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Full-Text Articles in Law

Who’S Going To Sue? A Look At Environmental Citizen Suits, Virginia C. Thomas Feb 2024

Who’S Going To Sue? A Look At Environmental Citizen Suits, Virginia C. Thomas

Library Scholarly Publications

The author reviews the history of citizen-plaintiff suit provisions embedded in federal and state environmental legislation.


Powerless Beings: Solitary Confinement Of Humans And Nonhumans In America, Michael B. Mushlin, David N. Cassuto Jan 2024

Powerless Beings: Solitary Confinement Of Humans And Nonhumans In America, Michael B. Mushlin, David N. Cassuto

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Every day, thousands of humans and millions of nonhumans endure solitary confinement. Human prisoners held this way are confined for twenty-two to twenty-four hours a day for weeks, months, or even years on end in cells the size of a parking space. For these humans, the experience is tortuous. Captive animals held in solitary confinement similarly spend much of their lives locked into tiny spaces, isolated, and deprived of the types of interactions and environment essential to their wellbeing. And, like humans, they are driven mad. In human and nonhuman settings, the agony of solitary is chillingly alike and harmful. …


Maurer Environmental Law Expert Is Lead Author On Science Insights Policy Forum Article, James Owsley Boyd Dec 2023

Maurer Environmental Law Expert Is Lead Author On Science Insights Policy Forum Article, James Owsley Boyd

Keep Up With the Latest News from the Law School (blog)

Environmental champions and conservationists will mark the 50th anniversary of the Endangered Species Act later this month. That is the law requiring federal agencies to use all methods necessary to prevent extinctions and ensure that federal actions not jeopardize the continued existence of species on the brink of disappearing from the face of the Earth.

In the leadup to the December 27th anniversary, several publications have begun examining the Act’s history and impact over five decades.

Science, the world’s third-most influential scholarly journal based on Google Scholar citations, invited experts from around the country to look ahead as well …


Twenty Years After Krieger V Law Society Of Alberta: Law Society Discipline Of Crown Prosecutors And Government Lawyers, Andrew Flavelle Martin Oct 2023

Twenty Years After Krieger V Law Society Of Alberta: Law Society Discipline Of Crown Prosecutors And Government Lawyers, Andrew Flavelle Martin

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Krieger v. Law Society of Alberta held that provincial and territorial law societies have disciplinary jurisdiction over Crown prosecutors for conduct outside of prosecutorial discretion. The reasoning in Krieger would also apply to government lawyers. The apparent consensus is that law societies rarely exercise that jurisdiction. But in those rare instances, what conduct do Canadian law societies discipline Crown prosecutors and government lawyers for? In this article, I canvass reported disciplinary decisions to demonstrate that, while law societies sometimes discipline Crown prosecutors for violations unique to those lawyers, they often do so for violations applicable to all lawyers — particularly …


An Empirical Study Of The Nation's First Court Animal Advocate Law, Jessica Rubin, Tara Cooley Jan 2023

An Empirical Study Of The Nation's First Court Animal Advocate Law, Jessica Rubin, Tara Cooley

Faculty Articles and Papers

No abstract provided.


Local Action For Animals As A Stepping Stone To State Protections, Jo Anderson Oct 2022

Local Action For Animals As A Stepping Stone To State Protections, Jo Anderson

Law

Municipal ordinances can be an effective way to create animal protection laws at the local level, and could lead to great success at the state level. Passing laws at the local level allows people to help animals in their communities, while providing a model for other cities and jurisdictions. Local laws can also create momentum for statewide initiatives, which demonstrates a state’s strong commitment to protecting animals.

