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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

The Clinical Utilities Of Multi-Pinhole Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Ilker Ozsahin, Ling Chen, Arda Konik, Michael A. King, Freek J. Beekman, Greta S. P. Mok Oct 2020

The Clinical Utilities Of Multi-Pinhole Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Ilker Ozsahin, Ling Chen, Arda Konik, Michael A. King, Freek J. Beekman, Greta S. P. Mok

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is an important imaging modality for various applications in nuclear medicine. The use of multi-pinhole (MPH) collimators can provide superior resolution-sensitivity trade-off when imaging small field-of-view compared to conventional parallel-hole and fan-beam collimators. Besides the very successful application in small animal imaging, there has been a resurgence of the use of MPH collimators for clinical cardiac and brain studies, as well as other small field-of-view applications. This article reviews the basic principles of MPH collimators and introduces currently available and proposed clinical MPH SPECT systems.


A Neurovascular High-Frequency Optical Coherence Tomography System Enables In Situ Cerebrovascular Volumetric Microscopy, Giovanni J. Ughi, Miklos G. Marosfoi, Robert M. King, Jildaz Caroff, Lindsy M. Peterson, Benjamin H. Duncan, Erin T. Langan, Amanda J. Collins, Anita M. Leporati, Serge Rousselle, Demetrius K. Lopes, Matthew J. Gounis, Ajit S. Puri Jul 2020

A Neurovascular High-Frequency Optical Coherence Tomography System Enables In Situ Cerebrovascular Volumetric Microscopy, Giovanni J. Ughi, Miklos G. Marosfoi, Robert M. King, Jildaz Caroff, Lindsy M. Peterson, Benjamin H. Duncan, Erin T. Langan, Amanda J. Collins, Anita M. Leporati, Serge Rousselle, Demetrius K. Lopes, Matthew J. Gounis, Ajit S. Puri

Radiology Publications

Intravascular imaging has emerged as a valuable tool for the treatment of coronary and peripheral artery disease; however, no solution is available for safe and reliable use in the tortuous vascular anatomy of the brain. Endovascular treatment of stroke is delivered under image guidance with insufficient resolution to adequately assess underlying arterial pathology and therapeutic devices. High-resolution imaging, enabling surgeons to visualize cerebral arteries' microstructure and micron-level features of neurovascular devices, would have a profound impact in the research, diagnosis, and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. Here, we present a neurovascular high-frequency optical coherence tomography (HF-OCT) system, including an imaging console ...


Post-Acquisition Processing Confounds In Brain Volumetric Quantification Of White Matter Hyperintensities, Ahmed A. Bahrani, Omar M. Al-Janabi, Erin L. Abner, Shoshana H. Bardach, Richard J. Kryscio, Donna M. Wilcock, Charles D. Smith, Gregory A. Jicha Nov 2019

Post-Acquisition Processing Confounds In Brain Volumetric Quantification Of White Matter Hyperintensities, Ahmed A. Bahrani, Omar M. Al-Janabi, Erin L. Abner, Shoshana H. Bardach, Richard J. Kryscio, Donna M. Wilcock, Charles D. Smith, Gregory A. Jicha

Neurology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Disparate research sites using identical or near-identical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition techniques often produce results that demonstrate significant variability regarding volumetric quantification of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in the aging population. The sources of such variability have not previously been fully explored.

NEW METHOD: 3D FLAIR sequences from a group of randomly selected aged subjects were analyzed to identify sources-of-variability in post-acquisition processing that can be problematic when comparing WMH volumetric data across disparate sites. The methods developed focused on standardizing post-acquisition protocol processing methods to develop a protocol with less than 0.5% inter-rater variance.

RESULTS: A ...


Distinct Patterns Of Default Mode And Executive Control Network Circuitry Contribute To Present And Future Executive Function In Older Adults, Christopher A. Brown, Frederick A. Schmitt, Charles D. Smith, Brian T. Gold Jul 2019

Distinct Patterns Of Default Mode And Executive Control Network Circuitry Contribute To Present And Future Executive Function In Older Adults, Christopher A. Brown, Frederick A. Schmitt, Charles D. Smith, Brian T. Gold

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Executive function (EF) performance in older adults has been linked with functional and structural profiles within the executive control network (ECN) and default mode network (DMN), white matter hyperintensities (WMH) burden and levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Here, we simultaneously explored the unique contributions of these factors to baseline and longitudinal EF performance in older adults. Thirty-two cognitively normal (CN) older adults underwent neuropsychological testing at baseline and annually for three years. Neuroimaging and AD pathology measures were collected at baseline. Separate linear regression models were used to determine which of these variables predicted composite EF scores at ...


