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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Microbial Assemblages And Methanogenesis Pathways Impact Methane Production And Foaming In Manure Deep-Pit Storages, Fan Yang, Daniel S. Andersen, Steven Trabue, Angela D. Kent, Laura M. Pepple, Richard S. Gates, Adina Howe Aug 2021

Microbial Assemblages And Methanogenesis Pathways Impact Methane Production And Foaming In Manure Deep-Pit Storages, Fan Yang, Daniel S. Andersen, Steven Trabue, Angela D. Kent, Laura M. Pepple, Richard S. Gates, Adina Howe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Foam accumulation in swine manure deep-pits has been linked to explosions and flash fires that pose devastating threats to humans and livestock. It is clear that methane accumulation within these pits is the fuel for the fire; it is not understood what microbial drivers cause the accumulation and stabilization of methane. Here, we conducted a 13-month field study to survey the physical, chemical, and biological changes of pit-manure across 46 farms in Iowa. Our results showed that an increased methane production rate was associated with less digestible feed ingredients, suggesting that diet influences the storage pit’s microbiome. Targeted sequencing ...


Classifying Ingestive Behavior Of Dairy Cows Via Automatic Sound Recognition, Guoming Li, Yijie Xiong, Qian Du, Zhengxiang Shi, Richard S. Gates Aug 2021

Classifying Ingestive Behavior Of Dairy Cows Via Automatic Sound Recognition, Guoming Li, Yijie Xiong, Qian Du, Zhengxiang Shi, Richard S. Gates

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Determining ingestive behaviors of dairy cows is critical to evaluate their productivity and health status. The objectives of this research were to (1) develop the relationship between forage species/heights and sound characteristics of three different ingestive behaviors (bites, chews, and chew-bites); (2) comparatively evaluate three deep learning models and optimization strategies for classifying the three behaviors; and (3) examine the ability of deep learning modeling for classifying the three ingestive behaviors under various forage characteristics. The results show that the amplitude and duration of the bite, chew, and chew-bite sounds were mostly larger for tall forages (tall fescue and ...


Sensor-Based Irrigation Of Maize And Soybean In East-Central Nebraska Under A Sub-Humid Climate, Jasreman Singh, Derek M. Heeren, Yufeng Ge, Geng Bai, Christopher M.U. Neale, Mitchell S. Maguire, Sandeep Bhatti Jul 2021

Sensor-Based Irrigation Of Maize And Soybean In East-Central Nebraska Under A Sub-Humid Climate, Jasreman Singh, Derek M. Heeren, Yufeng Ge, Geng Bai, Christopher M.U. Neale, Mitchell S. Maguire, Sandeep Bhatti

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

The ever increasing pressure on the water resources in Nebraska and other irrigated agricultural areas require innovations and solutions for the governance of water allocation. This study proposes the use of sensor-based method for irrigation which has the potential to improve irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE). Practical methods and algorithms for creating irrigation prescriptions have become vital for the adoption of precision irrigation. A decision support system (DSS) for uniform irrigation was evaluated during 2020 growing season in a sub-humid region. The DSS was managed using soil water and plant feedback. In field practice, a sensor node station comprising of ...


Mitigation Of Acute Hydrogen Sulfide And Ammonia Emissions From Swine Manure During Three-Hour Agitation Using Pelletized Biochar, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Myeongseong Lee, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Robert C. Brown Jun 2021

Mitigation Of Acute Hydrogen Sulfide And Ammonia Emissions From Swine Manure During Three-Hour Agitation Using Pelletized Biochar, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Myeongseong Lee, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Robert C. Brown

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The risk of inhalation exposure to elevated concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) during the agitation of stored swine manure is high. Once or twice a year, farmers agitate manure before pump-out and application to fields. Agitation of the swine manure causes the short-term releases of highly toxic levels of H2S and NH3. In our previous pilot-scale studies, the biochar powder showed significant mitigation of H2S and NH3 emissions when it was surficially applied to manure immediately before agitation. However, fine biochar powder application poses hazards by itself and may not be practical to apply on a farm ...


