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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

The Clinical Utilities Of Multi-Pinhole Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Ilker Ozsahin, Ling Chen, Arda Konik, Michael A. King, Freek J. Beekman, Greta S. P. Mok Oct 2020

The Clinical Utilities Of Multi-Pinhole Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Ilker Ozsahin, Ling Chen, Arda Konik, Michael A. King, Freek J. Beekman, Greta S. P. Mok

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is an important imaging modality for various applications in nuclear medicine. The use of multi-pinhole (MPH) collimators can provide superior resolution-sensitivity trade-off when imaging small field-of-view compared to conventional parallel-hole and fan-beam collimators. Besides the very successful application in small animal imaging, there has been a resurgence of the use of MPH collimators for clinical cardiac and brain studies, as well as other small field-of-view applications. This article reviews the basic principles of MPH collimators and introduces currently available and proposed clinical MPH SPECT systems.


Influence Of Brain-Scalp Distance On Focality Of The Quadruple Butterfly Coil For Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Oluwaponmile F. Afuwape, Joseph Boldrey, Priyam Rastogi, Sarah A. Bentil, David C. Jiles Aug 2020

Influence Of Brain-Scalp Distance On Focality Of The Quadruple Butterfly Coil For Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Oluwaponmile F. Afuwape, Joseph Boldrey, Priyam Rastogi, Sarah A. Bentil, David C. Jiles

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a neuromodulation technique that non-invasively depolarizes neurons in the brain. During TMS, a pulse (or multiple pulses) of a time-varying magnetic field (H) is delivered to the brain using specialized coils. The Quadruple Butterfly Coil (QBC) is a novel coil design that shows increased focality of the induced electric field over that of the standard figure-of-eight (FoE) coil. Using 50 different head models created from MRI scans of healthy individuals, our research investigated the role that brain-scalp distance (BSD) plays in the brain’s response to the magnetic fields generated by the QBC and FoE ...


A Neurovascular High-Frequency Optical Coherence Tomography System Enables In Situ Cerebrovascular Volumetric Microscopy, Giovanni J. Ughi, Miklos G. Marosfoi, Robert M. King, Jildaz Caroff, Lindsy M. Peterson, Benjamin H. Duncan, Erin T. Langan, Amanda J. Collins, Anita M. Leporati, Serge Rousselle, Demetrius K. Lopes, Matthew J. Gounis, Ajit S. Puri Jul 2020

A Neurovascular High-Frequency Optical Coherence Tomography System Enables In Situ Cerebrovascular Volumetric Microscopy, Giovanni J. Ughi, Miklos G. Marosfoi, Robert M. King, Jildaz Caroff, Lindsy M. Peterson, Benjamin H. Duncan, Erin T. Langan, Amanda J. Collins, Anita M. Leporati, Serge Rousselle, Demetrius K. Lopes, Matthew J. Gounis, Ajit S. Puri

Radiology Publications

Intravascular imaging has emerged as a valuable tool for the treatment of coronary and peripheral artery disease; however, no solution is available for safe and reliable use in the tortuous vascular anatomy of the brain. Endovascular treatment of stroke is delivered under image guidance with insufficient resolution to adequately assess underlying arterial pathology and therapeutic devices. High-resolution imaging, enabling surgeons to visualize cerebral arteries' microstructure and micron-level features of neurovascular devices, would have a profound impact in the research, diagnosis, and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. Here, we present a neurovascular high-frequency optical coherence tomography (HF-OCT) system, including an imaging console ...


3d Architectural Analysis Of Neurons, Astrocytes, Vasculature & Nuclei In The Motor And Somatosensory Murine Cortical Columns, Jared Leichner Jul 2020

3d Architectural Analysis Of Neurons, Astrocytes, Vasculature & Nuclei In The Motor And Somatosensory Murine Cortical Columns, Jared Leichner

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Characterization of the complex cortical structure of the brain at a cellular level is a fundamental goal of neuroscience which can provide a better understanding of both normal function as well as disease state progression. Many challenges exist however when carrying out this form of analysis. Immunofluorescent staining is a key technique for revealing 3-dimensional structure, but subsequent fluorescence microscopy is limited by the quantity of simultaneous targets that can be labeled and intrinsic lateral and isotropic axial point-spread function (PSF) blurring during the imaging process in a spectral and depth-dependent manner. Even after successful staining, imaging and optical deconvolution ...


