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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Retention Of Swine Slurry Constituents In Soil And Crop Residue As Affected By Setback Distance, John E. Gilley, Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt, Kent M. Eskridge, Xu Li, Amy M. Schmidt, Daniel D. Snow Jun 2020

Retention Of Swine Slurry Constituents In Soil And Crop Residue As Affected By Setback Distance, John E. Gilley, Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt, Kent M. Eskridge, Xu Li, Amy M. Schmidt, Daniel D. Snow

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Setbacks are prescribed distances from surface waters within which manure application is not allowed. Little information is available concerning the retention of swine slurry constituents in soil and crop residue materials within setback areas. This study was conducted to measure the retention of selected constituents within a setback area following the upslope application of swine slurry and the introduction of simulated rainfall. The no-till cropland site had a slope gradient of 4.9% and a mean winter wheat residue cover of 7.73 Mg ha−1 . Soil and vegetative samples were collected on 3.7 m wide by 23.2 ...


Use Of Air Infiltration In Swine Housing Ventilation System Design, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff Jan 2019

Use Of Air Infiltration In Swine Housing Ventilation System Design, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The objective of this research was to develop and analyze the procedure for using recent air infiltration (AI) data collected from commercial swine finishing rooms (SFRs) in the design of negative pressure mechanical ventilation systems (VSs). Air infiltration is an integral part of any ventilation process. Infiltration reduces the pressure differential across planned inlets and at very low pressure differences, cold air jets may drop directly on the animals causing significant discomfort. In this article, a design procedure is proposed for swine housing ventilation systems with the influence of air infiltration included. The method was used on one SFR for ...


Swine Finishing Room Air Infiltration: Part 2. Infiltration As Affected By Room Characteristics, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, Daniel S. Andersen Jan 2018

Swine Finishing Room Air Infiltration: Part 2. Infiltration As Affected By Room Characteristics, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, Daniel S. Andersen

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Data collected on 17 swine finishing rooms from the Midwest region of the United States was used to study the relationship between infiltration rate and selected room characteristics. Effect of individual room characteristics on room infiltration rate were tested by simple linear regression (SLR) while multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to develop models for improved prediction. SLR results revealed that the total (It) and other (Io; non-curtain/fan locations) swine finishing room infiltration rates were inversely related to room width and directly related to room length and ceiling height. As expected, rooms with higher curtain end pocket overlap, curtain ...


Swine Finishing Room Air Infiltration: Part 1. Quantification And Prediction, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, Ignacio Alvarez, Daniel S. Andersen, Ulrike Passe Jan 2018

Swine Finishing Room Air Infiltration: Part 1. Quantification And Prediction, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, Ignacio Alvarez, Daniel S. Andersen, Ulrike Passe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Air infiltration through unplanned inlets is an integral component of any ventilation process. Air infiltration affects the quality of the room environment and can also increase winter heating costs. Precise data on air infiltration is very important in the design of animal room ventilation systems. Nineteen mechanically ventilated (negative pressure type) swine finishing rooms in Iowa were tested for their air infiltration potential. Using the data of 17 rooms, air infiltration rate through the whole room (i.e., total air infiltration, It), curtains (Ic), fans (If) and net building shell (other components, Io) were quantified. Power ...


The Effect Of Five Biomass Cropping Systems On Soil-Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Across A Topographic Gradient, Lisa A. Schulte-Moore, Matthew J. Helmers, Randall K. Kolka Sep 2017

The Effect Of Five Biomass Cropping Systems On Soil-Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Across A Topographic Gradient, Lisa A. Schulte-Moore, Matthew J. Helmers, Randall K. Kolka

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Understanding the environmental impact of bioenergy crops is needed to inform bioenergy policy development. We determined the effects of five biomass cropping systems—continuous maize (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max)-triticale (Triticosecale ×)/soybean-maize, maize-switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), triticale/sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and triticale-aspen (Populus alba × P. grandidentata)—on soil-saturated hydraulic conductivity (K S ) across a toposequence in central Iowa, USA. We compared data from the time of cropping system establishment in 2009 to 4 years post-establishment. Both our 2009 and 2013 data confirmed that cropping system impacts on K S vary by landscape position. We found that differences in cropping system ...


Infiltration Characteristics Of Swine Finishing And Gestation Buildings: Review And Quantification, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, Larry D. Jacobson, Brian Hetchler Jul 2015

Infiltration Characteristics Of Swine Finishing And Gestation Buildings: Review And Quantification, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, Larry D. Jacobson, Brian Hetchler

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Infiltration is an integral part of the ventilation system and process. Infiltration affects the quality of the barn environment and can also increase the winter heating cost. Precise data on infiltration is very important in the design of ventilation systems for animal barns. Many researchers have suggested that ASHRAE’s ‘crack’ method is not suitable for predicting infiltration of animal barns. Among the available methods, pressurization methods are commonly used in infiltration quantification and the power law model gives the best prediction of the infiltration rate. For this research project, 18 swine finishing rooms and three swine gestation rooms were ...


