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2019

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

About Time: Visualizing Time At Burning Man, Gordon D. Hoople, Austin Choi-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel Parde, Diane Hoffoss, Max Mellette, Rachel Nishimura, Virginia Gutman Dec 2019

About Time: Visualizing Time At Burning Man, Gordon D. Hoople, Austin Choi-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel Parde, Diane Hoffoss, Max Mellette, Rachel Nishimura, Virginia Gutman

The STEAM Journal

About Time was a 30 foot long, 3000 pound wooden sundial that went up in flames at Burning Man 2019. The piece reflected on the role time plays in our lives. We organize our lives around time—are enslaved to time—and yet we know so little about it. Physicists and philosophers continue to grapple with deep puzzles of time—Is time a fundamental quantity, independent of human actions or observations or is it an emergent property of our perception? This installation projected time using two sundials: a horizontal dial which swept time out across the desert floor and ...


Bio-Inspired Learning And Hardware Acceleration With Emerging Memories, Shruti R. Kulkarni Dec 2019

Bio-Inspired Learning And Hardware Acceleration With Emerging Memories, Shruti R. Kulkarni

Dissertations

Machine Learning has permeated many aspects of engineering, ranging from the Internet of Things (IoT) applications to big data analytics. While computing resources available to implement these algorithms have become more powerful, both in terms of the complexity of problems that can be solved and the overall computing speed, the huge energy costs involved remains a significant challenge. The human brain, which has evolved over millions of years, is widely accepted as the most efficient control and cognitive processing platform. Neuro-biological studies have established that information processing in the human brain relies on impulse like signals emitted by neurons called ...


Quantitative Metrics For Mutation Testing, Amani M. Ayad Dec 2019

Quantitative Metrics For Mutation Testing, Amani M. Ayad

Dissertations

Program mutation is the process of generating versions of a base program by applying elementary syntactic modifications; this technique has been used in program testing in a variety of applications, most notably to assess the quality of a test data set. A good test set will discover the difference between the original program and mutant except if the mutant is semantically equivalent to the original program, despite being syntactically distinct.

Equivalent mutants are a major nuisance in the practice of mutation testing, because they introduce a significant amount of bias and uncertainty in the analysis of test results; indeed, mutants ...


Life-Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of Different Pretreatment And Product Separation Technologies For Butanol Bioprocessing From Oil Palm Frond, Nazira Mahmud, Kurt A. Rosentrater Dec 2019

Life-Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of Different Pretreatment And Product Separation Technologies For Butanol Bioprocessing From Oil Palm Frond, Nazira Mahmud, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Environmental impact assessment is a crucial aspect of biofuels production to ensure that the process generates emissions within the designated limits. In typical cellulosic biofuel production process, the pretreatment and downstream processing stages were reported to require a high amount of chemicals and energy, thus generating high emissions. Cellulosic butanol production while using low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) pretreatment was expected to have a low chemical, water, and energy footprint, especially when the process was combined with more efficient downstream processing technologies. In this study, the quantification of environmental impact potentials from cellulosic butanol production plants was conducted with modeled ...


Identification Of An Ags2 Complex On Ag(110), Peter M. Spurgeon, Da-Jiang Liu, Junepyo Oh, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel Dec 2019

Identification Of An Ags2 Complex On Ag(110), Peter M. Spurgeon, Da-Jiang Liu, Junepyo Oh, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel

Chemistry Publications

Adsorbed sulfur has been investigated on the Ag(110) surface at two different coverages, 0.02 and 0.25 monolayers. At the lower coverage, only sulfur adatoms are present. At the higher coverage, there are additional bright features which we identify as linear, independent AgS2 complexes. This identification is based upon density functional theory (DFT) and its comparison with experimental observations including bias dependence and separation between complexes. DFT also predicts the absence of AgS2 complexes at low coverage, and the development of AgS2 complexes around a coverage of 0.25 monolayers of sulfur, as is experimentally observed. To our ...


