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Full-Text Articles in Operations Research, Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering

The Rhetoric Of Science Education And Technology, Iwasan D. Kejawa Jan 2018

The Rhetoric Of Science Education And Technology, Iwasan D. Kejawa

CSE Journal Articles

Nearly thousands of science experiments are performed both on humans and animals every year in the United States (Gregory, 1999). Does Science enormously play a role in the well-beings of individual in the society? Research has found that science education is through motivation and satisfying the needs of humans. The scientific world is part of an elongated human development. This can be substantiated with the use and evolution of TECHNOLOGY and SCIENCE (Minton, 2004). Education of the entities that comprise the need to achieve the goal of TECHNOLOGY and SCIENCE which are important issues of today. Research has shown that ...


Research Highlights, Haitao Liao Jan 2010

Research Highlights, Haitao Liao

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Industrial & Information Engineering

No abstract provided.


Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility Design, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh Jan 2008

Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility Design, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The major objectives will lead to the creation of a framework that combines all the strengths of AMUSE’s complicated calculations, well-established commercial system process package, and ISOPro’s flexible parameter optimization modules. Development of the process simulation code can be done using the solvent extraction process at Argonne National Laboratory in collaboration with the research team from the Mechanical Engineering Department at UNLV.

Research accomplishments:

• Completed final version of the ISOPro User Manual associated with summarized ISOPro source codes.

• Redesigned and completed use case and design class diagrams (DCD) of the ISOPro package using ArgoUML.

• Improved ISOPro system and ...


A New Stochastic Model For Systems Under General Repairs, Haitao Liao Mar 2007

A New Stochastic Model For Systems Under General Repairs, Haitao Liao

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Industrial & Information Engineering

Numerous stochastic models for repairable systems have been developed by assuming different time trends, and re- pair effects. In this paper, a new general repair model based on the repair history is presented. Unlike the existing models, the closed- form solutions of the reliability metrics can be derived analytically by solving a set of differential equations. Consequently, the con- fidence bounds of these metrics can be easily estimated. The pro- posed model, as well as the estimation approach, overcomes the drawbacks of the existing models. The practical use of the proposed model is demonstrated by a much-discussed set of data ...


Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (Sftf) Design, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh Jan 2007

Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (Sftf) Design, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The major objectives will lead to a creation of framework that combines all the strengths of AMUSE’s complicated calculations, well-established commercial system process package and ISOPro’s flexible parameter optimization modules. Development of the process simulation code can be done using the solvent extraction process at Argonne National Laboratory in collaboration with the research team from Mechanical Engineering Department at UNLV.

Research accomplishments:

  • Integrated the ASPEN-Plus process model with the ISOPro system engineering modeling package, developed by the UNLV team.
  • Tested the simplified system process integration using the ISOPro package.
  • Generated complete version of the ISOPro package user manual ...


Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (Sftf) Design: Quarterly Progress Report January 1-March 31, 2006, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh Mar 2006

Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (Sftf) Design: Quarterly Progress Report January 1-March 31, 2006, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The UNLV developed TRPSEMPro software package can access engineering modeling software, ASPEN Plus through its own interface. The new interface eliminates the user interaction with the complex ASPEN Plus package and also provides input and output results for analysis purpose. The current interface will keep improving on collecting multiple scenario runs and database population.

Two separation processes, acid and plutonium separations, are near completion. The unit operations were finished while some sensitive chemical data for certain species are unknown. Graduate student, Matthew Hodges, continues on finishing those processes using dummy values for those restricted variables. Once the processes complete, researchers ...


Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (Sftf) Design, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh Jan 2006

Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (Sftf) Design, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The overall goal of this project is the creation of a framework that combines all the strengths of AMUSE’s complicated calculations, well-established commercial system process packages, and TRPSEMPro’s flexible parameter optimization modules. Development of the process simulation code can be done using the solvent extraction process at Argonne National Laboratory in collaboration with the UNLV Nevada Center for Advanced Computational Methods.