Soil Net Nitrogen Mineralization And Leaching Under Miscanthus × Giganteus And Zea Mays, Jacob E. Studt, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, Mauricio D. Tejera, Andrew Vanloocke, Adina Howe, Emily A. Heaton Jun 2021

Soil Net Nitrogen Mineralization And Leaching Under Miscanthus × Giganteus And Zea Mays, Jacob E. Studt, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, Mauricio D. Tejera, Andrew Vanloocke, Adina Howe, Emily A. Heaton

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The winter fallow period common in annual cropping systems leaves soils vulnerable to erosion and nutrient loss, especially to nitrogen (N) leaching. This vulnerability can be mitigated with perennial crops that have living roots in the ground year-round. The mechanisms, magnitude, and consistency with which perennial crops retain N are not clear. We used an experiment to test whether a perennial crop, miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu.), would leach less N than continuous maize (Zea mays L.) and how soil net N mineralization (Nmin) may explain observed leaching under varied environment and management conditions. The experiment included three crossed ...


Development Of Thermal Performance Metrics For Direct Gas-Fired Circulating Heaters, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff Jun 2021

Development Of Thermal Performance Metrics For Direct Gas-Fired Circulating Heaters, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Many climate-controlled agricultural buildings use direct gas-fired circulating heaters (DGFCH) for supplement heat. There is no standardized test to calculate thermal efficiency for these heaters. This study aimed to develop a measurement system and analytical analysis for thermal efficiency, quantify the measurement uncertainty, and assess economics of DGFCH efficiency. The measurement system developed was similar to the ASHRAE 103 standard test stand with adaptations to connect the apparatus to the DGFCH. Two different propane measurement systems were used: input ratings < 30 kW used a mass flow system and input ratings > 30 kW used a volumetric gas meter. Three DGFCHs (21.9, 29.3, 73.3 kW) were tested to evaluate ...


Low Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia Pretreatment Of Four Lignocellulosic Materials—Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, Corn Gluten Feed, Corn Fiber, And Oil Palm Frond, Nazira Mahmud, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jun 2021

Low Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia Pretreatment Of Four Lignocellulosic Materials—Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, Corn Gluten Feed, Corn Fiber, And Oil Palm Frond, Nazira Mahmud, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Lignin and hemicellulose structures in cellulosic materials serve as a barrier for enzyme reactions. A pretreatment step is often needed to break these components to allow the biomass to be utilized as a source of value-added products. Various available pretreatment methods possess common drawbacks of the high amount of liquid and chemical requirements, harsh process conditions, and the high amount of waste produced, which driving up the production costs of bioproducts. Low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) pretreatment capable of eliminating those drawbacks. In this study, Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS), corn gluten feed (CGF), corn fiber (CF), and oil ...


Can Agricultural Management Induced Changes In Soil Organic Carbon Be Detected Using Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy?, Jonathan Sanderman, Kathleen Savage, Shree R.S. Dangal, Gabriel Duran, Charlotte Rivard, Michel A. Cavigelli, Hero T. Gollany, Virginia L. Jin, Mark A. Liebig, Emmanuel Chiwo Omondi, Yichao Rui, Catherine Stewart Jun 2021

Can Agricultural Management Induced Changes In Soil Organic Carbon Be Detected Using Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy?, Jonathan Sanderman, Kathleen Savage, Shree R.S. Dangal, Gabriel Duran, Charlotte Rivard, Michel A. Cavigelli, Hero T. Gollany, Virginia L. Jin, Mark A. Liebig, Emmanuel Chiwo Omondi, Yichao Rui, Catherine Stewart

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

A major limitation to building credible soil carbon sequestration programs is the cost of measuring soil carbon change. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is considered a viable low-cost alternative to traditional laboratory analysis of soil organic carbon (SOC). While numerous studies have shown that DRS can produce accurate and precise estimates of SOC across landscapes, whether DRS can detect subtle management induced changes in SOC at a given site has not been resolved. Here, we leverage archived soil samples from seven long-term research trials in the U.S. to test this question using mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy coupled with the USDA-NRCS ...