Heterogeneity Of Infiltration Rates In Alluvial Floodplains As Measured With A Berm Infiltration Technique, Derek M. Heeren, Garey A. Fox, Daniel E. Storm Apr 2015

Heterogeneity Of Infiltration Rates In Alluvial Floodplains As Measured With A Berm Infiltration Technique, Derek M. Heeren, Garey A. Fox, Daniel E. Storm

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Hydrologic heterogeneities (e.g., macropores and gravel outcrops) in floodplains are hypothesized to play an integral role in impacting flow and leaching between the soil surface and shallow alluvial aquifers, which are intricately connected to streams. Infiltration is often assumed to be uniform, but this neglects the spatial variability common in anisotropic, heterogeneous alluvial floodplain soils. The objective of this research was to quantify infiltration and hydraulic conductivity across a range of scales (point to 100 m2) using a berm infiltration technique. Plot-scale leaching experiments were performed across a range of soil types at each of three floodplain sites ...


Single- And Dual-Porosity Calibration And Long-Term Modeling Of Highly Conductive Floodplain Soils In The Ozark Ecoregion, Ryan P. Freiberger Dec 2014

Single- And Dual-Porosity Calibration And Long-Term Modeling Of Highly Conductive Floodplain Soils In The Ozark Ecoregion, Ryan P. Freiberger

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Phosphorus (P) is a critical nutrient for agriculture, but is also responsible for surface water enrichment that leads to algal growth. While P loading to surface waters has traditionally been thought to occur from surface runoff, contributions from subsurface transport can also be significant. Subsurface transport through gravelly soils in the Ozark ecoregion can have a significant, yet poorly-documented effect on P movement to groundwater.

Long-term P modeling was performed in HYDRUS-1D and 2D using data collected from short-term plot experiments featuring gravelly soils. Seven model levels were developed to illustrate a wide variety of laboratory and field conditions. Calibration ...


Finite Element Modeling Of Long-Term Phosphorus Leaching Through Macropores In The Ozark Ecoregion, Ryan P. Freiberger, Derek M. Heeren, Garey A. Fox, Chad J. Penn, Dean E. Eisenhauer Jul 2014

Finite Element Modeling Of Long-Term Phosphorus Leaching Through Macropores In The Ozark Ecoregion, Ryan P. Freiberger, Derek M. Heeren, Garey A. Fox, Chad J. Penn, Dean E. Eisenhauer

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Phosphorus (P) is a critical nutrient for plant growth in agriculture, but is also responsible for surface water enrichment that leads to toxic algal growth. While P loading to surface waters has traditionally been thought to occur from surface runoff, contributions from subsurface transport can also be significant. While P transport through many soil types is well-documented, the presence of highly conductive gravel outcrops and macropore networks can have a significant, yet poorly-documented effect on P movement to the aquifer. Floodplain soils in the Ozark ecoregion generally contain coarse chert gravel layers that exhibit macropore behavior. Previous research has evaluated ...


Berm Method For Quantification Of Infiltration At The Plot Scale In High Conductivity Soils, Derek M. Heeren, Garey A. Fox, Daniel E. Storm Feb 2014

Berm Method For Quantification Of Infiltration At The Plot Scale In High Conductivity Soils, Derek M. Heeren, Garey A. Fox, Daniel E. Storm

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Measuring infiltration at the plot scale is difficult, especially for high hydraulic conductivity soils. At the plot scale, the infiltration rate is usually calculated by comparing surface runoff to rainfall. Direct measurement of infiltration beyond the point scale is typically limited to locations where land forming (e.g., infiltration pond) has been performed or fields with basin irrigation systems. The standard method for field measurement of point-scale infiltration is the double ring infiltrometer, which is limited in size (typically 30 cm diameter). In this research, a new method is proposed that uses a temporary berm constructed of a water-filled 15-cm ...