Post-Acquisition Processing Confounds In Brain Volumetric Quantification Of White Matter Hyperintensities, Ahmed A. Bahrani, Omar M. Al-Janabi, Erin L. Abner, Shoshana H. Bardach, Richard J. Kryscio, Donna M. Wilcock, Charles D. Smith, Gregory A. Jicha Nov 2019

Post-Acquisition Processing Confounds In Brain Volumetric Quantification Of White Matter Hyperintensities, Ahmed A. Bahrani, Omar M. Al-Janabi, Erin L. Abner, Shoshana H. Bardach, Richard J. Kryscio, Donna M. Wilcock, Charles D. Smith, Gregory A. Jicha

Neurology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Disparate research sites using identical or near-identical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition techniques often produce results that demonstrate significant variability regarding volumetric quantification of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in the aging population. The sources of such variability have not previously been fully explored.

NEW METHOD: 3D FLAIR sequences from a group of randomly selected aged subjects were analyzed to identify sources-of-variability in post-acquisition processing that can be problematic when comparing WMH volumetric data across disparate sites. The methods developed focused on standardizing post-acquisition protocol processing methods to develop a protocol with less than 0.5% inter-rater variance.

RESULTS: A ...


Influence Of Saline Solution Absorption And Compressive Rate On The Material Properties Of Brain Tissue, Annastacia K. Mccarty, Ling Zhang, Sarah Hansen, William J. Jackson, Sarah A. Bentil Sep 2019

Influence Of Saline Solution Absorption And Compressive Rate On The Material Properties Of Brain Tissue, Annastacia K. Mccarty, Ling Zhang, Sarah Hansen, William J. Jackson, Sarah A. Bentil

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) affect millions of people each year and can result in long-term difficulties in thinking or focusing. Due to the number of people affected by these injuries, significant research has been dedicated to determining the mechanical properties of the brain using postmortem tissue from animals harvested within 24 h. The postmortem brain tissue is often stored in a solution until a rheological experiment is ready to begin. However, the effect of storage duration on the mechanical behavior of brain tissue is not understood. In this paper, postmortem porcine brains were placed in normal saline solution (0.9 ...


Distinct Patterns Of Default Mode And Executive Control Network Circuitry Contribute To Present And Future Executive Function In Older Adults, Christopher A. Brown, Frederick A. Schmitt, Charles D. Smith, Brian T. Gold Jul 2019

Distinct Patterns Of Default Mode And Executive Control Network Circuitry Contribute To Present And Future Executive Function In Older Adults, Christopher A. Brown, Frederick A. Schmitt, Charles D. Smith, Brian T. Gold

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Executive function (EF) performance in older adults has been linked with functional and structural profiles within the executive control network (ECN) and default mode network (DMN), white matter hyperintensities (WMH) burden and levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Here, we simultaneously explored the unique contributions of these factors to baseline and longitudinal EF performance in older adults. Thirty-two cognitively normal (CN) older adults underwent neuropsychological testing at baseline and annually for three years. Neuroimaging and AD pathology measures were collected at baseline. Separate linear regression models were used to determine which of these variables predicted composite EF scores at ...


A Pilot Study Identifying Brain-Targeting Adaptive Immunity In Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Patients With Acquired Brain Injury, Sterling B. Ortega, Poornima Pandiyan, Jana Windsor, Vanessa O. Torres, Uma M. Selvaraj, Amy Lee, Michael Morriss, Fenghua Tian, Lakshmi Raman, Ann M. Stowe Mar 2019

A Pilot Study Identifying Brain-Targeting Adaptive Immunity In Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Patients With Acquired Brain Injury, Sterling B. Ortega, Poornima Pandiyan, Jana Windsor, Vanessa O. Torres, Uma M. Selvaraj, Amy Lee, Michael Morriss, Fenghua Tian, Lakshmi Raman, Ann M. Stowe

Neurology Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides short-term cardiopulmonary life support, but is associated with peripheral innate inflammation, disruptions in cerebral autoregulation, and acquired brain injury. We tested the hypothesis that extracorporeal membrane oxygenation also induces CNS-directed adaptive immune responses which may exacerbate extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-associated brain injury.

