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Full-Text Articles in Law

Does The Criminal Enforcement Of Federal Environmental Law Deter Environmental Crime? The Case Of The U.S. Resource Conservation And Recovery Act, Dr. Joshua Ozymy, Dr. Melissa L. Jarrell Oct 2021

Does The Criminal Enforcement Of Federal Environmental Law Deter Environmental Crime? The Case Of The U.S. Resource Conservation And Recovery Act, Dr. Joshua Ozymy, Dr. Melissa L. Jarrell

Environmental and Earth Law Journal (EELJ)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Justice are tasked with the investigation and prosecution of hazardous waste crimes occurring under the U.S. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). For criminal sanctions to be effective, the probability of detection and severity of punishment must be significant enough to raise the cost to benefit ratio to deter environmental crimes. While research examines sanctioning under RCRA, little work examines the plausibility of the deterrent effect of criminal sanctions. Through content analysis of all environmental crime prosecutions resulting from EPA criminal investigations, 1983-2019, we explore the probability of ...


Hypocrisy On The High Seas: An Examination Of The Conflicting Policy Goals And Actions Of The International Community Regarding Illegal, Unreported, And Unregulated Fishing, Peter J. Tamburello Oct 2021

Hypocrisy On The High Seas: An Examination Of The Conflicting Policy Goals And Actions Of The International Community Regarding Illegal, Unreported, And Unregulated Fishing, Peter J. Tamburello

Environmental and Earth Law Journal (EELJ)

Fish and the fishing industry are one of the main sources of food protein and commerce in many areas of the world, whether it be from traditional and artisanal fishing practiced in Somalia and other undeveloped countries or large scale international commercial fishing from rich and industrialized nations. The world’s oceans are currently being plagued by overfishing both from legally authorized activities and Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing. The purpose of this paper is to examine the problems plaguing the world’s fisheries with an eye towards the environmental damage and economic harm that stem from it. It is ...


The Survival Of Animal Care Organizations Impacted By The Covid-19 Pandemic In 2020, Juan Fernando Torrico Oct 2021

The Survival Of Animal Care Organizations Impacted By The Covid-19 Pandemic In 2020, Juan Fernando Torrico

Environmental and Earth Law Journal (EELJ)

This note assessed how animal care organizations and the animals in their care were impacted, negatively and positively, by the coronavirus pandemic. Several animal care organizations in the United States–including animal shelters, rescues, sanctuaries, and zoos–were contacted directly, and invited to share their experiences from the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. They provided valuable in-depth insight into how government shutdowns and social distancing impacted their facility; if any of the animals in their care tested positive for COVID-19; how the animals in their care were affected indirectly by COVID-19; if they sought and received any government assistance to keep ...


Watery Grave: One Of The Death Care Industry’S Greenest Options Is Still Illegal In Thirty-One States And That Needs To Change, Jacob Steele Oct 2021

Watery Grave: One Of The Death Care Industry’S Greenest Options Is Still Illegal In Thirty-One States And That Needs To Change, Jacob Steele

Environmental and Earth Law Journal (EELJ)

Alkaline hydrolysis is an eco-friendly cremation alternative that uses water, a gentle chemical solution, and heat to break down bodies instead of fire. It has a carbon footprint that is 75% less than that of standard cremation and eliminates the possibility of soil and groundwater pollution created by traditional burials. The problem is that it is illegal and unavailable to citizens in at least 31 states. This comment examines the history, process, and legality of alkaline hydrolysis while proposing the rapid federal or mass state legalization of the method as a solution to many of the problems the death care ...


The Fight Over Frankenmeat: The Fda As The Proper Agency To Regulate Cell-Based “Clean Meat”, Zoe A. Bernstein Sep 2021

The Fight Over Frankenmeat: The Fda As The Proper Agency To Regulate Cell-Based “Clean Meat”, Zoe A. Bernstein

Brooklyn Law Review

In recent years, concern over the environmental, animal welfare, and human costs of animal agriculture has spurred an increased demand for nonanimal sourced protein. This has led to significant innovation in food technology. As part of this trend, food scientists have developed a process for in-vitro cultivation of meat cells to produce protein that is biologically and nutritionally identical to meat from traditionally raised and slaughtered animal sources, but that involves neither animal agriculture nor animal slaughter. This lab-grown “clean meat” represents a new era in food technology and is already having an effect on the existing meat industry. In ...


