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Full-Text Articles in Law

Held V. State, Alec D. Skuntz Oct 2021

Held V. State, Alec D. Skuntz

Public Land & Resources Law Review

On March 13, 2020, a group of 16 Montana children and teenagers filed a complaint in the First Judicial District, Lewis and Clark County against the State of Montana and several state agencies. These young Plaintiffs sought injunctive and declaratory relief against Defendants for their complicity in continuing to extract and release harmful amounts of greenhouse gases which contribute to climate change. Plaintiffs premised their argument on the Montana Constitution’s robust environmental rights and protections. The Defendants filed a motion to dismiss which the District Court granted in-part and denied in-part. Held provides a roadmap for future litigation by ...


Martinez-Cuevas V. Deruyter Brothers And Covid-19: Is It Time To Re-Examine Farmworker Labor Protections?, Margaret Todd, Sarah Everhart Sep 2021

Martinez-Cuevas V. Deruyter Brothers And Covid-19: Is It Time To Re-Examine Farmworker Labor Protections?, Margaret Todd, Sarah Everhart

Journal of Food Law & Policy

In the fall of 2020, in the midst of the COVID-19 global pandemic, a closely divided (5-4) Washington Supreme Court, in Martinez-Cuevas v. Deruyter Bros. Dairy Inc.1, held that dairy workers, despite a state wage and hour law2 specifically exempting agricultural workers, are entitled to overtime pay. The Court based its decision, in part, on the dangerous nature of the work performed by the dairy workers.3 Although the decision was specific to dairy workers in Washington, the majority of U.S. farmworkers are not entitled to overtime wages while working jobs that are generally considered dangerous and have ...


Iowa Land And Landowners: Fear Or Opportunity, Neil D. Hamilton Sep 2021

Iowa Land And Landowners: Fear Or Opportunity, Neil D. Hamilton

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Our relation to the land changed as modern agriculture changed. Today many issues involving the land seem to focus on fear and conflict, revealing a fragility of agriculture surprising for how it confounds the expected image of strength and stability. In many ways, our fragile relation to the land contrasts to the optimism of the relation in the past, in the years of settlement and expansion. Part of the change reflects the adverse impacts of modern agriculture catching up with us, and part stems from a society more willing to focus on issues of equity, inclusion, and inequality. The good ...


The Pandemic, Climate Change And Farm Subsidies, Allen H. Olson, Edward J. Peterson Sep 2021

The Pandemic, Climate Change And Farm Subsidies, Allen H. Olson, Edward J. Peterson

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Many people believe that once the COVID-19 pandemic has passed, life will return to the way it was. This belief is both unrealistic and dangerous. It is unrealistic because the virus will be around for years if not indefinitely. The timeframe for the worst of the pandemic will depend on our ability to administer effective vaccines worldwide and the public’s willingness to accept continued social distancing in the meantime. The damage done to public health, the economy and individuals is already substantial and will get worse. Recovery will be slow and incomplete. The belief that life will return to ...


European Union Food Law Update, Nicole Coutrelis Aug 2021

European Union Food Law Update, Nicole Coutrelis

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Update on European Union Food Law 2005


Preempting Food Safety: An Examination Of Usda Rulemaking And Its E.Coli O157:H7 Policy In Light Of Estate Of Kriefall Ex Rel. Kriefall V. Excel Corporation, Denis Stearns Aug 2021

Preempting Food Safety: An Examination Of Usda Rulemaking And Its E.Coli O157:H7 Policy In Light Of Estate Of Kriefall Ex Rel. Kriefall V. Excel Corporation, Denis Stearns

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This article will use the Kriefall decision to examine USDA rulemaking and its still-evolving E. coli 0157:H7 policy. Part II of the article will briefly describe the development and implementation of the USDA E. coli 0157:H7 policy as a reaction to an enormous and widely-publicized outbreak of E. coli infections that occurred in 1993-the so-called Jack in the Box outbreak. Following the outbreak, E. coli 0157:H7 was declared by USDA to be an adulterant per se according to FMIA. It was also at this time that the first steps were taken by USDA to move from a ...


Medicaid Third-Party Liability And Claims For Restitution: Defining The Proper Role For The Tort System In Regulating The Food Industry, Coby Warren Logan Aug 2021

Medicaid Third-Party Liability And Claims For Restitution: Defining The Proper Role For The Tort System In Regulating The Food Industry, Coby Warren Logan

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This comment contends that tort liability can complement legislative and administrative government regulation of the food industry, providing sellers and manufacturers of food with an incentive to prevent consumers from over-consumption and becoming obese. Specifically, this comment supports the proposition that after government regulations are promulgated by Congress, claims should be allowed by state attorneys general to recoup Medicaid costs incurred in treating health conditions and illnesses caused by obesity.