DESIGN: A single center prospective observational study.

SETTING: Pediatric and cardiac ICUs at a single tertiary care, academic center.

PATIENTS: Twenty pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients (0-14 yr; 13 females, 7 males) and five nonextracorporeal membrane oxygenation Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction score matched patients.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Venous blood samples were ...


Clinically Amendable, Defined, And Rapid Induction Of Human Brain Organoids From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Jeremy Micah Crook Jan 2019

Clinically Amendable, Defined, And Rapid Induction Of Human Brain Organoids From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Jeremy Micah Crook

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Human brain organoids provide opportunities to produce three-dimensional (3D) brain-like tissues for biomedical research and translational drug discovery, toxicology, and tissue replacement. Here we describe a protocol for rapid and defined induction of brain organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), using commercially available culture and differentiation media and a cheap, easy to handle and clinically approved semisynthetic hydrogel. Importantly, the methodology is uncomplicated, well-defined, and reliable for reproducible and scalable organoid generation, and amendable to principles of current good laboratory practice (cGLP), with the potential for prospective adaptation to current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) toward clinical compliance.


Modeling Eeg And Tdcs In Scirun Software Packages, Aiden Keene, Aiden Thomas Keene May 2018

Modeling Eeg And Tdcs In Scirun Software Packages, Aiden Keene, Aiden Thomas Keene

Senior Honors Projects

Never before has there been a greater emphasis on improving the shortcomings of treating mental health conditions. Our generation has more knowledge about technological practices with the potential to monitor and treat mental health symptoms than that of any generation before us. A breakthrough in this field made by CREmedical is called Tripolar Concentric Ring Electrodes (TCRE’s), which can measure signals from the brain more accurately than conventional electrodes. At CREmedical, TCREs are being used to study differences in electrical activity in the brain so as to identify abnormalities, and monitor responses to stimulation therapies. This semester I had ...


Investigation Of Shape, Position, And Permeability Of Shielding Material In Quadruple Butterfly Coil For Focused Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Priyam Rastogi, Bowen Zhang, Yalun Tang, Erik G. Lee, Ravi L. Hadimani, David C. Jiles Jan 2018

Investigation Of Shape, Position, And Permeability Of Shielding Material In Quadruple Butterfly Coil For Focused Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Priyam Rastogi, Bowen Zhang, Yalun Tang, Erik G. Lee, Ravi L. Hadimani, David C. Jiles

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been gaining popularity in the therapy for several neurological disorders. A time-varying magnetic field is used to generate electric field in the brain. As the development of TMS methods takes place, emphasis on the coil design increases in order to improve focal stimulation. Ideally reduction of stimulation of neighboring regions of the target area is desired. This study, focused on the improvement of the focality of the Quadruple Butterfly Coil (QBC) with supplemental use of different passive shields. Parameters such as shape, position and permeability of the shields have been explored to improve the focus of ...


Brain Motion, Deformation, And Potential Injury During Soccer Heading, Charles F. Babbs Dec 2017

Brain Motion, Deformation, And Potential Injury During Soccer Heading, Charles F. Babbs

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering Faculty Working Papers

This paper addresses the problem of what is happening physically inside the skull during head-ball contact. Mathematical models based upon Newton’s laws of motion and numerical methods are used to create animations of brain motion and deformation inside the skull.

Initially a 1 cm gap filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) separates the brain from the rigid skull in adults and older children. Whole head acceleration induces a pulse of artificial gravity within the skull. Because brain density differs slightly from that of CSF, the brain accelerates and strikes the inner aspect of the skull, undergoing viscoelastic deformation, ranging from ...


An Integrated Multi-Modal Registration Technique For Medical Imaging, Xue Wang Nov 2017

An Integrated Multi-Modal Registration Technique For Medical Imaging, Xue Wang

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Registration of medical imaging is essential for aligning in time and space different modalities and hence consolidating their strengths for enhanced diagnosis and for the effective planning of treatment or therapeutic interventions. The primary objective of this study is to develop an integrated registration method that is effective for registering both brain and whole-body images. We seek in the proposed method to combine in one setting the excellent registration results that FMRIB Software Library (FSL) produces with brain images and the excellent results of Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) when registering whole-body images. To assess attainment of these objectives, the following ...