Legislation is a key avenue animal advocates use to effect change at scale, but there is not much research about how to choose tractable issues and lobby for them successfully. The goal of …


A Science-Based Policy For Managing Free-Roaming Cats, David Hunter, Christopher A. Lepczyk, David C. Duffy, David M. Bird, Michael Calver, Dmitry Cherkassky, Linda Cherkassky, Christopher R. Dickman, David Jessup, Travis Longcore, Scott R. Loss, Kerrie Anne T. Loyd, Peter P. Marra, John M. Marzluff, Reed F. Noss, Daniel Simberloff, Grant C. Sizemore, Stanley A. Temple, Yolanda Van Heezik Aug 2022

A Science-Based Policy For Managing Free-Roaming Cats, David Hunter, Christopher A. Lepczyk, David C. Duffy, David M. Bird, Michael Calver, Dmitry Cherkassky, Linda Cherkassky, Christopher R. Dickman, David Jessup, Travis Longcore, Scott R. Loss, Kerrie Anne T. Loyd, Peter P. Marra, John M. Marzluff, Reed F. Noss, Daniel Simberloff, Grant C. Sizemore, Stanley A. Temple, Yolanda Van Heezik

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Free-roaming domestic cats (i.e., cats that are owned or unowned and are considered ‘at large’) are globally distributed non-native species that have marked impacts on biodiversity and human health. Despite clear scientific evidence of these impacts, free-roaming cats are either unmanaged or managed using scientifically unsupported and ineffective approaches (e.g., trap-neuter-release [TNR]) in many jurisdictions around the world. A critical first initiative for effective, science-driven management of cats must be broader political and legislative recognition of free-roaming cats as a non-native, invasive species. Designating cats as invasive is important for developing and implementing science-based management plans, which should include efforts …


Killing Rarity, Shahrokh Falati Jul 2022

Killing Rarity, Shahrokh Falati

Articles & Chapters

On May 22, 2019, Botswana decided after many years to lift its ban on hunting elephants and in February 2020 held its first auctions for the right to hunt elephants. This turnaround change in their law coincides with a rapidly changing legal landscape in the United States related to the practice of trophy hunting of rare, intelligent animals, including elephants. This Article analyzes the fluid legal landscape surrounding this uncommon form of hunting of rare animals and possible ways of using the Administrative Procedures Act and the Federal Advisory Committee Act as a means of challenging the government’s rapidly changing …


Roadside Zoo: A Term In Search Of Legal Definition?, Virginia C. Thomas Mar 2022

Roadside Zoo: A Term In Search Of Legal Definition?, Virginia C. Thomas

Library Scholarly Publications

This article uses the example of “roadside zoo” to highlight the importance of clear definition for terms used in a legal context.


Carceral Progressivism And Animal Victims, Benjamin Levin Jan 2022

Carceral Progressivism And Animal Victims, Benjamin Levin

Scholarship@WashULaw

This chapter places the criminalization of harm to non-human animals within a larger context of left and progressive efforts to use criminal law to address social problems. This chapter treats the animal welfare movement’s turn to criminal legal solutions as a case study of the broader phenomenon of “carceral progressivism.” Specifically, the chapter identifies this case study as reflecting two particularly common features of left or progressive criminalization projects: (1) the presence of a particularly vulnerable class of victims; and (2) the claim that criminal law can send a message about society’s respect for that class of victims and condemnation …


Animals As Legal Beings: Contesting Anthropocentric Legal Orders, By Maneesha Deckha, Jodi Lazare Jan 2022

Animals As Legal Beings: Contesting Anthropocentric Legal Orders, By Maneesha Deckha, Jodi Lazare

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Scholarship on animal rights has long been dominated by the widely held idea that justice for nonhuman animals will not be achieved until they are granted legal personhood. In Animals as Legal Beings: Contesting Anthropocentric Legal Orders, Maneesha Deckha provides an alternative legal classification for nonhuman animals. “Beingness,” rooted in relational feminism, post-colonial theory, and critical animal studies, recognizes nonhuman animals’ inherent value, while avoiding some of the downsides to legal personhood, namely, its embeddedness in the imperialist liberal individualism that characterizes western legal systems. Given its anthropocentric nature, personhood must be displaced as the aspirational classification for animals. …


Animal Rights Activism And The Constitution: Are Ag-Gag Laws Justifiable Limits?, Jodi Lazare Jan 2022

Animal Rights Activism And The Constitution: Are Ag-Gag Laws Justifiable Limits?, Jodi Lazare

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Forthcoming in the Osgoode Hall Law Journal (2022).

