Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Skid Resistance

Articles 1 - 20 of 20

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Design And Performance Of A Bituminous Surface Mixture Containing Bottom Ash Aggregate, David Q. Hunsucker Aug 1992

Design And Performance Of A Bituminous Surface Mixture Containing Bottom Ash Aggregate, David Q. Hunsucker

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

A one-mile experimental bituminous surface overlay was placed in October 1987 on State Route 3 in Lawrence County, Kentucky. The experimental section utilized bottom ash aggregate from the Kentucky Power Company's Big Sandy Power Plant, near Louisa, Kentucky. Bottom ashes are generally angular and have very porous surfaces. Approximately 539 tons of the experimental bituminous surface material, containing 40 percent bottom ash (dry weight), were placed. Reported herein are results of laboratory tests and performance evaluations of the experimental surface mixture.

Performance of the experimental bottom ash surface has been excellent. Skid resistance tests indicate the surface is highly ...


Kentucky Rock Asphalt (Kyrock) Road Surfacing Material: Preliminary Investigation, Jerry G. Rose Mar 1992

Kentucky Rock Asphalt (Kyrock) Road Surfacing Material: Preliminary Investigation, Jerry G. Rose

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

This report documents a preliminary investigation of Kentucky Rock Asphalt (Kyrock) - as a road surfacing material. The indigenous bituminous impregnated sandstone was widely used as a premium quality skid resistant surfacing material during the first half of this century. Redevelopment efforts gained momentum during the 1960's, but for the last twenty years interest has waned.

Laboratory tests were conducted on the Kyrock to determine its applicability in bituminous surface mixes by blending Kyrock with virgin materials in a similar manner as adding recycled asphalt pavement. The findings indicated it was feasible to blend Kyrock and a continuation proposal was ...


Pavement Management In Kentucky, Gary W. Sharpe, Robert C. Deen, Herbert F. Southgate, Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett Dec 1984

Pavement Management In Kentucky, Gary W. Sharpe, Robert C. Deen, Herbert F. Southgate, Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

The principal objective of this paper is to summarize current pavement management activities in Kentucky. Early pavement management activities generally were decentralized (involving a number of transportation functions such as planning, design, construction, maintenance, and research) and involved long-term monitoring for skid resistance and ride quality (roughness).

Current pavement management activities may be categorized by evaluation, project selection, and development of recommendations for pavement rehabilitation strategies. Pavement evaluation activities at the statewide system level typically involve assessments of ride quality (ridesbility index) and estimated pavement serviceability, skid resistance, visual condition ratings, and the accumulation of traffic volumes and pavement fatigue ...


Highway Skid Resistance, James H. Havens Sep 1983

Highway Skid Resistance, James H. Havens

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

The physics of friction and traction are reviewed. Hypotheses are presented. Use of a scanning electron microscope to detect and identify polishing aggregate is presented.

Size reduction (crushing) produces greater concentrations of sharp edges, reducing flat and plane surfaces not otherwise contributing to traction.

Surface permeability and drainage through macrotexture was evaluated by an air-percussive device. An air-efflux device was contrived for evaluating hydroplaning potential and for evaluating open-graded surface courses. In-filling has been observed where road debris is abundant.

Grippers and sharpness are needed for wet traction . Drainage is needed to lower hydroplaning potentials. Sand-sizes optimize the concentration of ...


Sprinkle-Treated Asphaltic Concrete Surface Course, Donald C. Newberry Jr. Apr 1981

Sprinkle-Treated Asphaltic Concrete Surface Course, Donald C. Newberry Jr.

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

This report gives details of construction and some skid resistance data from experimental sprinkle-treatment placed in Nelson County, Kentucky, north of Bardstown, US 31-E. The various types of aggregate, application rates, and precoating processes are reported.