Effects Of Drying And Providing Supplemental Oxygen To Piglets At Birth On Rectal Temperature Over The First 24 H After Birth, Katherine D. Vande Pol, Andres F. Tolosa, Raphael O. Bautista, Naomi C. Willard, Richard S. Gates, Caleb M. Shull, Catherine B. Brown, Stephan A.S. Alencar, Clay A. Lents, Michael Ellis May 2021

Effects Of Drying And Providing Supplemental Oxygen To Piglets At Birth On Rectal Temperature Over The First 24 H After Birth, Katherine D. Vande Pol, Andres F. Tolosa, Raphael O. Bautista, Naomi C. Willard, Richard S. Gates, Caleb M. Shull, Catherine B. Brown, Stephan A.S. Alencar, Clay A. Lents, Michael Ellis

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Neonatal piglets can experience both a decrease in body temperature and hypoxia, increasing risks for pre-weaning mortality. This research evaluated the effects of drying and providing supplemental oxygen to newborn piglets on rectal temperature (RT) over the first 24 h after birth. The study used a CRD with 3 Intervention Treatments (IT; applied at birth): Control (no intervention), Drying (dried using a desiccant), Oxygen [dried using a desiccant and placed in a chamber (at 40% oxygen concentration) for 20 min]. A total of 42 litters (485 piglets) were randomly allotted to treatments at the start of farrowing. At birth, each ...


Techno-Economic Analysis Of Integrating Soybean Biorefinery Products Into Corn-Based Ethanol Fermentation Operations, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Weitao Zhang May 2021

Techno-Economic Analysis Of Integrating Soybean Biorefinery Products Into Corn-Based Ethanol Fermentation Operations, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Weitao Zhang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

With the development of agricultural biorefineries and bioprocessing operations, understanding the economic efficiencies and environmental impacts for these have gradually become popular for the deployment of these industrial processes. The corn-based ethanol and soybean oil refining industries have been examined extensively over the years, especially details of processing technologies, including materials, reaction controls, equipment, and industrial applications. The study focused on examining the production efficiency changes and economic impacts of integrating products from the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) of soybeans into corn-based ethanol fermentation processing. Using SuperPro Designer to simulate production of corn-based ethanol at either 40 million gallons ...


Implementation Of Biomimetics As An Optimization Process Of Animal Production Structures, Fabiane De Fátima Maciel, Carlos Eduardo Alves Oliveira, Leonardo França Da Silva, Fernanda Campos De Sousa, Ilda De Fátima Ferreira Tinôco, Richard S. Gates May 2021

Implementation Of Biomimetics As An Optimization Process Of Animal Production Structures, Fabiane De Fátima Maciel, Carlos Eduardo Alves Oliveira, Leonardo França Da Silva, Fernanda Campos De Sousa, Ilda De Fátima Ferreira Tinôco, Richard S. Gates

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The theoretical study of the applications of Biomimetics in the construction and development of solutions brings together methods, concepts and examples of applications that can awaken creativity and, at the same time, critical thinking about the recovery of the balance between human action and nature. The inspiration of Biomimetics can raise awareness about the need to adopt new technologies, standards, and survival criteria, considering the environmental balance. In this sense, the objective of this study is to describe the use of Biomimetics as a promising agent for sustainable ideas to the problems identified in ambience in animal production. With a ...


Antibiotic Resistance Gene Dissipation In Soil Microcosms Amended With Antibiotics And Swine Manure, Laura Alt, Alyssa N. Iverson, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Adina Howe May 2021

Antibiotic Resistance Gene Dissipation In Soil Microcosms Amended With Antibiotics And Swine Manure, Laura Alt, Alyssa N. Iverson, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Adina Howe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The use of antibiotics in animal agriculture has exacerbated the presence of both antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and residual antibiotics excreted in animal manure. Field application of this manure is a common practice as its nutrient rich material can benefit crop growth. However, this practice can also introduce antibiotics and ARGs into non-agricultural settings. The integration of prairie buffer strips within and at the edge of crop fields is a potential management solution to reduce concentrations of ARGs commonly transported via water runoff and infiltration. To investigate the fate of ARGs in directly manured crop field soils and surrounding, impacted ...


