these firms were more likely to adopt bylaw amendments to reduce the percentage of shares needed for a quorum at shareholder meetings. …


Decentralized Autonomous Organizations: To Statutorily Organize Or Not?, David M. Grant, Eric M. Kirby, Steven Hawkins Feb 2024

Decentralized Autonomous Organizations: To Statutorily Organize Or Not?, David M. Grant, Eric M. Kirby, Steven Hawkins

Wyoming Law Review

This Article explores the evolving concept of decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs) in the context of Web3 technology. It raises critical questions about whether DAOs truly represent a step forward in limiting liability in entity governance structures or if they risk centralizing the decentralized. The text discusses the potential of DAOs to address regulatory and tax challenges while also highlighting concerns about their legitimacy and security. It compares the governance structures of traditional entities to DAOs and contemplates the reasons for formal organization pursuant to state statute. The Article further delves into some of the statutory laws in specific states recognizing …


Wanted: A Prudential Framework For Crypto Assets, Lee Reiners, Sangita Gazi Jan 2024

Wanted: A Prudential Framework For Crypto Assets, Lee Reiners, Sangita Gazi

Arkansas Law Review

This Article summarizes the limited publicly available data on banks’ exposure to crypto assets and offers several specific examples of how U.S. banks engage in crypto-related businesses. It then examines past guidance issued by U.S. bank regulators and explains why this guidance lacks sufficient detail to clarify the prudential requirements associated with the various crypto-related activities in which banks are engaged. The Article then assesses the adequacy of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision’s final prudential standard for crypto-asset exposures, issued in December 2022, and finds that the measure fails to adequately address the unique risks various crypto-asset activities pose …


Just Because They Say It: Does The U.S. Really Have The “First-Ever Comprehensive Framework” For Digital Assets?, Carol R. Goforth Jan 2024

Just Because They Say It: Does The U.S. Really Have The “First-Ever Comprehensive Framework” For Digital Assets?, Carol R. Goforth

Arkansas Law Review

On March 9, 2022, President Biden made history by signing an Executive Order on Ensuring Responsible Development of Digital Assets. On September 16, 2022, the White House released a fact sheet proclaiming that it had produced the “First Ever Comprehensive Framework for Responsible Development of Digital Assets,” based on nine reports stemming from the Executive Order. This Article is divided into two main parts. Part one reviews the reports received by the White House, explaining what they address while pointing out open issues for which no particular direction is established. Part two assesses regulatory gaps in the crypto space in …