A Pilot Study Identifying Brain-Targeting Adaptive Immunity In Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Patients With Acquired Brain Injury, Sterling B. Ortega, Poornima Pandiyan, Jana Windsor, Vanessa O. Torres, Uma M. Selvaraj, Amy Lee, Michael Morriss, Fenghua Tian, Lakshmi Raman, Ann M. Stowe Mar 2019

A Pilot Study Identifying Brain-Targeting Adaptive Immunity In Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Patients With Acquired Brain Injury, Sterling B. Ortega, Poornima Pandiyan, Jana Windsor, Vanessa O. Torres, Uma M. Selvaraj, Amy Lee, Michael Morriss, Fenghua Tian, Lakshmi Raman, Ann M. Stowe

Neurology Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides short-term cardiopulmonary life support, but is associated with peripheral innate inflammation, disruptions in cerebral autoregulation, and acquired brain injury. We tested the hypothesis that extracorporeal membrane oxygenation also induces CNS-directed adaptive immune responses which may exacerbate extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-associated brain injury.

DESIGN: A single center prospective observational study.

SETTING: Pediatric and cardiac ICUs at a single tertiary care, academic center.

PATIENTS: Twenty pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients (0-14 yr; 13 females, 7 males) and five nonextracorporeal membrane oxygenation Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction score matched patients.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Venous blood samples were ...


Investigation Of Shape, Position, And Permeability Of Shielding Material In Quadruple Butterfly Coil For Focused Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Priyam Rastogi, Bowen Zhang, Yalun Tang, Erik G. Lee, Ravi L. Hadimani, David C. Jiles Jan 2018

Investigation Of Shape, Position, And Permeability Of Shielding Material In Quadruple Butterfly Coil For Focused Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Priyam Rastogi, Bowen Zhang, Yalun Tang, Erik G. Lee, Ravi L. Hadimani, David C. Jiles

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been gaining popularity in the therapy for several neurological disorders. A time-varying magnetic field is used to generate electric field in the brain. As the development of TMS methods takes place, emphasis on the coil design increases in order to improve focal stimulation. Ideally reduction of stimulation of neighboring regions of the target area is desired. This study, focused on the improvement of the focality of the Quadruple Butterfly Coil (QBC) with supplemental use of different passive shields. Parameters such as shape, position and permeability of the shields have been explored to improve the focus of ...


Effect Of Anatomical Variability In Brain On Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Treatment, F. Syeda, H. Magsood, E. G. Lee, A. A. El-Gendy, David C. Jiles, R. L. Hadimani Jan 2017

Effect Of Anatomical Variability In Brain On Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Treatment, F. Syeda, H. Magsood, E. G. Lee, A. A. El-Gendy, David C. Jiles, R. L. Hadimani

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation is a non-invasive clinical therapy used to treat depression and migraine, and shows further promise as treatment for Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and other neurological disorders. However, it is yet unclear as to how anatomical differences may affect stimulation from this treatment. We use finite element analysis to model and analyze the results of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in various head models.A number of heterogeneous head models have been developed using MRI data of real patients, including healthy individuals as well as patients of Parkinson’s disease. Simulations of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation performed on 22 ...


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Coil Design With Improved Focality, Priyam Rastogi, E. G. Lee, Ravi L. Hadimani, David C. Jiles Jan 2017

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Coil Design With Improved Focality, Priyam Rastogi, E. G. Lee, Ravi L. Hadimani, David C. Jiles

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a technique for neuromodulation that can be used as a non-invasive therapy for various neurological disorders. In TMS, a time varying magnetic field generated from an electromagnetic coilplaced on the scalp is used to induce an electric field inside the brain. TMS coilgeometry plays an important role in determining the focality and depth of penetration of the induced electric field responsible for stimulation. Clinicians and basic scientists are interested in stimulating a localized area of the brain,while minimizing the stimulation of surrounding neural networks. In this paper, a novel coil has been proposed, namely ...


“My Logic Is Undeniable”: Replicating The Brain For Ideal Artificial Intelligence, Samuel C. Adams Apr 2016

“My Logic Is Undeniable”: Replicating The Brain For Ideal Artificial Intelligence, Samuel C. Adams

Senior Honors Theses

Alan Turing asked if machines can think, but intelligence is more than logic and reason. I ask if a machine can feel pain or joy, have visions and dreams, or paint a masterpiece. The human brain sets the bar high, and despite our progress, artificial intelligence has a long way to go. Studying neurology from a software engineer’s perspective reveals numerous uncanny similarities between the functionality of the brain and that of a computer. If the brain is a biological computer, then it is the embodiment of artificial intelligence beyond anything we have yet achieved, and its architecture is ...