Perennial Groundcovers: An Emerging Technology For Soil Conservation And The Sustainable Intensification Of Agriculture, Brandon Schlautman, Cynthia Bartel, Luis Diaz-Garcia, Shuizhang Fei, Scott Flynn, Erin Haramoto, Kenneth J. Moore, D. Raj Raman May 2021

Perennial Groundcovers: An Emerging Technology For Soil Conservation And The Sustainable Intensification Of Agriculture, Brandon Schlautman, Cynthia Bartel, Luis Diaz-Garcia, Shuizhang Fei, Scott Flynn, Erin Haramoto, Kenneth J. Moore, D. Raj Raman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Integrating perennial groundcovers (PGC) — sometimes referred to as living mulches or perennial cover crops — into annual cash-crop systems could address root causes of bare-soil practices that lead to negative impacts on soil and water quality. Perennial groundcovers bring otherwise absent functional traits — namely perenniality — into cash-crop systems to preserve soil and regenerate water, carbon, and nutrient cycles. However, if not optimized, they can also cause competitive interactions and yield loss. When designing PGC systems, the goal is to maximize complementarity — spatial and temporal separation of growth and resource acquisition — between PGC and cash crops through both breeding and management. Traits ...


Exploration Of The Sludge Biodiesel Pathway, Zachary Christman May 2021

Exploration Of The Sludge Biodiesel Pathway, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Wastewater sludge is an overlooked source of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) that could be converted into biodiesel. The United States produces about 8 million tons of sludge per year. The disposal cost for this amount of sludge is about 2 billion dollars. The widespread availability and low cost of sludge compared to other biodiesel raw materials make it an economical choice for a renewable fuel. Using sludge as a raw material can produce 25 to 30 mg per gram of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME); the main component of biodiesel. Sludge biodiesel has the potential of transforming a portion ...


Mitigation Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Barn With Uv-A And Uv-C Photocatalysis, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik May 2021

Mitigation Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Barn With Uv-A And Uv-C Photocatalysis, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

UV-A (ca. 365 nm wavelength, a.k.a. ‘black light’) photocatalysis has been investigated to comprehensively mitigate odor and selected air pollutants in the livestock environment. This study was conducted to confirm the performance of UV-A photocatalysis on the swine farm. The objectives of this research were to (1) scale-up of the UV-A photocatalysis treatment, (2) evaluate the mitigation of odorous gases from swine slurry pit, (3) test different UV sources, (4) evaluate the effect of particulate matter (PM) and (5) conduct preliminary economic analyses. We tested UV-A photocatalysis at a mobile laboratory-scale capable of treating ~0.2–0.8 ...


Evaluation Of Tio2 Based Photocatalytic Treatment Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Manure With Uv-A And Uv-C, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik Apr 2021

Evaluation Of Tio2 Based Photocatalytic Treatment Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Manure With Uv-A And Uv-C, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

It is essential to mitigate gaseous emissions that result from poultry and livestock production to increase industry sustainability. Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and greenhouse gases (GHGs) have detrimental effects on the quality of life in rural communities, the environment, and climate. This study’s objective was to evaluate the photocatalytic UV treatment of gaseous emissions of odor, odorous VOCs, NH3, and other gases (GHGs, O3—sometimes considered as by-products of UV treatment) from stored swine manure on a pilot-scale. The manure emissions were treated in fast-moving air using a ...


Comparing Biochar-Swine Manure Mixture To Conventional Manure Impact On Soil Nutrient Availability And Plant Uptake—A Greenhouse Study, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Darcy Bonds, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht Apr 2021

Comparing Biochar-Swine Manure Mixture To Conventional Manure Impact On Soil Nutrient Availability And Plant Uptake—A Greenhouse Study, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Darcy Bonds, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The use of swine manure as a source of plant nutrients is one alternative to synthetic fertilizers. However, conventional manure application with >90% water and a low C:N ratio results in soil C loss to the atmosphere. Our hypothesis was to use biochar as a manure nutrient stabilizer that would slowly release nutrients to plants upon biochar-swine manure mixture application to soil. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of biochar-treated swine manure on soil total C, N, and plant-available macro- and micronutrients in greenhouse-cultivated corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Neutral pH red oak ...