The major objectives are the following:

  • Develop a framework for simulating the Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (SFTF) process using AMUSE code, commercial process package, such as ASPEN-PLUS, and system engineering model.
  • Develop a middleware package that can ...


Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (Sftf) Design: Quarterly Progress Report January 1-March 31, 2005, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh Mar 2005

Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (Sftf) Design: Quarterly Progress Report January 1-March 31, 2005, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and Transmutation Research Program-University Participation Program (TRP-UPP) supported by Department of Energy of the United States have been developing many important technologies for the transmutation of nuclear waste to address long-term disposal issues. While successfully embedding AMUSE module into a dedicated System Engineering Model (TRPSEMPro), developed by the Nevada Center for Advanced Computational Methods (NCACM) at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas collaborating with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), ANL is interested in further simulating the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (SFTF) combining commercial process simulation and analysis packages and core calculation of ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Sean Hsieh Jan 2005

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Sean Hsieh

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The chemical processing of used nuclear fuel is an integral component of any strategy for the transmutation of nuclear waste. Due to the large volume of material that must be handled in this first step of the transmutation process, the efficiency of the separations process is a key factor in the potential economic viability of transmutation strategies. The ability to optimize the chemical separation systems is vital to ensure the feasibility of the transmutation program.

Systems analysis, or total systems modeling, is one of the strongest tools available to researchers for understanding and optimizing complex systems such as chemical separations ...


Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (Sftf) Design, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh Jan 2005

Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (Sftf) Design, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The major objective is to create a framework that combines all the strengths of AMUSE’s complicated calculations, well established commercial system process package such as ASPENPLUS, HYSYS and PRO/II and TRPSEMPro’s flexible parameter optimization modules. Development of the process simulation code can be done using the solvent extraction process experience at Argonne National Laboratory and in collaboration with the NCACM.

The major activities of the task are the following:

  • Develop a framework for simulating the SFTF process using AMUSE code, commercial process package, such as ASPEN- PLUS, and system engineering model.
  • Develop a middleware package that can ...


Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (Sftf) Design: Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2004, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh Dec 2004

Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (Sftf) Design: Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2004, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and Transmutation Research Program- University Participation Program (TRP-UPP) supported by Department of Energy of the United States have been developing many important technologies for the transmutation of nuclear waste to address long-term disposal issues. While successfully embedding AMUSE module into a dedicated System Engineering Model (TRPSEMPro), developed by the Nevada Center for Advanced Computational Methods (NCACM) at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas collaborating with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), ANL is interested in further simulating the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (SFTF) combining commercial process simulation and analysis packages and core ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Final Report, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh Sep 2004

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Final Report, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The whole chemical separation process is complex to the point that definitely requires certain level of systematic coordination. To perform smoothly and meet the target extraction rates among those processes, this research proposed a general-purpose systems engineering model.

A general purposed systems engineering model, Transmutation Research Program System Engineering Model Project (TRPSEMPro), was developed based on the above design concept. The system model includes four main parts: System Manager, Model Integration, Study Plan, and Solution Viewer. TRPSEMPro can apply not only to chemical separation process, but also a general system model.

Software engineering and Object Oriented Analysis and Design (OOA ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh Sep 2004

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The whole chemical separation process is complex to the point that definitely requires certain level of systematic coordination. To perform smoothly and meet the target extraction rates among those processes, this research proposed a general-purpose systems engineering model.

A general purposed systems engineering model, Transmutation Research Program System Engineering Model Project (TRPSEMPro), was developed based on the above design concept. The system model includes four main parts: System Manager, Model Integration, Study Plan, and Solution Viewer. System Manager supervises all the case (problem) creation, and functionality definition. Model Integration identifies chemical extraction processes and their execution sequence. Study Plan is ...


Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (Sftf) Design, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh Apr 2004

Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (Sftf) Design, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and Transmutation Research Program-University Participation Program (TRP-UPP) supported by Department of Energy of the United States have been developing many important technologies for the transmutation of nuclear waste to address long-term disposal issues. While successfully embedding AMUSE module into a dedicated System Engineering Model (TRPSEMPro), developed by the Nevada Center for Advanced Computational Methods (NCACM) at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas collaborating with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), ANL is interested in further simulating the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (SFTF) combining commercial process simulation and analysis packages and core calculation of ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Sean Hsieh Jan 2004

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Sean Hsieh

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The chemical processing of used nuclear fuel is an integral component of any strategy for the transmutation of nuclear waste. Due to the large volume of material that must be handled in this first step of the transmutation process, the efficiency of the separations process is a key factor in the potential economic viability of the transmutation strategies. The ability to optimize the chemical separation systems is vital to ensure the feasibility of the transmutation program.

Systems analysis, or total systems modeling, is one of the strongest tools available to researchers for understanding and optimizing complex systems such as chemical ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 5/16/03- 8/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Aug 2003

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 5/16/03- 8/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Two activities are proposed in this Phase I task: the development of a systems engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model is the start of an integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the AAA Program. A second portion of the project is to streamline and improve an integral part of the overall systems model, which is the software package AMUSE. AMUSE analyzes the UREX process and other related solvent extraction processes and defines many of the process streams that are integral ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Aug 2003

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The AFCI program is developing technology for the transmutation of nuclear waste to address many of the long-term disposal issues. An integral part of this program is the proposed chemical separations scheme.

Nearly all issues related to risks to future generations arising from long-term disposal of such spent nuclear fuel is attributable to about 2% of its content. Such 2% is made up primarily of plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium (the transuranic elements) and long-lived isotopes of iodine and technetium created as products from the fission process in power reactors. When transuranics are removed from discharged fuel destined for disposal ...


Novel Technique For Ultra-Sensitive Determination Of Trace Elements In Organic Scintillators, Zelimir Djurcic, D. Glasgow, Lin-Wen Hu, R.D. Mckeown, Andreas Piepke, Robert Swinney, B. Tipton Jul 2003

Novel Technique For Ultra-Sensitive Determination Of Trace Elements In Organic Scintillators, Zelimir Djurcic, D. Glasgow, Lin-Wen Hu, R.D. Mckeown, Andreas Piepke, Robert Swinney, B. Tipton

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

A technique based on neutron activation has been developed for an extremely high sensitivity analysis of trace elements in organic materials. Organic materials are sealed in plastic or high-purity quartz and irradiated at the HFIR and MITR. The most volatile materials such as liquid scintillator (LS) are first preconcentrated by clean vacuum evaporation. Activities of interest are separated from side activities by acid digestion and ion exchange. The technique has been applied to study the liquid scintillator used in the KamLAND neutrino experiment. Detection limits of <2.4×10−15 g 40K/g LS, <5.5×10−15 g Th/g LS, and <8×10−15 g ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Randy Clarksean May 2003

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Randy Clarksean

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Two activities are proposed: the development of a systems engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model will be continuously focusing on the integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the TRP Program. A second portion of the project will streamline and improve an integral part of the overall systems model, which is the software package AMUSE. AMUSE analyzes the UREX process and other related solvent extraction processes and defines many of the process streams that are integral to the systems engineering model ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 2/16/03- 5/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper May 2003

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 2/16/03- 5/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Two activities are proposed in this Phase I task: the development of a systems engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model is the start of an integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the AAA Program. A second portion of the project is to streamline and improve an integral part of the overall systems model, which is the software package AMUSE. AMUSE analyzes the UREX process and other related solvent extraction processes and defines many of the process streams that are integral ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 11/16/02- 2/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Feb 2003

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 11/16/02- 2/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Two activities are proposed in this Phase I task: the development of a systems engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model is the start of an integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the TRP Program. A second portion of the project is to streamline and improve an integral part of the overall systems model, which is the software package AMUSE. AMUSE analyzes the UREX process and other related solvent extraction processes and defines many of the process streams that are integral ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Lijian Sun, Haritha Royyuru, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper, George Vandegrift, James Laidler Jan 2003

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Lijian Sun, Haritha Royyuru, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper, George Vandegrift, James Laidler

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Project Overview:

• Two Components

– Refine AMUSE Code

– Develop Systems Engineering Model

• Research Objectives

– Develop a framework and environment for a systems engineering analysis of the chemical separations system for the AAA program.