The Food Safety And Inspection Service's Lack Of Statutory Authority To Suspend Inspection For Failure To Comply With Haccp Regulations, Dennis R. Johnson, Jolyda O. Swaim Aug 2021

The Food Safety And Inspection Service's Lack Of Statutory Authority To Suspend Inspection For Failure To Comply With Haccp Regulations, Dennis R. Johnson, Jolyda O. Swaim

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Since the implementation of the Mega-Reg, the agency has had mixed success with its new enforcement procedures. Although most establishments have chosen to work with FSIS to modify their procedures to allay any concerns the agency had, on a few occasions, no compromise was reached. In these cases, the establishment filed suit in federal district court challenging the agency's authority to remove inspectors for failure to comply with the Mega-Reg. In the three cases where the agency's authority was challenged, the establishment was successful and inspection was restored.


From The Farm To The Factory: An Overview Of The American And European Approaches To Regulation Of The Beef Industry, Crisarla S. Houston Aug 2021

From The Farm To The Factory: An Overview Of The American And European Approaches To Regulation Of The Beef Industry, Crisarla S. Houston

Journal of Food Law & Policy

First, this article briefly describes the existing regulatory requirements under both systems. Second, it compares the two approaches. In comparing the two systems, attention is concentrated on the quality of legislative drafting, the likelihood of implementation, the adequacy of consumer protection, the voluntary or compulsory nature of the measures, and the requirement of records retention.


European Union Food Law Update, Emilie H. Leibovitch Aug 2021

European Union Food Law Update, Emilie H. Leibovitch

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The following European Union Food Law Update will address significant changes in European Union (EU) food law that occurred between 2006 and early 2008. The update will be different from the previous ones, as it will instead be organized by the subject areas addressed by the developments. The published regulations, proposals, cases, and other relevant news will thus be incorporated under their corresponding topic headings.


United States Food Law Update: Food Safely Planning, Attribute Labeling, And The Irradiation Debate, Bryan Endres Aug 2021

United States Food Law Update: Food Safely Planning, Attribute Labeling, And The Irradiation Debate, Bryan Endres

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This article summarizes significant changes and developments in food law throughout the second half of 2007. The previous edition of the Food Law Update noted the recent increase in imported food and the resulting stress placed on food safety agencies and customs officials. Detailed inspections of every food shipment entering the United States would quickly exhaust limited agency resources and cripple efficient international trade of food products. On the other hand, after several well-publicized food scares and the ongoing threat of international contamination, the public increasingly demands high levels of physical surveillance. As a part of this ongoing discussion, this ...


Disestablishing "The Last Plantation": The Need For Accountability In The United States Department Of Agriculture, Seth L. Ellis Aug 2021

Disestablishing "The Last Plantation": The Need For Accountability In The United States Department Of Agriculture, Seth L. Ellis

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln in 1862. At the signing ceremony, President Lincoln declared the Department of Agriculture to be the "people's Department" because he said it governed an industry "in which [citizens felt] more directly concerned than in any other. .. ." Today, many American citizens do not share Abraham Lincoln's view of the USDA as being the "people's Department"; rather, they identify it as being "the last plantation" due to its long history of open discrimination against African-American farmers. While this discrimination has occurred throughout America's ...


Jumping On The Next Bandwagon: An Overview Of The Policy And Legal Aspects Of The Local Food Movement, Marne Coit Aug 2021

Jumping On The Next Bandwagon: An Overview Of The Policy And Legal Aspects Of The Local Food Movement, Marne Coit

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This article is an exploration of this new and growing local food movement. It is not a cohesive movement, nor is it one that is organized by a particular group. Rather, it is a grassroots movement comprised of people who are interested, for various reasons, in obtaining food grown or produced where they live or in producing this food themselves. The purpose of this article is to explore what the local food movement is, why consumers are interested in basing their food purchasing choices on where their food originates, current and future regulation of local food, and where this movement ...


Vecinos Para El Bienestar De La Comunidad Costera V. Ferc, Malcolm M. Gilbert Aug 2021

Vecinos Para El Bienestar De La Comunidad Costera V. Ferc, Malcolm M. Gilbert

Public Land & Resources Law Review

The D.C. Circuit Court remanded three Brownsville, TX LNG proposals to FERC for failing to adequately explain conclusions around environmental justice and climate change concerns. The LNG terminals and pipeline will disproportionately impact low-income, minority communities, and substantial carbon emissions will contribute to anthropogenic climate change. This case note explores the role that environmental justice and climate change play in Federal agency decision-making processes, analyzes the legal framework for the Court's decision, and discusses how the outcome of this litigation could affect similar project proposals in future FERC decisions.