European Union Food Law Update, Nicole Coutrelis Aug 2021

European Union Food Law Update, Nicole Coutrelis

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Update on European Union Food Law 2005


Preempting Food Safety: An Examination Of Usda Rulemaking And Its E.Coli O157:H7 Policy In Light Of Estate Of Kriefall Ex Rel. Kriefall V. Excel Corporation, Denis Stearns Aug 2021

Preempting Food Safety: An Examination Of Usda Rulemaking And Its E.Coli O157:H7 Policy In Light Of Estate Of Kriefall Ex Rel. Kriefall V. Excel Corporation, Denis Stearns

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This article will use the Kriefall decision to examine USDA rulemaking and its still-evolving E. coli 0157:H7 policy. Part II of the article will briefly describe the development and implementation of the USDA E. coli 0157:H7 policy as a reaction to an enormous and widely-publicized outbreak of E. coli infections that occurred in 1993-the so-called Jack in the Box outbreak. Following the outbreak, E. coli 0157:H7 was declared by USDA to be an adulterant per se according to FMIA. It was also at this time that the first steps were taken by USDA to move from a ...


Medicaid Third-Party Liability And Claims For Restitution: Defining The Proper Role For The Tort System In Regulating The Food Industry, Coby Warren Logan Aug 2021

Medicaid Third-Party Liability And Claims For Restitution: Defining The Proper Role For The Tort System In Regulating The Food Industry, Coby Warren Logan

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This comment contends that tort liability can complement legislative and administrative government regulation of the food industry, providing sellers and manufacturers of food with an incentive to prevent consumers from over-consumption and becoming obese. Specifically, this comment supports the proposition that after government regulations are promulgated by Congress, claims should be allowed by state attorneys general to recoup Medicaid costs incurred in treating health conditions and illnesses caused by obesity.


The Food Safety And Inspection Service's Lack Of Statutory Authority To Suspend Inspection For Failure To Comply With Haccp Regulations, Dennis R. Johnson, Jolyda O. Swaim Aug 2021

The Food Safety And Inspection Service's Lack Of Statutory Authority To Suspend Inspection For Failure To Comply With Haccp Regulations, Dennis R. Johnson, Jolyda O. Swaim

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Since the implementation of the Mega-Reg, the agency has had mixed success with its new enforcement procedures. Although most establishments have chosen to work with FSIS to modify their procedures to allay any concerns the agency had, on a few occasions, no compromise was reached. In these cases, the establishment filed suit in federal district court challenging the agency's authority to remove inspectors for failure to comply with the Mega-Reg. In the three cases where the agency's authority was challenged, the establishment was successful and inspection was restored.


From The Farm To The Factory: An Overview Of The American And European Approaches To Regulation Of The Beef Industry, Crisarla S. Houston Aug 2021

From The Farm To The Factory: An Overview Of The American And European Approaches To Regulation Of The Beef Industry, Crisarla S. Houston

Journal of Food Law & Policy

First, this article briefly describes the existing regulatory requirements under both systems. Second, it compares the two approaches. In comparing the two systems, attention is concentrated on the quality of legislative drafting, the likelihood of implementation, the adequacy of consumer protection, the voluntary or compulsory nature of the measures, and the requirement of records retention.


United States Food Law Update: Food Safely Planning, Attribute Labeling, And The Irradiation Debate, Bryan Endres Aug 2021

United States Food Law Update: Food Safely Planning, Attribute Labeling, And The Irradiation Debate, Bryan Endres

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This article summarizes significant changes and developments in food law throughout the second half of 2007. The previous edition of the Food Law Update noted the recent increase in imported food and the resulting stress placed on food safety agencies and customs officials. Detailed inspections of every food shipment entering the United States would quickly exhaust limited agency resources and cripple efficient international trade of food products. On the other hand, after several well-publicized food scares and the ongoing threat of international contamination, the public increasingly demands high levels of physical surveillance. As a part of this ongoing discussion, this ...