Effect Of Anatomical Variability In Brain On Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Treatment, F. Syeda, H. Magsood, E. G. Lee, A. A. El-Gendy, David C. Jiles, R. L. Hadimani Jan 2017

Effect Of Anatomical Variability In Brain On Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Treatment, F. Syeda, H. Magsood, E. G. Lee, A. A. El-Gendy, David C. Jiles, R. L. Hadimani

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation is a non-invasive clinical therapy used to treat depression and migraine, and shows further promise as treatment for Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and other neurological disorders. However, it is yet unclear as to how anatomical differences may affect stimulation from this treatment. We use finite element analysis to model and analyze the results of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in various head models.A number of heterogeneous head models have been developed using MRI data of real patients, including healthy individuals as well as patients of Parkinson’s disease. Simulations of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation performed on 22 ...


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Coil Design With Improved Focality, Priyam Rastogi, E. G. Lee, Ravi L. Hadimani, David C. Jiles Jan 2017

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Coil Design With Improved Focality, Priyam Rastogi, E. G. Lee, Ravi L. Hadimani, David C. Jiles

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a technique for neuromodulation that can be used as a non-invasive therapy for various neurological disorders. In TMS, a time varying magnetic field generated from an electromagnetic coilplaced on the scalp is used to induce an electric field inside the brain. TMS coilgeometry plays an important role in determining the focality and depth of penetration of the induced electric field responsible for stimulation. Clinicians and basic scientists are interested in stimulating a localized area of the brain,while minimizing the stimulation of surrounding neural networks. In this paper, a novel coil has been proposed, namely ...


Circle Of Willis Model For Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound Training, Conner J. Beyersdorf, Ben Hage, Greg Bashford Apr 2016

Circle Of Willis Model For Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound Training, Conner J. Beyersdorf, Ben Hage, Greg Bashford

UCARE Research Products

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound is a technique involving the use of high frequency transmitters to measure intracranial blood flow. The brain is supplied by blood in an arterial anastomosis called the Circle of Willis. Using TCD ultrasound on the circle is difficult and requires practice and teaching. A functional model of the Circle of Willis could prove to be a valuable teaching tool. Through the use of AutoCAD and 3D printing software, an anatomically accurate model was created and set in gelatin phantom inside of a plastic skull. Milk was pumped through the model with a peristaltic pump to simulate ...


“My Logic Is Undeniable”: Replicating The Brain For Ideal Artificial Intelligence, Samuel C. Adams Apr 2016

“My Logic Is Undeniable”: Replicating The Brain For Ideal Artificial Intelligence, Samuel C. Adams

Senior Honors Theses

Alan Turing asked if machines can think, but intelligence is more than logic and reason. I ask if a machine can feel pain or joy, have visions and dreams, or paint a masterpiece. The human brain sets the bar high, and despite our progress, artificial intelligence has a long way to go. Studying neurology from a software engineer’s perspective reveals numerous uncanny similarities between the functionality of the brain and that of a computer. If the brain is a biological computer, then it is the embodiment of artificial intelligence beyond anything we have yet achieved, and its architecture is ...


Brain On A Bench Top, Rodrigo Lozano, Leo Stevens, Brianna C. Thompson, Kerry J. Gilmore, Robert A. Gorkin Iii, Elise M. Stewart, Marc In Het Panhuis, Mario I. Romero-Ortega, Gordon G. Wallace Jan 2016

Brain On A Bench Top, Rodrigo Lozano, Leo Stevens, Brianna C. Thompson, Kerry J. Gilmore, Robert A. Gorkin Iii, Elise M. Stewart, Marc In Het Panhuis, Mario I. Romero-Ortega, Gordon G. Wallace

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Tissue grafting and organ transplantation are common techniques in modern medicine, but suffer from the widely-reported limitations of constrained supply and the risk of rejection, necessitating a lifetime of immunosuppressant medication [1]. The field of tissue engineering has advanced markedly over the last decade, and engineered tissues are under development for both regenerative medicine applications as well as the formation of accurate in vitro models for the study of fundamental tissue behaviours, disease states and drug discovery. Both biological and synthetic materials have been formed into cell-supporting tissue scaffolds [2,3]. In broad terms, biological materials and particularly extracellular matrix ...