United States Food Law Update: Health Care Reform, Preemption, Labeling Claims And Unpaid Interns: The Latest Battles In Food Law, A. Bryan Endres, Nicholas R. Johnson, Michaela N. Tarr Jul 2021

United States Food Law Update: Health Care Reform, Preemption, Labeling Claims And Unpaid Interns: The Latest Battles In Food Law, A. Bryan Endres, Nicholas R. Johnson, Michaela N. Tarr

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This edition of the Food Law Update explores four legal issues arising in the first half of 2010 reflective of the diverse nature of the food law specialist. As the national debate surrounding the merits of health care reform dominated the legislative agenda, this article first will discuss the food labeling rules embedded within section 4205 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. The authors then analyze the preemptive reach of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Meat Inspection Act with respect to three separate California statutes regarding animal welfare standards, retail labels on ...


Reconsidering Federalism And The Farm: Toward Including Local, State And Regional Voices In America's Food System, Margaret Sova Mccabe Jul 2021

Reconsidering Federalism And The Farm: Toward Including Local, State And Regional Voices In America's Food System, Margaret Sova Mccabe

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Why is the relationship between our food system and federalism important to American law and health? It is important simply because federal law controls the American food system. This essay considers how federal law came to structure our food system, and suggests that though food is an essential part of our national economy, the dominating role of the federal government alienates citizens from their food system. It does so by characterizing food as a primarily economic issue, rather than one that has ethical, health, and cultural components. However, state and local governments have much to offer in terms of broadening ...


United States Food Law Update: Moving Toward A More Balanced Food Regulatory Regime, A. Bryan Endres, Nicholas R. Johnson Jul 2021

United States Food Law Update: Moving Toward A More Balanced Food Regulatory Regime, A. Bryan Endres, Nicholas R. Johnson

Journal of Food Law & Policy

For decades, the federal government has played a significant role in promoting healthy eating. In the early 1900s, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) promoted a foundational diet of milk, proteins, fruits and vegetables, and grains. Most Americans are at least somewhat familiar, although perhaps confused, with the more nuanced healthy eating recommendations contained in the food pyramid - first employed in 1992. And virtually every American has experienced the federally supported school lunch program. In the first half of 2011, these two iconic programs underwent significant change as part of a stepped-up effort to improve the health of the ...


Toward A Constructive Engagement: Agricultural Biotechnology As A Public Health Incentive In Less-Developed Countries, Chidi Oguamanam Jul 2021

Toward A Constructive Engagement: Agricultural Biotechnology As A Public Health Incentive In Less-Developed Countries, Chidi Oguamanam

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Discourses on global public health crises, especially as they impact the less-developed world, focus mostly on the issue of access to life-saving drugs for needy populations. Also, they implicate the misalignment of global pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) agenda with the health needs of the poor. Equally attracting significant attention is the role of intellectual property in driving up the cost of drugs and exacerbating the drug access freeze to needy populations. More often, the conceptual strings of these discussions are woven around a complex interaction of themes, including those of globalization, the development narrative, and strategic changes in ...


Canadian Food Law Update, Patricia L. Farnese Jul 2021

Canadian Food Law Update, Patricia L. Farnese

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Provided below is an overview of the developments in Canadian food law and policy in 2011. This update considers the regulatory and policy developments and litigation activities by the federal government. This focus reflects the significance of federal activities in the food policy realm.


Cows V. Capitalists: Visions Of A Post-Carbon Economy, Alison Peck Jul 2021

Cows V. Capitalists: Visions Of A Post-Carbon Economy, Alison Peck

Journal of Food Law & Policy

I was tempted to entitle this book review something like, "Why the Farm Bill Is the Key to Our Energy Future (Hint: It's Not About Ethanol, Methane Emissions, or Carbon Sinks)." But in addition to being too long to fit across the header of a law review page, such a title would have been slightly misleading. Actually, in Simon Fairlie's view, our future is about ethanol, methane emissions, and carbon sinks - but not in the way our current agricultural policies understand and deal with these subjects.


Global Food Security: In Our National Interest, David P. Lambert Jul 2021

Global Food Security: In Our National Interest, David P. Lambert

Journal of Food Law & Policy

All Americans have a direct stake in the problem of global hunger, which has many dimensions. For most of us it is a profound moral issue, and we are guided by our faith to respond.