Comparison Of Three Commercial Automatic Boom Height Systems For Agricultural Sprayers, Travis A. Burgers, John D. Gaard, Brian J. Hyronimus Apr 2021

Comparison Of Three Commercial Automatic Boom Height Systems For Agricultural Sprayers, Travis A. Burgers, John D. Gaard, Brian J. Hyronimus

Mechanical Engineering Engineering Faculty Publications

Automatic boom height systems reduce the variability of agricultural sprayer boom height. Consistent boom height is important for three key reasons: to reduce uneven spray dispersion if the boom is too low, to reduce spray droplet drift if the boom is too high, and to reduce damage to the boom or crop if the boom is too low. No data is available comparing commercial boom height systems. Three leading North American automatic boom height systems were compared: John Deere BoomTrac Pro (System A), Raven AutoBoom® XRT (System B), and Norac UC5TM Passive Roll (System C) on a John Deere R4045 ...


Performance Analysis And Drying Kinetics Of Maize In An Aflastop Dryer, Ernest Owusu-Sekyere, George Obeng-Akrofi, Joseph O. Akowuah, Dirk Maier Mar 2021

Performance Analysis And Drying Kinetics Of Maize In An Aflastop Dryer, Ernest Owusu-Sekyere, George Obeng-Akrofi, Joseph O. Akowuah, Dirk Maier

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The performance of an AflaSTOP dryer which utilises biomass energy for drying maize was investigated. The drying behaviour of maize grains in the dryer was also investigated using ten (10) thin-layer mathematical models. The models were compared based on coefficient of determination (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values between experimental and predicted moisture ratios. At an average drying air temperature of 50˚C and drying air velocity of 2.5 m/s, maize at average moisture content (MC) of 17.5% (wb) was dried to an average MC of 11.5% (wb) in three (3) hours. The ...


Mitigation Of Airborne Prrsv Transmission With Uv Light Treatment: Proof-Of-Concept, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, William S. Jenks, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, Steven J. Hoff Mar 2021

Mitigation Of Airborne Prrsv Transmission With Uv Light Treatment: Proof-Of-Concept, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, William S. Jenks, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, Steven J. Hoff

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Proper treatment of infectious air could potentially mitigate the spread of airborne viruses such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The objective of this research is to test the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) in inactivating aerosolized PRRSV, specifically, four UV lamps, UV-A (365 nm, both fluorescent and LED-based), “excimer” UV-C (222 nm), and germicidal UV-C (254 nm), were tested. The two UV-C lamps effectively irradiated fast-moving PRRSV aerosols with short treatment times (<2 s). One-stage and two-stage UV inactivation models estimated the UV doses needed for target percentage (%) reductions on PRRSV titer. UV-C (254 nm) dose needed for 3-log (99.9%) reduction was 0.521 and 0.0943 mJ/cm2, respectively, based on one-stage and two-stage models. An order of magnitude lower UV-C (222 nm) doses were needed for a 3-log reduction, i.e., 0 ...


Impact Of Flow On Woodchip Properties And Subsidence In Denitrifying Bioreactors, Abby Schaefer, Kyle Werning, Natasha L. Hoover, Ulrike Tschirner, Gary Feyereisen, Thomas B. Moorman, Adina Howe, Michelle L. Soupir Mar 2021

Impact Of Flow On Woodchip Properties And Subsidence In Denitrifying Bioreactors, Abby Schaefer, Kyle Werning, Natasha L. Hoover, Ulrike Tschirner, Gary Feyereisen, Thomas B. Moorman, Adina Howe, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Woodchip bioreactors are edge-of-field practices that remove nutrients from agricultural drainage water, with an effective lifespan estimated between 10 and 30 yr. Subsidence, or bioreactor settling and subsequent depression formation, is a concern of producers and stakeholders and little is known regarding its effect on bioreactor performance. Six woodchip bioreactors set at three different hydraulic residence times (HRTs 2, 8, and 16 h) were excavated after 2 yr of operation, with wood samples collected from multiple depths and distances from the bioreactor inlet. Subsidence was observed in all six bioreactors and was greater near the inlet. Particle-size distribution did not ...