Computational Assessment Of Neural Probe And Brain Tissue Interface Under Transient Motion, Michael Polanco, Sebastian Bawab, Hangsoon Yoon Jan 2016

Computational Assessment Of Neural Probe And Brain Tissue Interface Under Transient Motion, Michael Polanco, Sebastian Bawab, Hangsoon Yoon

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

The functional longevity of a neural probe is dependent upon its ability to minimize injury risk during the insertion and recording period in vivo, which could be related to motion-related strain between the probe and surrounding tissue. A series of finite element analyses was conducted to study the extent of the strain induced within the brain in an area around a neural probe. This study focuses on the transient behavior of neural probe and brain tissue interface with a viscoelastic model. Different stages of the interface from initial insertion of neural probe to full bonding of the probe by astro-glial ...


Spatio-Temporal Progression Of Cortical Activity Related To Continuous Overt And Covert Speech Production In A Reading Task, Jonathan S. Brumberg, Dean J. Krusienski, Shreya Chakrabarti, Aysegul Gunduz, Peter Brunner, Anthony L. Ritaccio, Gerwin Schalk Jan 2016

Spatio-Temporal Progression Of Cortical Activity Related To Continuous Overt And Covert Speech Production In A Reading Task, Jonathan S. Brumberg, Dean J. Krusienski, Shreya Chakrabarti, Aysegul Gunduz, Peter Brunner, Anthony L. Ritaccio, Gerwin Schalk

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

How the human brain plans, executes, and monitors continuous and fluent speech has remained largely elusive. For example, previous research has defined the cortical locations most important for different aspects of speech function, but has not yet yielded a definition of the temporal progression of involvement of those locations as speech progresses either overtly or covertly. In this paper, we uncovered the spatio-temporal evolution of neuronal population-level activity related to continuous overt speech, and identified those locations that shared activity characteristics across overt and covert speech. Specifically, we asked subjects to repeat continuous sentences aloud or silently while we recorded ...


Persistently Altered Brain Mitochondrial Bioenergetics After Apparently Successful Resuscitation From Cardiac Arrest, Todd Kilbaugh, Robert M. Sutton, Michael Karlsson, Magnus J. Hansson, Maryam Y. Naim, Ryan W. Morgan, George Bratinov, Joshua Willard Lampe, Vinay Nadkarni, Lance Becker, Susan S. Margulies, Robert A. Berg Sep 2015

Persistently Altered Brain Mitochondrial Bioenergetics After Apparently Successful Resuscitation From Cardiac Arrest, Todd Kilbaugh, Robert M. Sutton, Michael Karlsson, Magnus J. Hansson, Maryam Y. Naim, Ryan W. Morgan, George Bratinov, Joshua Willard Lampe, Vinay Nadkarni, Lance Becker, Susan S. Margulies, Robert A. Berg

Departmental Papers (BE)

Background Although advances in cardiopulmonary resuscitation have improved survival from cardiac arrest (CA), neurologic injury persists and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics may be critical for targeted neuroresuscitation. The authors sought to determine if excellent cardiopulmonary resuscitation and postresuscitation care and good traditional survival rates result in persistently disordered cerebral mitochondrial bioenergetics in a porcine pediatric model of asphyxia‐associated ventricular fibrillation CA.

Methods and Results After 7 minutes of asphyxia, followed by ventricular fibrillation, 5 female 1‐month‐old swine (4 sham) received blood pressure–targeted care: titration of compression depth to systolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg and vasopressor ...


Registration Of In-Vivo To Ex-Vivo Mri Of Surgically Resected Specimens: A Pipeline For Histology To In-Vivo Registration., Maged Goubran, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Robert R Hammond, Catherine Currie, Jorge G Burneo, Andrew G Parrent, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan Jan 2015

Registration Of In-Vivo To Ex-Vivo Mri Of Surgically Resected Specimens: A Pipeline For Histology To In-Vivo Registration., Maged Goubran, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Robert R Hammond, Catherine Currie, Jorge G Burneo, Andrew G Parrent, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan

Robarts Imaging Publications

BACKGROUND: Advances in MRI have the potential to improve surgical treatment of epilepsy through improved identification and delineation of lesions. However, validation is currently needed to investigate histopathological correlates of these new imaging techniques. The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate a protocol for deformable image registration of in-vivo to ex-vivo resected brain specimen MRI. This protocol, in conjunction with our previous work on ex-vivo to histology registration, completes a registration pipeline for histology to in-vivo MRI, enabling voxel-based validation of novel and existing MRI techniques with histopathology.