Protein And Polysaccharide-Based Magnetic Composite Materials For Medical Applications., Elizabeth J Bealer, Kyril Kavetsky, Sierra Dutko, Samuel Lofland, Xiao Hu Dec 2019

Protein And Polysaccharide-Based Magnetic Composite Materials For Medical Applications., Elizabeth J Bealer, Kyril Kavetsky, Sierra Dutko, Samuel Lofland, Xiao Hu

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

The combination of protein and polysaccharides with magnetic materials has been implemented in biomedical applications for decades. Proteins such as silk, collagen, and elastin and polysaccharides such as chitosan, cellulose, and alginate have been heavily used in composite biomaterials. The wide diversity in the structure of the materials including their primary monomer/amino acid sequences allow for tunable properties. Various types of these composites are highly regarded due to their biocompatible, thermal, and mechanical properties while retaining their biological characteristics. This review provides information on protein and polysaccharide materials combined with magnetic elements in the biomedical space showcasing the materials ...


Generating Energy Data For Machine Learning With Recurrent Generative Adversarial Networks, Mohammad Navid Fekri, Ananda M. Ghosh, Katarina Grolinger Dec 2019

Generating Energy Data For Machine Learning With Recurrent Generative Adversarial Networks, Mohammad Navid Fekri, Ananda M. Ghosh, Katarina Grolinger

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

The smart grid employs computing and communication technologies to embed intelligence into the power grid and, consequently, make the grid more efficient. Machine learning (ML) has been applied for tasks that are important for smart grid operation including energy consumption and generation forecasting, anomaly detection, and state estimation. These ML solutions commonly require sufficient historical data; however, this data is often not readily available because of reasons such as data collection costs and concerns regarding security and privacy. This paper introduces a recurrent generative adversarial network (R-GAN) for generating realistic energy consumption data by learning from real data. Generativea adversarial ...


The First-Order Magnetoelastic Transition In Eu2in: A 151eu Mössbauer Study, D. H. Ryan, Durga Paudyal, Francois Guillou, Yaroslav Mudryk, Arjun K. Pathak, Vitalij K. Pecharsky Dec 2019

The First-Order Magnetoelastic Transition In Eu2in: A 151eu Mössbauer Study, D. H. Ryan, Durga Paudyal, Francois Guillou, Yaroslav Mudryk, Arjun K. Pathak, Vitalij K. Pecharsky

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Our 151Eu Mössbauer investigation of Eu2In and Eu2Sn shows that the europium in both materials is fully divalent. We confirm the distinct thermodynamic orders of the magnetic transitions and reveal a remarkable difference between the magnetic environments of the europium atoms in the two compounds. Possible structural and electronic origins for these differences are discussed using DFT calculations.


A Test System For Ercot Market Design Studies: Development And Application, Swathi Battula, Leigh Tesfatsion, Thomas E. Mcdermott Dec 2019

A Test System For Ercot Market Design Studies: Development And Application, Swathi Battula, Leigh Tesfatsion, Thomas E. Mcdermott

Economics Working Papers

The ERCOT Test System developed in this study is an open-source library of Java/Python software classes, together with a synthetic grid construction method, specifically designed to facilitate the study of ERCOT market operations over successive days. In default form, these classes permit a high-level modeling of existing ERCOT market operations. Users can conduct a broad range of computational experiments under alternative parameter settings. In addition, users can readily extend these classes to model additional existing or envisioned ERCOT market features to suit different research purposes. An 8-bus test case is used to illustrate the capabilities of the test system ...


Evaluation Of The Mechanisms And Effectiveness Of Nano-Hydroxides, Wood And Dairy Manure-Derived Biochars To Remove Fluoride And Heavy Metals From Water, Anna Rose Wallace, Wenjie Sun Dr, Chunming Su Dr Dec 2019

Evaluation Of The Mechanisms And Effectiveness Of Nano-Hydroxides, Wood And Dairy Manure-Derived Biochars To Remove Fluoride And Heavy Metals From Water, Anna Rose Wallace, Wenjie Sun Dr, Chunming Su Dr

Civil and Environmental Engineering Theses and Dissertations

The development of effective treatment processes for the removal contaminants, such as fluoride and heavy metals, from polluted water have been urgently needed due to serious environmental health and safety concerns. In this dissertation, a variety of materials including various (hydro)oxide nanomaterials, biochars and surface modified biochar were studied to evaluate their effectiveness and mechanism on removing fluoride or mixed heavy metals from water.