Statewide Survey Of Skid Resistances Of Pavements (1979), Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett Sep 1980

Statewide Survey Of Skid Resistances Of Pavements (1979), Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Statewide survey of skid resistances continued in 1979 with the testing of 3,060 miles (4,930 km) of roads, including interstate and toll roads. During the two-year (1978 and 1979) cycle of testing, over 7,000 miles (11,270 km) of roads have been tested. Altogether, 560 miles (902 km) of roads had an average skid number of 28 or less. These pavements, in particular, should be considered for deslicking.

In 1978 and 1979, 28 percent of the state-maintained roads were surveyed. These roads carried 72 percent of all traffic on state-maintained roads.


Frictional Performance Of Pavements And Estimates Of Accident Probability [Sept. 1980], James L. Burchett, Rolands L. Rizenbergs Sep 1980

Frictional Performance Of Pavements And Estimates Of Accident Probability [Sept. 1980], James L. Burchett, Rolands L. Rizenbergs

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Objectives of this study were to evaluate standard and experimental surfaces throughout Kentucky in terms of skid resistance and effects of traffic, and to provide criteria for judging suitability of these surfaces to satisfy requirements for skid resistance and economics. The effects of traffic were quantified by regression analysis and scatter of data. Criteria included an estimate of accident risks, effects of speed on skid resistance, and seasonal variations in skid resistance.

The analysis indicated that pavements on low volume roads (less than 1,000 vehicles per day) maintained adequate skid resistances. Open-graded friction courses, with the possible exception of ...


Statewide Survey Of Skid Resistances Of Pavements (1978), Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett Jul 1979

Statewide Survey Of Skid Resistances Of Pavements (1978), Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Statewide survey of skid resistances continued in 1978 with the testing of 2,943 miles (4,736 km) of state primary roads and 2,405 miles (3,870 km) of state secondary roads. About 10 percent of both the state primary mileage and the state secondary mileage had an average skid number of 28 or less. These pavements, in pariticular, should be considered for de-slicking.

In 1977 and 1978, 35 percent of the mileage of rural, state-maintained roads in Kentucky were surveyed. These roads carried 87 percent of all traffic on rural, state-maintained roads.


Statewide Survey Of Skid Resistances Of Pavements [Nov. 1978], Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett Nov 1978

Statewide Survey Of Skid Resistances Of Pavements [Nov. 1978], Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

In 1969, a research-type, skid-test trailer was acquired, U.S. routes were surveyed in 1970 and 1971, and the interstate and toll-road systems were surveyed in 1971. The data were used for research purposes and have been reported. The interstate and toll-road systems were surveyed again for research purposes in 1974. Since October 1974, surveys have been performed under highway safety project grants (interaccounted to 108, subsection OSKID). Primary and principal secondary roads, involving 4,613 miles (7,427 km), were surveyed in 1975. A second skid tester, a survey-type, was acquired in April 1976; and survey-testing of major, rural ...


Seasonal Variations In The Skid Resistance Of Pavements In Kentucky, James L. Burchett Jul 1978

Seasonal Variations In The Skid Resistance Of Pavements In Kentucky, James L. Burchett

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Frequent measurements of skid resistance were made on 20 pavements in common use in Kentucky. Tests were conducted from November 1969 through 1973. Principal analysis involved relating changes in skid resistance to day of the year and relating skid resistance to temperature at the time of test, to average antecedent temperatures, and to average rainfall.

Seasonal variations exhibited an annual, sinusoidal cycle. The changes in sand-asphalt and bituminous concrete under higher volumes of traffic were about 12 skid numbers. The changes in portland cement concrete and bituminous concrete under lower volumes of traffic were about 5 skid numbers. The lowest ...