– Establish a baseline systems engineering model from which modifications and improvements can be made.

– Refine the existing AMUSE program that gives a detailed examination of the UREX process, a critical component of the overall separation scheme.


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 8/16/02- 11/15/02, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Nov 2002

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 8/16/02- 11/15/02, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Two activities are proposed in this Phase I task: the development of a systems engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model is the start of an integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the AAA Program. A second portion of the project is to streamline and improve an integral part of the overall systems model, which is the software package AMUSE. AMUSE analyzes the UREX process and other related solvent extraction processes and defines many of the process streams that are integral ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Sep 2002

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The AAA program is developing technology for the transmutation of nuclear waste to address many of the long-term disposal issues. An integral part of this program is the proposed chemical separations scheme. This process, as envisioned by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) researchers, will be outlined later in this report.

Nearly all issues related to risks to future generations arising from long-term disposal of such spent nuclear fuel is attributable to ~1% of its content. This 1% is made up primarily of plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium (the transuranic elements) and long-lived isotopes of iodine and technetium created as products from ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 5/16/02- 8/15/02, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Aug 2002

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 5/16/02- 8/15/02, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Two activities are proposed in this Phase I task: the development of systems engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model is the start of an integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the AAA Program. A second portion of the project is to streamline and improve an integral part of the overall systems model, which is the software package AMUSE. AMUSE analyzes the UREX process and other related solvent extraction processes and defines many of the process streams that are integral to ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Randy Clarksean May 2002

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Randy Clarksean

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Two activities are proposed: the development of a systems engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model will be the start of an integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the AAA Program. A second portion of the project will streamline and improve an integral part of the overall systems model, which is the software package AMUSE. AMUSE analyzes the UREX process and other related solvent extraction processes and defines many of the process streams that are integral to the systems engineering model ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 2/16/02- 5/15/02, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper May 2002

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 2/16/02- 5/15/02, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Two activities are proposed in this Phase I task: the development of systems engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model is the start of an integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the AAA Program. A second portion of the project is to streamline and improve an integral part of the overall systems model, which is the software package AMUSE. AMUSE analyzes the UREX process and other related solvent extraction processes and defines many of the process streams that are integral to ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 11/16/01- 2/15/02, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Feb 2002

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 11/16/01- 2/15/02, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The AAA program is developing technology for the transmutation of nuclear waste to address many of the long-term disposal issues. An integral part of this program is the proposed chemical separations scheme.

Two activities are proposed in this Phase I task: the development of systems engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model is the start of an integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the AAA Program. A second portion of the project is to streamline and improve an integral part of ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 8/16/01- 11/15/01, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Nov 2001

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 8/16/01- 11/15/01, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The AAA program is developing technology for the transmutation of nuclear waste to address many of the long-term disposal issues. An integral part of this program is the proposed chemical separations scheme.

Two activities are proposed in this Phase I task: the development of a systems engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model is the start of an integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the AAA Program. A second portion of the project is to streamline and improve an integral part ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Randy Clarksean Aug 2001

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Randy Clarksean

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Two activities are proposed: the development of a Systems Engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model will be the start of an integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the national AAA program. A second portion of the project will streamline and improve an integral part of the overall systems model, which is the software package AMUSE. AMUSE analyzes the UREX process and other related solvent extraction processes and defines many of the process streams that are integral to the systems engineering ...