Spatio-Temporal Progression Of Cortical Activity Related To Continuous Overt And Covert Speech Production In A Reading Task, Jonathan S. Brumberg, Dean J. Krusienski, Shreya Chakrabarti, Aysegul Gunduz, Peter Brunner, Anthony L. Ritaccio, Gerwin Schalk Jan 2016

Spatio-Temporal Progression Of Cortical Activity Related To Continuous Overt And Covert Speech Production In A Reading Task, Jonathan S. Brumberg, Dean J. Krusienski, Shreya Chakrabarti, Aysegul Gunduz, Peter Brunner, Anthony L. Ritaccio, Gerwin Schalk

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

How the human brain plans, executes, and monitors continuous and fluent speech has remained largely elusive. For example, previous research has defined the cortical locations most important for different aspects of speech function, but has not yet yielded a definition of the temporal progression of involvement of those locations as speech progresses either overtly or covertly. In this paper, we uncovered the spatio-temporal evolution of neuronal population-level activity related to continuous overt speech, and identified those locations that shared activity characteristics across overt and covert speech. Specifically, we asked subjects to repeat continuous sentences aloud or silently while we recorded ...


The Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (Brats), Bjoern H. Menze, Andras Jakab, Stefan Bauer, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Khan M. Iftekharuddin, Syed M.S. Reza Jan 2015

The Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (Brats), Bjoern H. Menze, Andras Jakab, Stefan Bauer, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Khan M. Iftekharuddin, Syed M.S. Reza

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

In this paper we report the set-up and results of the Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) organized in conjunction with the MICCAI 2012 and 2013 conferences. Twenty state-of-the-art tumor segmentation algorithms were applied to a set of 65 multi-contrast MR scans of low-and high-grade glioma patients-manually annotated by up to four raters-and to 65 comparable scans generated using tumor image simulation software. Quantitative evaluations revealed considerable disagreement between the human raters in segmenting various tumor sub-regions (Dice scores in the range 74%-85%), illustrating the difficulty of this task. We found that different algorithms worked best for different ...


Neuroimaging And Neuromodulation Approaches To Study Eating Behavior And Prevent And Treat Eating Disorders And Obesity, D. Val-Laillet, E. Aarts, B. Weber, M. Ferrari, V. Quaresima, L. E. Stoeckel, M. Alonso-Alonso, M. Audette, C. H. Malbert, E. Stice Jan 2015

Neuroimaging And Neuromodulation Approaches To Study Eating Behavior And Prevent And Treat Eating Disorders And Obesity, D. Val-Laillet, E. Aarts, B. Weber, M. Ferrari, V. Quaresima, L. E. Stoeckel, M. Alonso-Alonso, M. Audette, C. H. Malbert, E. Stice

Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering Faculty Publications

Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at ...


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Of Mouse Brain Using High-Resolution Anatomical Models, Lawrence J. Crowther, Ravi L. Hadimani, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, David C. Jiles Jan 2014

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Of Mouse Brain Using High-Resolution Anatomical Models, Lawrence J. Crowther, Ravi L. Hadimani, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, David C. Jiles

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) offers the possibility of non-invasive treatment of braindisorders in humans. Studies on animals can allow rapid progress of the research including exploring a variety of different treatment conditions. Numerical calculations using animalmodels are needed to help design suitable TMS coils for use in animal experiments, in particular, to estimate the electric field induced in animal brains. In this paper, we have implemented a high-resolution anatomical MRI-derived mouse model consisting of 50 tissuetypes to accurately calculate induced electric field in the mouse brain. Magnetic field measurements have been performed on the surface of the coil and compared ...


Binding, Transcytosis And Biodistribution Of Anti-Pecam-1 Iron Oxide Nanoparticles For Brain-Targeted Delivery, Mo Dan, David B. Cochran, Robert A. Yokel, Thomas D. Dziubla Nov 2013

Binding, Transcytosis And Biodistribution Of Anti-Pecam-1 Iron Oxide Nanoparticles For Brain-Targeted Delivery, Mo Dan, David B. Cochran, Robert A. Yokel, Thomas D. Dziubla

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVE: Characterize the flux of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) antibody-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and its biodistribution in vitro and in vivo.

METHODS: Anti-PECAM-1 IONPs and IgG IONPs were prepared and characterized in house. The binding affinity of these nanoparticles was investigated using human cortical microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3). Flux assays were performed using a hCMEC/D3 BBB model. To test their immunospecificity index and biodistribution, nanoparticles were given to Sprague Dawley rats by intra-carotid infusion. The capillary depletion method was used to elucidate their distribution between the BBB and brain parenchyma ...


Compliant Head Probe For Positioning Electroencephalography Electrodes And Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Optodes, Paolo Giacometti, Solomon G. Diamond Feb 2013

Compliant Head Probe For Positioning Electroencephalography Electrodes And Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Optodes, Paolo Giacometti, Solomon G. Diamond

Dartmouth Scholarship

A noninvasive head probe that combines near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) for simultaneous measurement of neural dynamics and hemodynamics in the brain is presented. It is composed of a compliant expandable mechanism that accommodates a wide range of head size variation and an elastomeric web that maintains uniform sensor contact pressure on the scalp as the mechanism expands and contracts. The design is intended to help maximize optical and electrical coupling and to maintain stability during head movement. Positioning electrodes at the inion, nasion, central, and preauricular fiducial locations mechanically shapes the probe to place 64 NIRS optodes and ...