It is a troubling time to be an animal rights activist in Canada. Recently, Alberta adopted legislation to create harsh penalties for trespassing onto private property, for obtaining permission to enter private property based on false pretences, and for interfering with vehicles on public highways. These laws relate to agricultural lands, to private property generally, and, where roads are concerned, to public property. Ontario, for its part, has adopted similar legislation aimed specifically at agricultural property. The legislation in both provinces purports to protect the security of farmers, their families, and rural …


Taxpayer-Funded Covid Shots For Minks Just The Latest Nova Scotia Industry Outage, Jodi Lazare Nov 2021

Taxpayer-Funded Covid Shots For Minks Just The Latest Nova Scotia Industry Outage, Jodi Lazare

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Nova Scotia's Department of Agriculture has quietly announced its plan to prop up the mink farm industry, by paying for COVID-19 vaccines for minks. Throughout the pandemic, we’ve learned that minks can catch COVID, spread it between themselves, and transmit it to the humans who work on these farms. As part of Nova Scotia’s vaccination program, 54,000 doses will be administered to the animals whose pelts will eventually be sold overseas.


Ag-Gag Illustrated, Jodi Lazare, Petroglyph Comics Nov 2021

Ag-Gag Illustrated, Jodi Lazare, Petroglyph Comics

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In February 2021, Professor Jodi Lazare was contacted by Petroglyph Comics, a social justice comic studio, that wanted to turn her research on Canadian ag-gag legislation into a comic, accessible to all. The resulting comic is based on two articles by Prof. Lazare, the first published in the Alberta Law Journal and the second currently under review at a second Canadian law journal. Both articles combine her interests in animal law and constitutional law to suggest that recently adopted legislation limiting access to and information about industrially farmed animals in Canada constitutes an unjustified limit to the constitutional right …


Discontinuity Between Religion, Law, And Society Through Animal Treatment In Morocco, Michael Altman Oct 2021

Discontinuity Between Religion, Law, And Society Through Animal Treatment In Morocco, Michael Altman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Animal treatment is a topic which is covered by many facets of what helps create the guiding principles for humans, yet all in different ways; there is some overlap, and there is some distinction. From my three months of study in Rabat, Morocco, seeing how each person approaches the homeless animal differently, I write on how three important overarching areas: religious, legal, and societal, discuss how animals should be treated.

In this paper, I will be analyzing religious texts, legal writings both in place and in draft, and will rely on external works written animal markets and on the school …


Understanding The North Atlantic Right Whale Litigation, Gabrielle Benjamin, Read Porter Jun 2021

Understanding The North Atlantic Right Whale Litigation, Gabrielle Benjamin, Read Porter

Sea Grant Law Fellow Publications

No abstract provided.


Military Working Dogs: Tracking Their Journey From Equipment To K-9 Heroes, Virginia Thomas May 2021

Military Working Dogs: Tracking Their Journey From Equipment To K-9 Heroes, Virginia Thomas

Library Scholarly Publications

The author surveys the history of legislation governing the lives and uses of military working dogs (MWD).


Covid-19: Enough About Humans, What About The Animals?, Kristen Tabone Mar 2021

Covid-19: Enough About Humans, What About The Animals?, Kristen Tabone

Environmental Law Journal blog

This article will provide examples of how zoo animals and domestic animals around the world have both benefited and suffered during this pandemic, and the actions taken by their caregivers to protect them from the adverse impacts of COVID-19. It will then examine how the provisions of the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and the PREPARED Act, have both failed to protect zoo animals. This article will also examine how the PETS Act and other legislation enacted during COVID-19 have better protected domestic animals during this time, and how the PREPARED Act would be a beneficial addition to the PETS Act …


Opportunities For Public Comments On Pending Trap/Pot Fishery Regulations To Protect The North Atlantic Right Whale, Catherine Schluter Jan 2021

Opportunities For Public Comments On Pending Trap/Pot Fishery Regulations To Protect The North Atlantic Right Whale, Catherine Schluter

Marine Affairs Institute Staff Publications

No abstract provided.