Vecinos Para El Bienestar De La Comunidad Costera V. Ferc, Malcolm M. Gilbert Aug 2021

Vecinos Para El Bienestar De La Comunidad Costera V. Ferc, Malcolm M. Gilbert

Public Land & Resources Law Review

The D.C. Circuit Court remanded three Brownsville, TX LNG proposals to FERC for failing to adequately explain conclusions around environmental justice and climate change concerns. The LNG terminals and pipeline will disproportionately impact low-income, minority communities, and substantial carbon emissions will contribute to anthropogenic climate change. This case note explores the role that environmental justice and climate change play in Federal agency decision-making processes, analyzes the legal framework for the Court's decision, and discusses how the outcome of this litigation could affect similar project proposals in future FERC decisions.


Splitting Scales: Conflicting National And Regional Attempts To Manage Commercial Aquaculture In The Exclusive Economic Zone, Brandee Ketchum Jul 2021

Splitting Scales: Conflicting National And Regional Attempts To Manage Commercial Aquaculture In The Exclusive Economic Zone, Brandee Ketchum

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Like other environmental resources subject to public use, various interest groups struggle over joint management of scarce fisheries resources. Further, differing goals for resource management, such as financial goals versus conservation goals, frequently pit regional groups against one another. In some cases, regional interests may conflict with overall national interests. As goes the water and the air, so go the fish.


United States Food Law Update: Health Care Reform, Preemption, Labeling Claims And Unpaid Interns: The Latest Battles In Food Law, A. Bryan Endres, Nicholas R. Johnson, Michaela N. Tarr Jul 2021

United States Food Law Update: Health Care Reform, Preemption, Labeling Claims And Unpaid Interns: The Latest Battles In Food Law, A. Bryan Endres, Nicholas R. Johnson, Michaela N. Tarr

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This edition of the Food Law Update explores four legal issues arising in the first half of 2010 reflective of the diverse nature of the food law specialist. As the national debate surrounding the merits of health care reform dominated the legislative agenda, this article first will discuss the food labeling rules embedded within section 4205 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. The authors then analyze the preemptive reach of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Meat Inspection Act with respect to three separate California statutes regarding animal welfare standards, retail labels on ...


The Tragedy Of The Horse, American Icon, Tim Opitz Jul 2021

The Tragedy Of The Horse, American Icon, Tim Opitz

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Whether a prohibition on slaughter improves the welfare of the American horse population is the focus of this article. At the time it was written, winter of 2010-2011, a confluence of Federal and State legislative action had ended domestic slaughter. These actions are detailed in the body of this article. Since 2007, the legal status of horse slaughter remained static. Just as Sir Isaac Newton's first law of motion explained, an object at rest tends to stay at rest. Legislative inertia is the perspective from which this article was originally written. However, Newton's first law also stated that ...


Cows V. Capitalists: Visions Of A Post-Carbon Economy, Alison Peck Jul 2021

Cows V. Capitalists: Visions Of A Post-Carbon Economy, Alison Peck

Journal of Food Law & Policy

I was tempted to entitle this book review something like, "Why the Farm Bill Is the Key to Our Energy Future (Hint: It's Not About Ethanol, Methane Emissions, or Carbon Sinks)." But in addition to being too long to fit across the header of a law review page, such a title would have been slightly misleading. Actually, in Simon Fairlie's view, our future is about ethanol, methane emissions, and carbon sinks - but not in the way our current agricultural policies understand and deal with these subjects.