Statewide Survey Of Skid Resistances Of Pavements (1976), James L. Burchett, William M. Sampson, Larry A. Warren, Rolands L. Rizenbergs Jul 1977

Statewide Survey Of Skid Resistances Of Pavements (1976), James L. Burchett, William M. Sampson, Larry A. Warren, Rolands L. Rizenbergs

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Statewide survey of skid resistance continued in 1976 with testing of rural, major, collector roads (1985 Functional Classification). This included 5,074 miles (8,166 km) of state secondary roads and 788 miles (1,268 km) of rural secondary roads. About 17 percent of the secondary mileage and about 15 percent of the rural secondary mileage surveyed in 1976 may be considered slippery. A small percentage of both secondary (5.3 percent) and rural secondary (5.8 percent) roads had an average skid number below 26. These sections, in particular, should be flagged for deslicking.

Through 1976, 50 percent of ...


Statewide Survey Of Skid Resistances Of Pavements [Dec. 1976], Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett, Larry A. Warren, William M. Sampson Dec 1976

Statewide Survey Of Skid Resistances Of Pavements [Dec. 1976], Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett, Larry A. Warren, William M. Sampson

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Since 1969, when a research-type, skid-test trailer was acquired, U.S. routes were surveyed in 1970 and 1971, and the interstate and toll road systems were surveyed in 1971. The data were used for research purposes and have been reported. The interstate and toll road systems were surveyed again for research purposes in 1974. Since October 1974, surveys have been performed under a highway safety project grant. All primary and principal secondary roads, involving 4,612 miles (7425 km), were surveyed in 1975. The 1974 and 1975 surveys, data reported herein, represented 25 percent of the mileage of rural, state-maintained ...


Accidents On Rural, Two-Lane Roads And Their Relation To Pavement Friction [Nov. 1976], Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett, Larry A. Warren Nov 1976

Accidents On Rural, Two-Lane Roads And Their Relation To Pavement Friction [Nov. 1976], Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett, Larry A. Warren

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Friction measurements were made with a skid trailer at 40 mph (18 m/s) on 1460 miles (2350 km) of rural, two-lane roads (US routes) in Kentucky. Maintenance sections or subsections were treated as test sections. Accident experience, friction measurements, traffic volumes, and other available data were obtained for each. Various expressions of wet-pavement accidents and pavement friction were related and analyzed. Averaging methods were used in developing trends and minimizing scatter. A moving average for progressively-ordered sets of ten test sections and test sections grouped by Skid Numbers and Peak Slip Numbers yielded more definite results. The expression of ...


Accidents On Rural, Two-Lane Roads And Their Relation To Pavement Friction [Apr. 1976], Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett, Larry A. Warren Apr 1976

Accidents On Rural, Two-Lane Roads And Their Relation To Pavement Friction [Apr. 1976], Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett, Larry A. Warren

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Friction measurements were made with a skid trailer at 40 mph (18 m/s) on 1460 miles (2350 km) of rural, two-lane roads (US routes) in Kentucky. Maintenance sections or subsections were treated as test sections. Accident experience, friction measurements, traffic volumes, and other available data were obtained for each. Various expressions of wet-pavement accidents and pavement friction were related and analyzed. Averaging methods were used in developing trends and minimizing scatter. A moving average for progressively-ordered sets of ten test sections and test sections grouped by Skid Numbers and Peak Slip Numbers yielded more definite results. The expression of ...


First-Year Effects Of The Energy Crisis On Traffic In Kentucky (Rural Highways) [May 1975], Kenneth R. Agent, Donald R. Herd, Rolands L. Rizenbergs May 1975

First-Year Effects Of The Energy Crisis On Traffic In Kentucky (Rural Highways) [May 1975], Kenneth R. Agent, Donald R. Herd, Rolands L. Rizenbergs

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

The Arab oil embargo in mid-October 1973 curtailed availability of gasoline. Fuel conservation measures resulted in reduced travel and decreased traffic speeds. On March 1, 1974, posted speed was set at 55 mph (24.6 m/s) on rural highways in Kentucky. Traffic volumes, speeds, and accidents for the rural highway during the period known as the "energy crisis" and its after effects were compared to the corresponding period a year earlier.