Canada And Transboundary Fisheries Management In Changing Oceans: Taking Stock, Future Scenarios, U.R. Sumaila, David Vanderzwaag Jan 2021

Canada And Transboundary Fisheries Management In Changing Oceans: Taking Stock, Future Scenarios, U.R. Sumaila, David Vanderzwaag

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This article is the Introduction to the Special Feature entitled: Canada and Transboundary Fisheries Management in Changing Oceans: Taking Stock, Future Scenarios. We summarize the research context of the four papers in the Special Feature.


Aristotle And Animal Law: The Case For Habeas Corpus For Animals, Charles Edward Andrew Lincoln Iv Dec 2020

Aristotle And Animal Law: The Case For Habeas Corpus For Animals, Charles Edward Andrew Lincoln Iv

Student Scholarship

This article is divided into three substantive sections. Section I delineates Aristotle’s theory of the soul as laid out in De Anima. Section II defines habeas corpus as a legal concept and demonstrates under what circumstances it should be granted. Section III applies Aristotle’s theory of the soul as a structure whereby animals could be granted habeas corpus rights.


Dispute Settlement Under The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement: A Preliminary Assessment, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Nov 2020

Dispute Settlement Under The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement: A Preliminary Assessment, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement (AfCFTA) will add a new dispute settlement system to the plethora of judicial mechanisms designed to resolve trade disputes in Africa. Against the discontent of Member States and limited impact the existing highly legalized trade dispute settlement mechanisms have had on regional economic integration in Africa, this paper undertakes a preliminary assessment of the AfCFTA Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM). In particular, the paper situates the AfCFTA-DSM in the overall discontent and unsupportive practices of African States with highly legalized dispute settlement systems and similar WTO-Styled DSMs among other shortcomings. Notwithstanding the transplantation of …


Ag-Gag Laws, Animal Rights Activism, And The Constitution: What Is Protected Speech?, Jodi Lazare Nov 2020

Ag-Gag Laws, Animal Rights Activism, And The Constitution: What Is Protected Speech?, Jodi Lazare

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This article examines the constitutionality of ag-gag legislation that has recently been adopted by two Canadian provinces and is on the horizon in others. Ag-gag legislation prohibits activities such as trespass onto agricultural animal operations, gaining entry onto agriculture operations using false pretences, and interfering with the transport of farmed animals to slaughter. The analysis draws on case law and literature interpreting section 2(b) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and engages with scholarship related to animal rights activism, American ag-gag legislation, and feminist animal studies to argue that ag-gag laws violate the fundamental freedoms protected by the …


Suffering Matters: Nepa, Animals, And The Duty To Disclose, David N. Cassuto, Tala Dibenedetto Apr 2020

Suffering Matters: Nepa, Animals, And The Duty To Disclose, David N. Cassuto, Tala Dibenedetto

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires the federal government to disclose potential environmental harms arising from agency actions. Animal suffering is an environmental harm, yet no court has ruled that its infliction triggers a reporting obligation under NEPA. This Article argues that animal suffering should be a cognizable environmental harm under NEPA, that considerations of animal suffering should factor into whether an agency must prepare an EIS--and should be discussed in the content of the EIS.

Part II of this Article introduces and explains the procedural requirements of NEPA. Part III discusses animal suffering--how it is defined, how laws …


Pardoning Dogs, Sarah Schindler Mar 2020

Pardoning Dogs, Sarah Schindler

Sturm College of Law: Faculty Scholarship

In 1994, the Governor of New Jersey pardoned a dog. In 2017, the Governor of Maine did the same. Each of these dogs had been ordered to be euthanized after killing another dog. While the Governor of New Jersey relied on the property status of the dog in issuing her order, the Governor of Maine relied on his standard pardon power, despite the fact that the being to be pardoned was a dog rather than a human. Both of these cases generated a great deal of popular press and attention, and a few months ago, a New York state senator …