In the Chapter 2, this study investigated the adsorptive removal of fluoride from water using various (hydro)oxide nanomaterials, focusing on ferrihydrite, hydroxyapatite (HAP) and brucite, which have the potential to be used as sorbents ...


Smart Factories, Dumb Policy? Managing Cybersecurity And Data Privacy Risks In The Industrial Internet Of Things, Scott J. Shackelford Dec 2019

Smart Factories, Dumb Policy? Managing Cybersecurity And Data Privacy Risks In The Industrial Internet Of Things, Scott J. Shackelford

Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology

No abstract provided.


Development Of A Low-Cost, Open Source Miniature Rotary Cell Culture System To Simulate Microgravity Within An Irradiated Environment, Elizabeth Vargis, Jr Dennison Dec 2019

Development Of A Low-Cost, Open Source Miniature Rotary Cell Culture System To Simulate Microgravity Within An Irradiated Environment, Elizabeth Vargis, Jr Dennison

Browse all Datasets

A major challenge for astronauts in long-duration space travel is combatting the hazardous spaceflight environment caused by microgravity and increased levels of ionizing radiation. Microgravity damages cellular DNA by increasing the production of harmful reactive oxygen species, while ionizing radiation damages DNA by creating double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks. Cellular damage due to microgravity and radiation has been investigated using ground-based models, but most models consider microgravity and ionizing radiation alone, or asynchronously. Synchronous modeling better mimics spaceflight conditions and can be used to understand the combined effects of microgravity and ionizing radiation. However, commercially available devices to model microgravity and ...


Identifying Customer Churn In After-Market Operations Using Machine Learning Algorithms, Vitaly Briker, Richard Farrow, William Trevino, Brent Allen Dec 2019

Identifying Customer Churn In After-Market Operations Using Machine Learning Algorithms, Vitaly Briker, Richard Farrow, William Trevino, Brent Allen

SMU Data Science Review

This paper presents a comparative study on machine learning methods as they are applied to product associations, future purchase predictions, and predictions of customer churn in aftermarket operations. Association rules are used help to identify patterns across products and find correlations in customer purchase behaviour. Studying customer behaviour as it pertains to Recency, Frequency, and Monetary Value (RFM) helps inform customer segmentation and identifies customers with propensity to churn. Lastly, Flowserve’s customer purchase history enables the establishment of churn thresholds for each customer group and assists in constructing a model to predict future churners. The aim of this model ...


Low Temperature Liquid Metal Batteries For Energy Storage Applications, Cameron A. Lippert, Kunlei Liu, James Landon, Susan A. Odom, Nicolas E. Holubowitch Dec 2019

Low Temperature Liquid Metal Batteries For Energy Storage Applications, Cameron A. Lippert, Kunlei Liu, James Landon, Susan A. Odom, Nicolas E. Holubowitch

Center for Applied Energy Research Faculty Patents

The present invention relates to a molten metal battery of liquid bismuth and liquid tin electrodes and a eutectic electrolyte. The electrodes may be coaxial and coplanar. The eutectic electrolyte may be in contact with a surface of each electrode. The eutectic electrolyte may comprise ZnC12:KCI.


High-Pressure Studies On The Transition From Red Phosphorus To Black Phosphorus, Heng Xiang Dec 2019

High-Pressure Studies On The Transition From Red Phosphorus To Black Phosphorus, Heng Xiang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Black phosphorus (BP) is a promising material in many research fields. However, the transition process from amorphous red phosphorus (ARP) is elusive and hence hinders large scale synthesis and applications. This work describes the application of the high-pressure method to study the transition process from ARP to BP.

In this thesis, the following three objectives were achieved: (1) to understand the mechanism of the transition, (2) to facilitate the synthesis of BP by taking the advantage of less pure ARP, (3) to propose new methods of synthesizing BP-based materials, such as the moderately oxidized BP and the black phosphorus/ amorphous ...