Impact Of Measurement Scale On Infiltration And Phosphorus Leaching In Ozark Floodplains, Derek M. Heeren, Garey A. Fox, Daniel E. Storm, Brian E. Haggard, Chad J. Penn, Todd Halihan Jul 2013

Impact Of Measurement Scale On Infiltration And Phosphorus Leaching In Ozark Floodplains, Derek M. Heeren, Garey A. Fox, Daniel E. Storm, Brian E. Haggard, Chad J. Penn, Todd Halihan

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Increased nutrient loads have resulted in several adverse impacts on surface water quality, including excessive algal growth, fish kills, and drinking water taste and odor issues across the United States and especially in the Ozark ecoregion of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas. The significance of this problem has been highlighted by litigation, with one case even reaching the U.S. Supreme Court (Arkansas et al. v. Oklahoma et al., 503 U.S. 91) which required the upstream state to meet downstream water quality standards. The overarching objective of this line of research was to characterize phosphorus leaching to alluvial aquifers ...


Finite Element Modeling Of Phosphorus Leaching Through Floodplain Soils Dominated By Preferential Flow Pathways, Ryan P. Freiberger, Derek M. Heeren, Garey A. Fox Jul 2013

Finite Element Modeling Of Phosphorus Leaching Through Floodplain Soils Dominated By Preferential Flow Pathways, Ryan P. Freiberger, Derek M. Heeren, Garey A. Fox

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Phosphorus is a critical nutrient in soils, providing both positive and negative effects to different systems. While optimum crop growth requires a range of P above 0.2 mg/L, preventing surface water enrichment generally requires P to be below 0.03 mg/L. Proper application and control of phosphorus is important to increase farming efficiency and to protect freshwater systems from toxic algal growth. While the movement of phosphorus through many soil types has been well-documented, the presence of highly conductive, gravel outcrops and macropores in soil can have a significant, poorly-documented effect on phosphorus movement. In the Ozark ...


Designing Contour Weep Berms To Reduce Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution, Richard C. Warner, Carmen T. Agouridis, Ross L. Guffey Jan 2013

Designing Contour Weep Berms To Reduce Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution, Richard C. Warner, Carmen T. Agouridis, Ross L. Guffey

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) of surface waters is a significant issue in agricultural lands, and best management practices (BMPs) are often used to reduce these impacts. Since the effectiveness of a BMP depends on a large number of widely varying factors, it is important to continue to develop BMPs in order to provide designers with more tools to use to maximize NPS removal. The contour weep berm is a new structural BMP constructed out of earth and subsequently vegetated. It is a linear BMP that is used in combination with a down-gradient vegetated filter strip or forested riparian buffer. Preliminary ...


Berm Method For Quantification Of Infiltration And Leaching At The Plot Scale In High Conductivity Soils, Derek M. Heeren, Garey A. Fox, Daniel E. Storm Jan 2012

Berm Method For Quantification Of Infiltration And Leaching At The Plot Scale In High Conductivity Soils, Derek M. Heeren, Garey A. Fox, Daniel E. Storm

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Measuring infiltration and leaching at the plot scale is difficult, especially for high hydraulic conductivity soils. Infiltration rate has been indirectly calculated at the plot scale by comparing surface runoff to rainfall. Direct measurement of infiltration and leaching beyond the point scale is typically limited to locations where land forming has been performed, e.g. infiltration ponds and fields with basin irrigation. The standard method for field measurement of infiltration is a double ring infiltrometer, which is limited in size (typically 30 cm diameter). In this research, a new method is proposed that uses a temporary berm constructed of a ...


Effect Of Corn Or Soybean Row Position On Soil Water, Sally D. Logsdon, Thomas J. Sauer, Guillermo Hernandez-Ramirez, Jerry L. Hatfield, Amy L. Kaleita-Forbes, John H. Prueger Nov 2010

Effect Of Corn Or Soybean Row Position On Soil Water, Sally D. Logsdon, Thomas J. Sauer, Guillermo Hernandez-Ramirez, Jerry L. Hatfield, Amy L. Kaleita-Forbes, John H. Prueger

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Crop plants can funnel water to the soil and increase water content more in the row relative to the interrow. Because the row intercepts more soil water after rains and higher root density, the soil may also dry out more between rains than does soil in the interrow. The objectives of this study were to determine if there is a row position difference in soil wetting after rain and drying between rains, and to determine the seasonal nature of these differences. The first experiment examined soil water content 0 to 0.06 m in row, interrow, and quarter corn row ...


Green-Ampt Infiltration Parameters In Riparian Buffers, L. M. Stahr, Dean E. Eisenhauer, Matthew J. Helmers, Michael G. Dosskey, T. G. Franti Aug 2004

Green-Ampt Infiltration Parameters In Riparian Buffers, L. M. Stahr, Dean E. Eisenhauer, Matthew J. Helmers, Michael G. Dosskey, T. G. Franti

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Riparian buffers can improve surface water quality by filtering contaminants from runoff before they enter streams. Infiltration is an important process in riparian buffers. Computer models are often used to assess the performance of riparian buffers. Accurate prediction of infiltration by these models is dependent upon accurate estimates of infiltration parameters. Of particular interest here are Green-Ampt infiltration parameters, satiated hydraulic conductivity (Ko) and wetting front suction (hf). The objectives of this research were to (i) modify the Smith sorptivity procedure so that it can be used to estimate Green-Ampt infiltration parameters, (ii) Determine the relative closeness of Ko estimated ...