Free, Prior, And Informed Consent: A Struggling International Principle, Emily M. Mcculloch Jun 2021

Free, Prior, And Informed Consent: A Struggling International Principle, Emily M. Mcculloch

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Localizing Energy Independence: How Purpa And Community Power Legislation Can Drive Development Of Resilient And Reliable Local Clean Energy Projects, Lowell J. Chandler Jun 2021

Localizing Energy Independence: How Purpa And Community Power Legislation Can Drive Development Of Resilient And Reliable Local Clean Energy Projects, Lowell J. Chandler

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Science Under Assault - Reflections On "The War On The Epa: America's Endangered Environmental Protections", Sara A. Colangelo Jun 2021

Science Under Assault - Reflections On "The War On The Epa: America's Endangered Environmental Protections", Sara A. Colangelo

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Bridges To A New Era: A Report On The Past, Present, And Potential Future Of Tribal Co-Managment On Federal Public Lands, Monte Mills, Martin Nie Jun 2021

Bridges To A New Era: A Report On The Past, Present, And Potential Future Of Tribal Co-Managment On Federal Public Lands, Monte Mills, Martin Nie

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Public Trust Doctrine Fifty Years After Sax And Some Thoughts On Its Future, Michael C. Blumm, Zachary A. Schwartz Jun 2021

The Public Trust Doctrine Fifty Years After Sax And Some Thoughts On Its Future, Michael C. Blumm, Zachary A. Schwartz

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Putting A Gag On Farm Whistleblowers: The Right To Lie And The Right To Reamin Silent Confront State Agricultural Protectionism, Rita-Marie Cain Reid, Amber L. Kingery Jun 2021

Putting A Gag On Farm Whistleblowers: The Right To Lie And The Right To Reamin Silent Confront State Agricultural Protectionism, Rita-Marie Cain Reid, Amber L. Kingery

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Whistleblowers play an important role in filling gaps in government food safety systems. Unfortunately, several dominant food-producing states have pursued legislative initiatives that punish farm whistleblowers and silence investigative tactics. First, this research describes various state legislative initiatives that curb criticism of agriculture. The work analyzes the federal food safety system and how these protections limiting agricultural criticism contravene that food safety net. Further, the research analyzes the free speech concerns in the newest protectionist laws. The analysis recommends strategies and future research to improve agricluture safety and protect free speech in an evolving food safety landscape.


Keeping The Farm And Farmer In Food Policy And Law, Neil D. Hamilton Jun 2021

Keeping The Farm And Farmer In Food Policy And Law, Neil D. Hamilton

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Thank you for the opportunity to be with you, it is always a pleasure to return to the University of Arkansas Law School where I began my teaching career in the fall of 1981. We are pleased Drake University Law School and the University of Arkansas College of Law have built and maintained a partnership on teaching and research that stretches back over three decades. I am especially pleased to be with you as we celebrate the 10th Anniversary of the Journal of Food Law and Policy, another part of the University's pioneering work in the area of food ...


Animal Legal Defense Fund V. Otter: Industrial Food Production Simply Is Not A Private Matter, Lucy L. Holifield Jun 2021

Animal Legal Defense Fund V. Otter: Industrial Food Production Simply Is Not A Private Matter, Lucy L. Holifield

Journal of Food Law & Policy

About half of the states have either passed or attempted to pass laws aimed at stifling criticism and exposure of factory farms throughout the country. This unwanted exposure is often the result of undercover reporters gaining access to the interior of meat-producing entities by seeking and obtaining employment. Their reports often expose filthy and dangerous conditions, substantial animal abuse, and the incorporation of unfit animal products into the public's food supply.


Striking A Balance: Rapid Reporting Laws Combined With Farmed Animal Welfare Laws As An Alternative To Ag-Gag Statutes, Jennifer Satterfield Jun 2021

Striking A Balance: Rapid Reporting Laws Combined With Farmed Animal Welfare Laws As An Alternative To Ag-Gag Statutes, Jennifer Satterfield

Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology

No abstract provided.