Synthesis And Connection Of Iridium Hydrogen Evolution Catalyst To Chlorella Vulgaris Photosystem I For Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution, Anna Ramirez Dec 2019

Synthesis And Connection Of Iridium Hydrogen Evolution Catalyst To Chlorella Vulgaris Photosystem I For Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution, Anna Ramirez

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Hydrogen gas has been shown to be a promising energy source as options other than fossil fuels are being looked at in the face of anthropogenic climate change. It is known that anthropogenic climate change is caused by the production of greenhouse gases being let into the atmosphere, specifically a common reason for this is the burning of fossil fuels for energy. The overall goal of this project is to design a biochemical hybrid system that will be used to make H 2 gas and does not require the use of fossil fuels. Burning hydrogen as fuel produces only water ...


Structure-Performance Correlations Of Cross-Linked Boronic Acid Polymers As Adsorbents For Recovery Of Fructose From Glucose–Fructose Mixtures, Guido Schroer, Jeff Deischter, Tobias Zensen, Jan Kraus, Ann-Christin Pöppler, Long Qi, Susannah Scott, Irina Delidovicha Dec 2019

Structure-Performance Correlations Of Cross-Linked Boronic Acid Polymers As Adsorbents For Recovery Of Fructose From Glucose–Fructose Mixtures, Guido Schroer, Jeff Deischter, Tobias Zensen, Jan Kraus, Ann-Christin Pöppler, Long Qi, Susannah Scott, Irina Delidovicha

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Recovery of bio-oxygenates from reaction mixtures is one of the major challenges for future bio-refineries. Isolation of fructose produced by isomerization of glucose presents a typical example at a very early stage of the value chain. We propose to recover fructose from a solution containing a mixture of glucose and fructose by adsorption on polymers bearing phenylboronate moieties. p-Vinylphenylboronic acid was polymerized with various cross-linkers, namely polar aliphatic, low-polarity aliphatic, and aromatic. The cross-linker content was in the range 5–40 mol%. The polymers exhibit high capacities for fructose, with a maximum loading of up to 1 molFru molB ...


Flood Dynamics In The Portland Metropolitan Area, Past, Present, And Future, Lumas Terence Helaire Dec 2019

Flood Dynamics In The Portland Metropolitan Area, Past, Present, And Future, Lumas Terence Helaire

Dissertations and Theses

The Portland area has an extensive flood history since it was founded in 1845. In the late 19th century, the Portland area was prone to flooding from snowmelt freshets (3-6 months duration) and brief winter rain or rain-on-snow events. Since that time the magnitude of spring freshets has been curtailed by 45% due to climate change, flow diversions, and reservoir management. Along with changes in hydrology, the bathymetry of the Lower Columbia River has been altered by the dredging of the navigation channel, diking, and land reclamation. To understand how these changes in hydrology and bathymetry have affected tidal and ...


Finding A Viable Neural Network Architecture For Use With Upper Limb Prosthetics, Maxwell Lavin Dec 2019

Finding A Viable Neural Network Architecture For Use With Upper Limb Prosthetics, Maxwell Lavin

Master of Science in Computer Science Theses

This paper attempts to answer the question of if it’s possible to produce a simple, quick, and accurate neural network for the use in upper-limb prosthetics. Through the implementation of convolutional and artificial neural networks and feature extraction on electromyographic data different possible architectures are examined with regards to processing time, complexity, and accuracy. It is found that the most accurate architecture is a multi-entry categorical cross entropy convolutional neural network with 100% accuracy. The issue is that it is also the slowest method requiring 9 minutes to run. The next best method found was a single-entry binary cross ...


Development Of High-Speed Photoacoustic Imaging Technology And Its Applications In Biomedical Research, Yun He Dec 2019

Development Of High-Speed Photoacoustic Imaging Technology And Its Applications In Biomedical Research, Yun He

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Photoacoustic (PA) tomography (PAT) is a novel imaging modality that combines the fine lateral resolution from optical imaging and the deep penetration from ultrasonic imaging, and provides rich optical-absorption–based images. PAT has been widely used in extracting structural and functional information from both ex vivo tissue samples to in vivo animals and humans with different length scales by imaging various endogenous and exogenous contrasts at the ultraviolet to infrared spectrum. For example, hemoglobin in red blood cells is of particular interest in PAT since it is one of the dominant absorbers in tissue at the visible wavelength.The main ...