Assessing Air Infiltration Rates Of Agricultural Use Ventilation Curtains, Steven J. Hoff Jan 2001

Assessing Air Infiltration Rates Of Agricultural Use Ventilation Curtains, Steven J. Hoff

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Curtains commonly used in the agricultural ventilation industry were evaluated for air infiltration characteristics as a function of curtain material, closure overlap distance, and wind speed in a controlled and calibrated wind tunnel. Curtain material ranged from polypropylene to woven mesh with measured specific weights varying between 168 and 866 gm/m 2 (0.6 and 2.8 oz/ft 2 ). Curtains classified as breathable allow as much as 1243 m 3 /h–m 2 (68 cfm/ft 2 ) of infiltration air at wind speeds of 13.4 m/s (30 mph). For non–breathable curtains at wind speeds of ...


Validating A Vegetative Filter Strip Performance Model, Puneet Srivastava, Thomas A. Costello, Dwayne R. Edwards, James A. Ferguson Jan 1998

Validating A Vegetative Filter Strip Performance Model, Puneet Srivastava, Thomas A. Costello, Dwayne R. Edwards, James A. Ferguson

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Vegetative filter strips (VFS) reduce losses of nutrients, solids, and other materials from land area treated with fertilizers and manures. A number of models are available that simulate nutrient and sediment transport in VFS. While VFS effectiveness is considered to depend on lengths of pollutant source area and VFS areas, few published studies have tried to validate these models using variable pollutant source area and VFS area. The objective of this study was to validate an event-based nutrient transport model (Chaubey et al., 1995) that simulates soluble nutrient transport in VFS. This model links three sub-models: modified Green-Ampt infiltration, non-linear ...


A Direct, Approximate Solution To The Modified Green-Ampt Infiltration Equation, Puneet Srivastava, Thomas A. Costello, Dwayne R. Edwards Jan 1996

A Direct, Approximate Solution To The Modified Green-Ampt Infiltration Equation, Puneet Srivastava, Thomas A. Costello, Dwayne R. Edwards

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Accurately predicting the rainfall-runoff process is of vital importance for water quality models as well as for correct design of various types of hydraulic structures. This article presents a method of describing the cumulative infiltration process as an explicit function of time using an approximation to the modified Green-Ampt equation given by Mein and Larson (1971). The resulting equation is helpful in predicting cumulative infiltration and therefore infiltration capacity for computer simulation models. The proposed method takes about 50% less time than the usual iterative technique for the same degree of accuracy. The maximum error due to approximation was 1 ...


Interpreting Tension-Infiltrometer Data For Quantifying Soil Macropores: Some Practical Considerations, Christopher J. Everts, Ramesh S. Kanwar Jan 1993

Interpreting Tension-Infiltrometer Data For Quantifying Soil Macropores: Some Practical Considerations, Christopher J. Everts, Ramesh S. Kanwar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A tension-infiltrometer offers a practical means for obtaining information on soil infiltration characteristics at low soil moisture tensions in the field. This study examines interpretation of tension-infiltrometer results. Saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ks) calculated from unconfined tension-infiltrometer measurements were not statistically different from conductivity measurements made with a velocity-head permeameter. Ks values determined with the tension-infiltrometer were greater than conductivities measured with a Guelph permeameter. Tension-infiltrometer measurements of infiltration made through a 20-mm layer of sand were an order of magnitude less than ponded infiltration measurements at the same location. Increases in antecedent soil moisture decreased infiltration values, but parameters for ...


Infiltration Through Reconstructed Surface Mined Spoils And Soils, A. D. Ward, Larry G. Wells, R. E. Phillips Jan 1983

Infiltration Through Reconstructed Surface Mined Spoils And Soils, A. D. Ward, Larry G. Wells, R. E. Phillips

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

An extensive series of tests involving reconstructed profiles of spoil and topsoil material from a Western Kentucky surface mine site was conducted with a laboratory infiltrometer system. Infiltration through the reconstructed spoil profiles was very slow despite the coarse nature of the material. Low infiltration rates could be attributed to the material having a well-graded texture and to the high densities of the profiles. Infiltration through topsoil horizons was controlled, for the most part, by conditions at the surface. Following wetting, infiltration rates were primarily controlled by the hydraulic characteristics of the less permeable sub horizon of the spoil material ...