NEW METHOD: A combination of image-based and landmark-based 3D ...


Functional Brain Network Classification With Compact Representation Of Sice Matrices, Jianjia Zhang, Luping Zhou, Lei Wang, Wanqing Li Jan 2015

Functional Brain Network Classification With Compact Representation Of Sice Matrices, Jianjia Zhang, Luping Zhou, Lei Wang, Wanqing Li

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Recently, sparse inverse covariance estimation (SICE) technique has been employed to model functional brain connectivity. The inverse covariance matrix (SICE matrix in short) estimated for each subject is used as a representation of brain connectivity to discriminate Alzheimers disease from normal controls. However, we observed that direct use of the SICE matrix does not necessarily give satisfying discrimination, due to its high dimensionality and the scarcity of training subjects. Looking into this problem, we argue that the intrinsic dimensionality of these SICE matrices shall be much lower, considering i) an SICE matrix resides on a Riemannian manifold of symmetric positive ...


Pre-Differentiation Of Human Neural Stem Cells Into Gabaergic Neurons Prior To Transplant Results In Greater Repopulation Of The Damaged Brain And Accelerates Functional Recovery After Transient Ischemic Stroke, Hima C. S Abeysinghe, Laita Bokhari, Anita F. Quigley, Mahesh A. Choolani, Jerry Chan, Gregory J. Dusting, Jeremy M. Crook, Nao R. Kobayashi, Carli Roulston Jan 2015

Pre-Differentiation Of Human Neural Stem Cells Into Gabaergic Neurons Prior To Transplant Results In Greater Repopulation Of The Damaged Brain And Accelerates Functional Recovery After Transient Ischemic Stroke, Hima C. S Abeysinghe, Laita Bokhari, Anita F. Quigley, Mahesh A. Choolani, Jerry Chan, Gregory J. Dusting, Jeremy M. Crook, Nao R. Kobayashi, Carli Roulston

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

2015 Abeysinghe et al. Introduction: Despite attempts to prevent brain injury during the hyperacute phase of stroke, most sufferers end up with significant neuronal loss and functional deficits. The use of cell-based therapies to recover the injured brain offers new hope. In the current study, we employed human neural stem cells (hNSCs) isolated from subventricular zone (SVZ), and directed their differentiation into GABAergic neurons followed by transplantation to ischemic brain. Methods: Pre-differentiated GABAergic neurons, undifferentiated SVZ-hNSCs or media alone were stereotaxically transplanted into the rat brain (n=7/group) 7 days after endothelin-1 induced stroke. Neurological outcome was assessed by ...


Neuroimaging And Neuromodulation Approaches To Study Eating Behavior And Prevent And Treat Eating Disorders And Obesity, D. Val-Laillet, E. Aarts, B. Weber, M. Ferrari, V. Quaresima, L. E. Stoeckel, M. Alonso-Alonso, M. Audette, C. H. Malbert, E. Stice Jan 2015

Neuroimaging And Neuromodulation Approaches To Study Eating Behavior And Prevent And Treat Eating Disorders And Obesity, D. Val-Laillet, E. Aarts, B. Weber, M. Ferrari, V. Quaresima, L. E. Stoeckel, M. Alonso-Alonso, M. Audette, C. H. Malbert, E. Stice

Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering Faculty Publications

Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at ...


The Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (Brats), Bjoern H. Menze, Andras Jakab, Stefan Bauer, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Khan M. Iftekharuddin, Syed M.S. Reza Jan 2015

The Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (Brats), Bjoern H. Menze, Andras Jakab, Stefan Bauer, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Khan M. Iftekharuddin, Syed M.S. Reza

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

In this paper we report the set-up and results of the Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) organized in conjunction with the MICCAI 2012 and 2013 conferences. Twenty state-of-the-art tumor segmentation algorithms were applied to a set of 65 multi-contrast MR scans of low-and high-grade glioma patients-manually annotated by up to four raters-and to 65 comparable scans generated using tumor image simulation software. Quantitative evaluations revealed considerable disagreement between the human raters in segmenting various tumor sub-regions (Dice scores in the range 74%-85%), illustrating the difficulty of this task. We found that different algorithms worked best for different ...