Utility Of Bench Scale Sand Tank Experiments At Assessing Permeable Reactive Barrier Design, Brandon Meier Dec 2019

Utility Of Bench Scale Sand Tank Experiments At Assessing Permeable Reactive Barrier Design, Brandon Meier

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The objective of this work was to evaluate the utility of bench scale sand tank experiments at assessing permeable reactive barrier (PRB) design. Our criteria for meeting this goal was that differences between PRB designs could be identified solely by measuring concentration in outflow from the sand tank models. For our PRB designs (funnel-and-gate, staggered wells, and parallel bars), numerical simulations clearly showed that PRB design had a quantifiable effect on outflow concentration, provided that the solute reacted with the PRB materials. Conversely, use of a conservative (non-reactive) solute did not allow us to discern between PRB design alternatives. Employing ...


Application Of Data-Driven And Process-Based Modeling Approaches For Water Quality Simulation In Lakes And Freshwater Reservoirs, Ali Saber Sichani Dec 2019

Application Of Data-Driven And Process-Based Modeling Approaches For Water Quality Simulation In Lakes And Freshwater Reservoirs, Ali Saber Sichani

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Lakes and freshwater reservoirs often serve as the primary drinking and irrigation water sources for surrounding communities. They provide recreational and tourism opportunities, thereby promoting the prosperity of neighboring communities. Reliable estimates of water quality in lakes and reservoirs can improve management practices to protect water resources.

Seasonal water temperature and solar shortwave radiation variations, and their subsequent interactions with water column aquatic life, combined with seasonal variations of mixing intensity throughout the water column, result in variations of water quality constituents with depth during the annual cycle. The complexity of these variations entails the use of advanced water quality ...


Pressure Driven Electronic Band Gap Engineering In Tin(Iv)-O,N Compounds, Daniel Thomas Sneed Dec 2019

Pressure Driven Electronic Band Gap Engineering In Tin(Iv)-O,N Compounds, Daniel Thomas Sneed

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The intrinsic link between long-range order, coordination geometry, and the electronic properties of a system must be understood in order to tailor function-specific materials. Although material properties are typically tailored using chemical dopants, such methods can cause irreversible changes to the structure, limiting the range of functionality. The application of high pressure may provide an alternative “clean” method to tune the electronic properties of semiconducting materials by tailoring their defect density and structure.

We have explored a number of optoelectronic relevant materials with promising characteristics, specifically Sn-(O,N) compounds which have been predicted to undergo pressure-mediated opening of their ...


Carbon Management And Volatile Fatty Acid Production In Primary Clarifiers At A Wastewater Treatment Plant, Brittany Nicole Radke Dec 2019

Carbon Management And Volatile Fatty Acid Production In Primary Clarifiers At A Wastewater Treatment Plant, Brittany Nicole Radke

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

An increasing number of treatment plants are required to remove nutrients from domestic wastewater to lessen the impact of nutrient loading to water bodies. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) is one of the processes commonly used to remove phosphorus from domestic wastewater. The presence of an adequate quantity of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the wastewater influent to EBPR is important for process efficiency and stability. The objective of this research was to investigate the production of VFAs through fermentation of sludge in primary clarifiers as it related to improving nutrient removal, primarily targeting phosphorus.

The research tested, in full-scale ...