Traffic volumes began to decline in December 1973 and continued through September 1974. Total travel in the 12 months through November 1974 decreased by 2.3 percent; traffic ...


Effects Of The Energy Crisis On Traffic In Kentucky, Kenneth R. Agent, Donald R. Herd, Rolands L. Rizenbergs Oct 1974

Effects Of The Energy Crisis On Traffic In Kentucky, Kenneth R. Agent, Donald R. Herd, Rolands L. Rizenbergs

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

The Arab oil embargo in mid-October 1973 curtailed availability of gasoline. Fuel conservation measures resulted in reduced travel and decreased traffic speeds. On March 1, 1974, posted speed was set at 55 mph on rural highways in Kentucky. Traffic volumes, speeds, and accidents for the rural highway during the period known as the "energy crisis" and its after effects were compared to the corresponding period a year earlier.

Traffic volumes began to decline in December 1973 but began to rise again in March 1974. Total travel in the seven months through June 1974 decreased by 3.5 percent; traffic increased ...


Bridge Decks Constructed For Increased Durability, Assaf S. Rahal Oct 1974

Bridge Decks Constructed For Increased Durability, Assaf S. Rahal

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

The experimental features incorporated in this study were compaction, brooming, and hi-layered construction. Broomed surfaces initially exhibited a higher skidding resistance than non-broomed surfaces: broomed surfaces, however, wear more rapidly. No conclusive evaluation could be made at this time of the bilayered system and of tests made on the concrete cores. Electrical measurements made on the decks indicated there was no active corrosion of the steel.


Accidents On Rural Interstate And Parkway Roads And Their Relation To Pavement Friction, Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett, Cass T. Napier Oct 1973

Accidents On Rural Interstate And Parkway Roads And Their Relation To Pavement Friction, Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett, Cass T. Napier

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Friction measurements were made with a skid trailer at 70 mph (31 m/s) on 770 miles (1240 km) of rural, four-lane, controlled-access routes on the interstate and parkway systems in Kentucky. Each construction project was treated as a test section. Accident experience, friction measurements, and traffic volumes were obtained for each. Various relationships between wet-weather accidents and skid resistance were analyzed. The expression of accident occurrence which correlated best with skid and slip resistance was wet-weather accidents per 100 million vehicle miles. Accidents increased greatly as Skid Numbers (70 mph or 31 m/s) decreased from 27 ± 1. Analysis ...


Accidents On Rural Interstate And Parkway Roads And Their Relation To Pavement Friction, Cass T. Napier Sep 1972

Accidents On Rural Interstate And Parkway Roads And Their Relation To Pavement Friction, Cass T. Napier

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Friction measurements were made with a skid trailer at 70 mph on 820 miles of rural, four-lane, controlled-access routes on the interstate and parkway systems in Kentucky. These facilities were subdivided into test sections and half-mile sites. Accident experience, friction measurements and traffic volumes were obtained for each subdivision.

The expression of accident occurrence which correlated best with skid resistance was wet-surface accidents per 100 million vehicle miles. There was a definite trend exhibiting a rapid decrease of accidents with increasing Skid Number (70 mph) to 26 ± 1; thereafter, with increasing Skid Numbers, the rate of decrease was considerably lessened ...


Skid-Test Trailer: Description, Evaluation And Adaptation, Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett, Cass T. Napier Sep 1972

Skid-Test Trailer: Description, Evaluation And Adaptation, Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett, Cass T. Napier

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

A two-wheeled skid-test trailer and towing vehicle were acquired in 1969. The trailer was designed primarily for measurement of steady-state friction at and above normal traffic speeds. Measurement of instantaneous wheel loads also permitted determination of peak or incipient friction. Factors and variables associated with the testing device and calibration and test procedures were investigated and standardized, and the trailer was adopted for routine testing. Comparative tests with the trailers of General Motors, Ohio, and West Virginia were conducted, and the data were correlated. The interim standard method of test using an automobile was correlated with the trailer to permit ...