Cornography: Perverse Incentives And The United States Corn Subsidy, Anthony Kammer Jul 2021

Cornography: Perverse Incentives And The United States Corn Subsidy, Anthony Kammer

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Among the most important functions we have afforded to the U.S. Congress is the power to reshape social and economic incentive structures through legislation. Proceeding from the enumerated powers under the Constitution and using a complex toolbox of legislative and regulatory innovations, the federal legislature has enormous power to transform the types of behavior that people will perceive as self-interested throughout our economy and thus how those same people are likely to act. Congress can, among other things, create new forms of criminal and civil liability, establish entitlement systems, subsidize industries, encourage behavior through the tax code, regulate interactions ...


Legitimacy, Legality, Legacy, And The Life Of Democracy, Joshua Ulan Galperin Jul 2021

Legitimacy, Legality, Legacy, And The Life Of Democracy, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The Trump Administration challenged notions of good governance. It challenged our expectation of majoritarian legitimacy to the extent only a minority of voters elected President Donald Trump in 2016. It challenged our demands for reasoned decision-making insofar as the President sought to dismantle the administrative state and govern by fiat. It challenged our expectation of checks and balances in the way it approached appointments and removals to accumulate power at the expense of congressional design. These challenges sound in different legal theories, but they all reflect shattered expectations of good governance. And yet, the most lasting legacy of the Trump ...


Responsible Coffee Sourcing: Towards A Living Income For Producers, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, Margaret Sagan, Solina Kennedy Jul 2021

Responsible Coffee Sourcing: Towards A Living Income For Producers, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, Margaret Sagan, Solina Kennedy

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Coffee, one of the world’s most popular beverages, provides livelihoods for at least 60 million people across dozens of countries. Promoting the long-term health, wellbeing, and environmental sustainability of the much beloved coffee sector should be a clear priority.

CCSI has continued its work on coffee sustainability with a 2021 report: “Responsible Coffee Sourcing: Towards a Living Income for Producers.” The report focuses on a critical but under-examined topic: the impact of coffee company sourcing practices on coffee producer and farmworker well-being. The report, commissioned by a long-term investment manager, analyzes the sourcing practices of ten large coffee roasters ...


Free, Prior, And Informed Consent: A Struggling International Principle, Emily M. Mcculloch Jun 2021

Free, Prior, And Informed Consent: A Struggling International Principle, Emily M. Mcculloch

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Localizing Energy Independence: How Purpa And Community Power Legislation Can Drive Development Of Resilient And Reliable Local Clean Energy Projects, Lowell J. Chandler Jun 2021

Localizing Energy Independence: How Purpa And Community Power Legislation Can Drive Development Of Resilient And Reliable Local Clean Energy Projects, Lowell J. Chandler

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Science Under Assault - Reflections On "The War On The Epa: America's Endangered Environmental Protections", Sara A. Colangelo Jun 2021

Science Under Assault - Reflections On "The War On The Epa: America's Endangered Environmental Protections", Sara A. Colangelo

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Bridges To A New Era: A Report On The Past, Present, And Potential Future Of Tribal Co-Managment On Federal Public Lands, Monte Mills, Martin Nie Jun 2021

Bridges To A New Era: A Report On The Past, Present, And Potential Future Of Tribal Co-Managment On Federal Public Lands, Monte Mills, Martin Nie

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Public Trust Doctrine Fifty Years After Sax And Some Thoughts On Its Future, Michael C. Blumm, Zachary A. Schwartz Jun 2021

The Public Trust Doctrine Fifty Years After Sax And Some Thoughts On Its Future, Michael C. Blumm, Zachary A. Schwartz

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Setting The Table For Feast Or Famine: How Education Will Play A Deciding Role In The Future Of Precision Agriculture, Lauren Manning Jun 2021

Setting The Table For Feast Or Famine: How Education Will Play A Deciding Role In The Future Of Precision Agriculture, Lauren Manning

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Precision agriculture has many names including satellite farming, or site-specific crop management. Early forms of precision agriculture involved creating fertilizer maps, yield measurements, grid sampling, and soil pH content monitoring. Roughly 25 years ago, the advent of global positioning systems, commonly known as GPS, enabled farmers to make more informed decisions about where to plant seed and how much seed to plant. Precision agriculture technologies typically utilize sensors that are placed on tractors, combines, and other farm equipment, and which measure various conditions including seeding rates, soil conditions, and other indicators of production. Over time, this technology has been expanded ...