Beyond Equity: Shared Natural Resources And Human Rights, Criminal Law, And The Use Of Force, Eian Katz Jun 2021

Beyond Equity: Shared Natural Resources And Human Rights, Criminal Law, And The Use Of Force, Eian Katz

Fordham Environmental Law Review

Transboundary resource disputes are often analyzed by reference to two nebulous and conflicting principles that have emerged in international environmental law: “equitable and reasonable utilization” and “no significant harm.” Frequently overlooked in this context is the potential value of other canons of international law—especially human rights law, criminal law, and the rules governing the use of force—in adding definition to the muddled contours of these foundational precepts. This Article therefore undertakes an assessment of sovereign rights and obligations regarding shared natural resources which arise from these other bodies of law. In doing so, it offers new lenses through ...


A Paper Tiger? Prosecutorial Regulators In China’S Civil Environmental Public Interest Litigations, Chunyan Ding, Huina Xiao Jun 2021

A Paper Tiger? Prosecutorial Regulators In China’S Civil Environmental Public Interest Litigations, Chunyan Ding, Huina Xiao

Fordham Environmental Law Review

In July 2015, China’s national legislature brought in prosecutor-led civil environmental public interest litigation (“EPIL”) for thirteen selected provincial areas of the country. After a two-year legal experiment, this prosecutor-led civil EPIL system was then established nationwide in July 2017. Yet, can it be said that prosecutorial regulators in China are in fact a paper tiger? Drawing upon content analysis of the 655 prosecutor-led civil EPILs and in-depth interviews with twelve frontline prosecutors and judges, this article examines the dynamics of regulatory practice and the motivation of the Chinese prosecutorial organs to engage in environmental regulation through litigation. Based ...


Squaring The Cercla: Superfund And The Superfund Task Force, Manny Marcos Jun 2021

Squaring The Cercla: Superfund And The Superfund Task Force, Manny Marcos

Fordham Environmental Law Review

The Superfund Task Force recently released its final report on the implementation of its recommendations for improving the Superfund program. The Task Force was given five goals for improving the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (“CERCLA’s”), implementation. These goals are to expedite cleanup and remediation, re-invigorate responsible party cleanup and reuse, encourage foreign investment, promote redevelopment and community revitalization, and engage with partners and stakeholders. While the Task Force’s recommendations have improved CERCLA’s implementation, many of CERCLA’s structural flaws remain intact. Specifically, CERCLA still has a severe shortage of funding, an unfair ...


Climate Change, Competition & Conflict Along The River Nile: The Great Ethiopian Renaissance Dam & Shifting Customary International Water Law, Salma Shitia Jun 2021

Climate Change, Competition & Conflict Along The River Nile: The Great Ethiopian Renaissance Dam & Shifting Customary International Water Law, Salma Shitia

Fordham Environmental Law Review

Decade-long negotiations between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia surround the decision to build the hydroelectric power plant along the River Nile. For much of Ethiopia, the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam represents a beacon of prosperity. For countless Egyptians, the structure embodies a potential catastrophe. Grounded in threats of displacement for Egyptian agricultural communities, some have compared the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam crisis to disasters culminating in mass migration.

This battle for natural resource access has intensified as climate change exacerbates the region’s dire conditions. Specifically, exhaustible resource allocation amid climate change indicates ...


Environmental Racism: Using Environmental Planning To Lift People Out Of Poverty, And Re-Shape The Effects Of Climate Change & Pollution In Communities Of Color,, William C.C. Kemp-Neal Jun 2021

Environmental Racism: Using Environmental Planning To Lift People Out Of Poverty, And Re-Shape The Effects Of Climate Change & Pollution In Communities Of Color,, William C.C. Kemp-Neal

Fordham Environmental Law Review

In the mid-1900s the United States began to see a rise in concern for environmental awareness issues. In the early days the movement focused on things like clean air, water and pollution but by the 1970s-1990s many prominent environmental awareness groups began to form focused on the idea that in order to avert climate change the principal goal needed to be to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. In 1987 a report was released called Toxic Waste and Race, which outlined an intimate link between the placement of environmental hazardous waste sites in communities of color, and greater instances of polluted ...