Instrumentation For Dynamic Nuclear Polarization And Application Of Electron Decoupling For Electron Relaxation Measurement, Nicholas Howard Alaniva Dec 2019

Instrumentation For Dynamic Nuclear Polarization And Application Of Electron Decoupling For Electron Relaxation Measurement, Nicholas Howard Alaniva

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dynamic nuclear polarization nuclear magnetic resonance (DNP NMR) exploits internal electron spin and nuclear spin interactions to increase sensitivity and uncover valuable information regarding structure and dynamics of a system. To manipulate these interactions, instrumentation is developed to combine high-power microwave and radiofrequency irradiation with the ability to spin samples at the magic angle (MAS) at temperatures from 90 K to 4.2 K. Electron decoupling uses frequency-modulated microwaves to mitigate the electron-nuclear dipolar interaction, improving signal intensity and resolution in DNP NMR experiments. Electron decoupling is combined with short DNP periods to encode electron spin information in polarized nuclear ...


Contemporary Problems In Aerosol Aggregation And Gelation, Pai Liu Dec 2019

Contemporary Problems In Aerosol Aggregation And Gelation, Pai Liu

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Aggregation of nanoparticles in aerosols is a fundamental phenomenon with important implications to diverse fields ranging from material synthesis to pollutant control. The past few decades have witnessed extensive research on investigating the structure and growth mechanism of aerosol aggregates with sizes spanning across several orders of magnitude. This dissertation focuses on some contemporary problems that remain unaddressed in this topical area. Aerosol aggregates in sub-micron regimes, which are formed via the irreversible collision and aggregation of solid nanoparticle monomers, are fractal-like in their morphology. A mathematical description of this seemingly random structure dates to the seminal works by Forest ...


Numerical And Semi-Analytical Estimation Of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient For Buildings In An Urban-Like Setting, Anwar Demsis Awol Dec 2019

Numerical And Semi-Analytical Estimation Of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient For Buildings In An Urban-Like Setting, Anwar Demsis Awol

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Urban building arrangements such as packing density, orientation and size are known to influence the microclimate surrounding each building. Studies on the impact of urban microclimatic changes on convective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) from a stock of buildings, however, have been rare in surveyed literature. The present study focuses on numerical and analytical investigation of CHTC from building-like models with homogeneous set of equal and unequal planar and frontal densities. Consequently, the study discusses the CHTC response in relation to broader changes in the urban surface form. Part of the process involves the development of a simplified one-dimensional semi-analytical CHTC ...


Point Cloud Processing With Neural Networks, Stephanie Miller, Jiahao Li Dec 2019

Point Cloud Processing With Neural Networks, Stephanie Miller, Jiahao Li

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

In this project, we explore new techniques and architectures for applying deep neural networks when the input is point cloud data. We first consider applying convolutions on regular pixel and voxel grids, using polynomials of point coordinates and Fourier transforms to get a rich feature representation for all points mapped to the same pixel or voxel. We also apply these ideas to generalize the recently proposed "interpolated convolution", by learning continuous-space kernels as a combination of polynomial and Fourier basis kernels. Experiments on the ModelNet40 dataset demonstrate that our methods have superior performance over the baselines in 3D object recognition.


An Application Of Deep Learning Models To Automate Food Waste Classification, Alejandro Zachary Espinoza Dec 2019

An Application Of Deep Learning Models To Automate Food Waste Classification, Alejandro Zachary Espinoza

Dissertations and Theses

Food wastage is a problem that affects all demographics and regions of the world. Each year, approximately one-third of food produced for human consumption is thrown away. In an effort to track and reduce food waste in the commercial sector, some companies utilize third party devices which collect data to analyze individual contributions to the global problem. These devices track the type of food wasted (such as vegetables, fruit, boneless chicken, pasta) along with the weight. Some devices also allow the user to leave the food in a kitchen container while it is weighed, so the container weight must also ...


Bridging The Gaps In Elementary Life Science Lessons, Kaitlin Cook Dec 2019

Bridging The Gaps In Elementary Life Science Lessons, Kaitlin Cook

Honors Program Theses and Projects

The United States is experiencing a rise in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) careers while facing a shortage of STEM workers. This could partly be due to a decline in the amount of time allowed for science in elementary schools or possibly because many life science lessons in elementary school lack originality and may not stimulate an interest in science. Lack of captivating STEM education prior to college may be contributing to the decline of students graduating with STEM based degrees. My thesis focuses on getting out of the routine of using monotonous life science lesson plans. I identify ...