Effect Of Temperature Sensor Numbers And Placement On Aeration Cooling Of A Stored Grain Mass Using A 3d Finite Element Model, Benjamin Plumier, Dirk Maier Mar 2021

Effect Of Temperature Sensor Numbers And Placement On Aeration Cooling Of A Stored Grain Mass Using A 3d Finite Element Model, Benjamin Plumier, Dirk Maier

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Grain stored in silos in the United States of America is generally cooled with an aeration system to limit mold spoilage and insect infestation. Monitoring efficacy of aeration and real-time conditions of stored grain is generally done using temperature cables with fixed-spaced sensor locations that are hung from the roof of the silo. Numerous placement options exist in terms of the number of cables and their positions. However, little investigation has been done into the effects of cable placement on aeration system operation decisions and real-time monitoring of stored grain conditions. For a one-year period, the temperatures predicted by sensors ...


A Piecewise Analysis Model For Electrical Conductivity Calculation From Time Domain Reflectometry Waveforms, Zhuangji Wang, Dennis Timlin, Yuki Kojima, Chenyi Luo, Yan Chen, Sanai Li, David Fleisher, Katherine Tully, Vangimalla R. Reddy, Robert Horton Mar 2021

A Piecewise Analysis Model For Electrical Conductivity Calculation From Time Domain Reflectometry Waveforms, Zhuangji Wang, Dennis Timlin, Yuki Kojima, Chenyi Luo, Yan Chen, Sanai Li, David Fleisher, Katherine Tully, Vangimalla R. Reddy, Robert Horton

Agronomy Publications

Electrical conductivity (EC) represents a material’s ability to conduct electric current. Soil EC has been used as a soil quality attribute related to soil pH, nutrient availability, crop suitability and soil microbial activity. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) estimates soil water content and EC based on the propagation/reflection and energy attenuation of voltage signals along a waveguide. To maximize the data use efficiency, waveform interpretations for simultaneous water content and EC determination are needed. A tangent line/bounded mean oscillation (TL-BMO) model is available to estimate soil water content from TDR waveforms, but an associated EC model is not ...


An Milp Model For Corn Planting And Harvest Scheduling Considering Storage Capacity And Growing Degree Units, Zahra Khalilzadeh, Lizhi Wang Feb 2021

An Milp Model For Corn Planting And Harvest Scheduling Considering Storage Capacity And Growing Degree Units, Zahra Khalilzadeh, Lizhi Wang

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Corn planting and harvest scheduling is an important problem due to having a significant impact on corn yield, balancing the capacities for harvest, transport, and storage operations. Different corn hybrids also have different planting window and poor planting and harvest schedules may cause erratic weekly harvest quantities and logistical and productivity issues. In the 2021 Syngenta Crop Challenge, Syngenta released several large datasets that recorded the historical daily growing degree units (GDU) of two sites and provided planting window, required GDUs, and harvest quantity of corn hybrids planted in these two sites. Then, participants of this challenge were asked to ...


Sectional Model Of A Prairie Buffer Strip In A Laboratory Flume For Water Quality Research, Andrew J. Craig, Michelle L. Soupir, Chris R. Rehmann Feb 2021

Sectional Model Of A Prairie Buffer Strip In A Laboratory Flume For Water Quality Research, Andrew J. Craig, Michelle L. Soupir, Chris R. Rehmann

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Vegetative buffers have shown promising results in reducing runoff volume, sediment, nutrients, and manure‐borne contaminants in runoff from agricultural fields. Although these vegetative buffer systems have been extensively tested in field and plot‐scale studies that utilize either natural or simulated rainfall, studies of such systems under highly controlled conditions in the laboratory have been limited. Here, we present the development of a new system for laboratory testing of a full‐scale, sectional, physical model of a new practice under the Continuous Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Clean Lakes, Estuaries, and Rivers (CLEAR) Initiative, CP‐43 Prairie Strips. This work ...


A Bibliometric Analysis Of Plant Disease Classification With Artificial Intelligence Based On Scopus And Wos, Shivali Amit Wagle, Harikrishnan R Feb 2021

A Bibliometric Analysis Of Plant Disease Classification With Artificial Intelligence Based On Scopus And Wos, Shivali Amit Wagle, Harikrishnan R

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The maneuver of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques in the field of agriculture help in the classification of diseases. Early prediction of the disease benefits in taking relevant management steps. This is an important step towards controlling the disease growth that will yield good quality products to fulfill the global food demand. The main objective of this paper is to study the extent of research work done in this area of plant disease classification. The paper discusses the bibliometric analysis of plant disease classification with AI in Scopus and Web of Science core collection (WOS) database in analyzing the research by ...