Species Conservation & Recovery Through Adequate Regulatory Mechanisms, Sandra B. Zellmer, Sam J. Panarella, Oliver Finn Wood Jan 2020

Species Conservation & Recovery Through Adequate Regulatory Mechanisms, Sandra B. Zellmer, Sam J. Panarella, Oliver Finn Wood

Faculty Journal Articles & Other Writings

The world is experiencing its sixth episode of mass extinction of life. In rhetoric typically used by bloggers rather than scientists, the National Academy of Sciences reports that this "biological annihilation" is more dire than previously believed,' and that the decimation of biodiversity and of the ecosystem services resulting from it is nothing less than a "frightening assault on the foundations of human civilization."2

Unlike previous episodes of mass extinction, this one is caused by human overpopulation, overconsumption, and anthropogenic climate change. The United States has been a world conservation leader for over a century, but its commitment to supporting …


Recognising The Sentience Of Animals In Law: A Justification And Framework For Australian States And Territories, Jane S. Kotzmann Jan 2020

Recognising The Sentience Of Animals In Law: A Justification And Framework For Australian States And Territories, Jane S. Kotzmann

General - Animal Feeling

Scientific research is clear that most animals are sentient. This means that they have the capacity to subjectively perceive or feel things such as happiness and suffering. At present in Australia, animal sentience is, to some degree, implicitly recognised in animal welfare legislation that is in operation in all state and territory jurisdictions. This legislation criminalises human cruelty towards some animals because of the capacity such action has to cause animal pain and suffering. There is growing public concern in Australia, however, that such legislation does not adequately protect animals from pain and suffering. The Australian Capital Territory (‘ACT’) has …


Recognising The Sentience Of Animals In Law: A Justification And Framework For Australian States And Territories, Jane S. Kotzmann Jan 2020

Recognising The Sentience Of Animals In Law: A Justification And Framework For Australian States And Territories, Jane S. Kotzmann

Legislation and regulation

Scientific research is clear that most animals are sentient. This means that they have the capacity to subjectively perceive or feel things such as happiness and suffering. At present in Australia, animal sentience is, to some degree, implicitly recognised in animal welfare legislation that is in operation in all state and territory jurisdictions. This legislation criminalises human cruelty towards some animals because of the capacity such action has to cause animal pain and suffering. There is growing public concern in Australia, however, that such legislation does not adequately protect animals from pain and suffering. The Australian Capital Territory (‘ACT’) has …


Out To Save The World: The Intersection Of Animal Welfare Law, Environmental Law, And Respect For Fragile Ecosystems, Stacey L. Gordon Jan 2020

Out To Save The World: The Intersection Of Animal Welfare Law, Environmental Law, And Respect For Fragile Ecosystems, Stacey L. Gordon

Faculty Law Review Articles

Of all the living things on earth, humans have the unique ability to destroy all life. Paradoxically, even though our lives will ultimately be destroyed too, we also seem to have the inability to stop the destruction, or at least alack of will to stop it. As the daily litany of new destructions2 piles up and both the pace and the quantity increase, each loss is buried in the pile beneath humanity’s other problems. When humans start prioritizing, the living environment—both flora and fauna—is often neglected, and sometimes purposely harmed.3 Even nonliving elements of nature are harmed. In …


Fighting Back From The Brink: International Efforts To Prevent Illegal Trafficking In Endangered Species, Kara Consalo Jan 2020

Fighting Back From The Brink: International Efforts To Prevent Illegal Trafficking In Endangered Species, Kara Consalo

Journal Publications

This article advances the argument for sustainable harvesting as a broad supplement, even replacement, to the prevailing no-trade policies currently used in many countries and international organizations. It is the author’s premise that the no-trade conservation paradigm is failing to adequately prevent illegal trafficking and endangered wildlife populations are suffering catastrophic losses as a result. This article will explain the current state of prevailing no-trade regulations and efforts to stem the onslaught of illegal wildlife trafficking. The article will then explore two examples of successful sustainable farming and harvesting programs, the American alligator and the Peruvian vicuñas. After a comparison …