Deep Brain Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using Variable “Halo Coil” System, Y. Meng, Ravi L. Hadimani, Lawrence J. Crowther, Z. Xu, J. Qu Jan 2015

Deep Brain Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using Variable “Halo Coil” System, Y. Meng, Ravi L. Hadimani, Lawrence J. Crowther, Z. Xu, J. Qu

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation has the potential to treat various neurological disorders non-invasively and safely. The “Halo coil” configuration can stimulate deeper regions of the brainwith lower surface to deep-brain field ratio compared to other coil configurations. The existing “Halo coil” configuration is fixed and is limited in varying the site of stimulation in the brain. We have developed a new system based on the current “Halo coil” design along with a graphicaluser interface system that enables the larger coil to rotate along the transverse plane. The new system can also enable vertical movement of larger coil. Thus, this adjustable “Halo ...


Technical Note: Phantom Study To Evaluate The Dose And Image Quality Effects Of A Computed Tomography Organ-Based Tube Current Modulation Technique, Diksha Gandhi, Dominic J. Crotty, Grant M. Stevens, Taly Gilat Schmidt Jan 2015

Technical Note: Phantom Study To Evaluate The Dose And Image Quality Effects Of A Computed Tomography Organ-Based Tube Current Modulation Technique, Diksha Gandhi, Dominic J. Crotty, Grant M. Stevens, Taly Gilat Schmidt

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Purpose

This technical note quantifies the dose and image quality performance of a clinically available organ-dose-based tube current modulation (ODM) technique, using experimental and simulation phantom studies. The investigated ODM implementation reduces the tube current for the anterior source positions, without increasing current for posterior positions, although such an approach was also evaluated for comparison.

Methods

Axial CT scans at 120 kV were performed on head and chest phantoms on an ODM-equipped scanner (Optima CT660, GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, England). Dosimeters quantified dose to breast, lung, heart, spine, eye lens, and brain regions for ODM and 3D-modulation (SmartmA) settings ...


A NTh-Order Linear Algorithm For Extracting Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Blood Flow Indices In Heterogeneous Tissues, Yu Shang, Guoqiang Yu Oct 2014

A NTh-Order Linear Algorithm For Extracting Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Blood Flow Indices In Heterogeneous Tissues, Yu Shang, Guoqiang Yu

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Conventional semi-infinite analytical solutions of correlation diffusion equation may lead to errors when calculating blood flow index (BFI) from diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements in tissues with irregular geometries. Very recently, we created an algorithm integrating a Nth-order linear model of autocorrelation function with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon migrations in homogenous tissues with arbitrary geometries for extraction of BFI (i.e., αDB ). The purpose of this study is to extend the capability of the Nth-order linear algorithm for extracting BFI in heterogeneous tissues with arbitrary geometries. The previous linear algorithm was modified to extract BFIs ...


Stationary Wavelet Transform For Under-Sampled Mri Reconstruction., Mohammad H Kayvanrad, A Jonathan Mcleod, John S H Baxter, Charles A Mckenzie, Terry M Peters Jan 2014

Stationary Wavelet Transform For Under-Sampled Mri Reconstruction., Mohammad H Kayvanrad, A Jonathan Mcleod, John S H Baxter, Charles A Mckenzie, Terry M Peters

Robarts Imaging Publications

In addition to coil sensitivity data (parallel imaging), sparsity constraints are often used as an additional lp-penalty for under-sampled MRI reconstruction (compressed sensing). Penalizing the traditional decimated wavelet transform (DWT) coefficients, however, results in visual pseudo-Gibbs artifacts, some of which are attributed to the lack of translation invariance of the wavelet basis. We show that these artifacts can be greatly reduced by penalizing the translation-invariant stationary wavelet transform (SWT) coefficients. This holds with various additional reconstruction constraints, including coil sensitivity profiles and total variation. Additionally, SWT reconstructions result in lower error values and faster convergence compared to DWT. These concepts ...