Mitigation Of Gaseous Emissions From Stored Swine Manure With Biochar: Effect Of Dose And Reapplication On A Pilot-Scale, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Hantian Ma, Myeongseong Lee, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Daniel S. Andersen, Andrzej Białowiec, Robert C. Brown Jan 2021

Mitigation Of Gaseous Emissions From Stored Swine Manure With Biochar: Effect Of Dose And Reapplication On A Pilot-Scale, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Hantian Ma, Myeongseong Lee, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Daniel S. Andersen, Andrzej Białowiec, Robert C. Brown

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Rural communities are affected by gaseous emissions from intensive livestock production. Practical mitigation technologies are needed to minimize emissions from stored manure and improve air quality inside barns. In our previous research, the one-time surficial application of biochar to swine manure significantly reduced emissions of NH3 and phenol. We observed that the mitigation effect decreased with time during the 30-day trials. In this research, we hypothesized that bi-weekly reapplication of biochar could improve the mitigation effect on a wider range of odorous compounds using a larger scale and longer trials. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of biochar ...


Robotic Agricultural Instrument For Automated Extraction Of Nematode Cysts And Eggs From Soil To Improve Integrated Pest Management, Christopher M. Legner, Gregory L. Tylka, Santosh Pandey Jan 2021

Robotic Agricultural Instrument For Automated Extraction Of Nematode Cysts And Eggs From Soil To Improve Integrated Pest Management, Christopher M. Legner, Gregory L. Tylka, Santosh Pandey

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Soybeans are an important crop for global food security. Every year, soybean yields are reduced by numerous soybean diseases, particularly the soybean cyst nematode (SCN). It is difficult to visually identify the presence of SCN in the field, let alone its population densities or numbers, as there are no obvious aboveground disease symptoms. The only definitive way to assess SCN population densities is to directly extract the SCN cysts from soil and then extract the eggs from cysts and count them. Extraction is typically conducted in commercial soil analysis laboratories and university plant diagnostic clinics and involves repeated steps of ...


Design, Testing, And Commissioning Of Mobile Laboratory For Mitigation Of Gaseous Emission From Livestock Barns With Photocatalysis, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik, Blake Fonken, Ryan Storjohann, Heekwon Ahn Jan 2021

Design, Testing, And Commissioning Of Mobile Laboratory For Mitigation Of Gaseous Emission From Livestock Barns With Photocatalysis, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik, Blake Fonken, Ryan Storjohann, Heekwon Ahn

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Livestock production systems generate nuisance odor and gaseous emissions affecting local communities and regional air quality. Also, there are concerns about the occupational health and safety of farm workers. Proven mitigation technologies that are consistent with the socio-economic challenges of animal farming are needed. We have been scaling up the photocatalytic treatment of emissions from lab-scale, aiming at farm-scale readiness. In this paper, we present the design, testing, and commissioning of a mobile laboratory for on-farm research and demonstration of performance in simulated farm conditions before testing to the farm. The mobile lab is capable of treating up to 1 ...


Development And Validation Of An Animal Thermal Environment Interaction Laboratory, Benjamin C. Smith, Sara E. Weyer, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Richard S. Gates Jan 2021

Development And Validation Of An Animal Thermal Environment Interaction Laboratory, Benjamin C. Smith, Sara E. Weyer, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Richard S. Gates

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

A pilot-scale laboratory was designed and built to meet the specific needs of conducting precision livestock farming (PLF) research related to optimizing thermal environment. The two room (8.5 by 3.7 by 2.9 m; W by L by H) laboratory was built inside an existing structure utilizing common construction methods and materials. Each room was fully instrumented to characterize the thermal (dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity) and gaseous (O2, CO2) environment and facilitate both direct and indirect calorimetry measurements. The laboratory’s instrumentation set-up allows for expansion into additional thermal (black-globe temperature), lighting analysis (wavelength and intensity) and ...