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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

A Theoretical Model Of Underground Dipole Antennas For Communications In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Xin Dong, Christos Argyropoulos, Suat Irmak Feb 2019

A Theoretical Model Of Underground Dipole Antennas For Communications In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Xin Dong, Christos Argyropoulos, Suat Irmak

Faculty Publications

The realization of Internet of Underground Things (IOUT) relies on the establishment of reliable communication links, where the antenna becomes a major design component due to the significant impacts of soil. In this paper, a theoretical model is developed to capture the impacts of change of soil moisture on the return loss, resonant frequency, and bandwidth of a buried dipole antenna. Experiments are conducted in silty clay loam, sandy, and silt loam soil, to characterize the effects of soil, in an indoor testbed and field testbeds. It is shown that at subsurface burial depths (0.1-0.4m), change in soil ...


Flexible Laser-Induced Graphene For Nitrogen Sensing In Soil, Nate T. Garland, Eric S. Mclamore, Nicholas D. Cavallaro, Deyny Mendivelso-Perez, Emily A. Smith, Dapeng Jing, Jonathan C. Claussen Nov 2018

Flexible Laser-Induced Graphene For Nitrogen Sensing In Soil, Nate T. Garland, Eric S. Mclamore, Nicholas D. Cavallaro, Deyny Mendivelso-Perez, Emily A. Smith, Dapeng Jing, Jonathan C. Claussen

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Flexible graphene electronics are rapidly gaining interest, but their widespread implementation has been impeded by challenges with ink preparation, ink printing, and post-print annealing processes. Laser-induced graphene (LIG) promises a facile alternative by creating flexible graphene electronics on polyimide substrates through a one-step laser writing fabrication method. Herein we demonstrate the use of LIG, created through a low-cost UV laser, for electrochemical ion selective sensing of plant-available nitrogen (i.e., both ammonium and nitrate ions: NH4+ and NO3-) in soil samples. The laser used to create the LIG was operated at distinct pulse rates (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 ...


Hyperspectral Band Selection Using Genetic Algorithm And Support Vector Machines For Early Identification Of Charcoal Rot Disease In Soybean Stems, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Sarah Jones, Soumik Sarkar, Asheesh K. Singh, Arti Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian Jan 2018

Hyperspectral Band Selection Using Genetic Algorithm And Support Vector Machines For Early Identification Of Charcoal Rot Disease In Soybean Stems, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Sarah Jones, Soumik Sarkar, Asheesh K. Singh, Arti Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Agronomy Publications

Background: Charcoal rot is a fungal disease that thrives in warm dry conditions and affects the yield of soybeans and other important agronomic crops worldwide. There is a need for robust, automatic and consistent early detection and quantification of disease symptoms which are important in breeding programs for the development of improved cultivars and in crop production for the implementation of disease control measures for yield protection. Current methods of plant disease phenotyping are predominantly visual and hence are slow and prone to human error and variation. There has been increasing interest in hyperspectral imaging applications for early detection of ...


Performance Benchmark Of Yield Monitors For Mechanical And Environmental Influences, Jason N. Schuster, Matthew J. Darr, Robert P. Mcnaull Jul 2017

Performance Benchmark Of Yield Monitors For Mechanical And Environmental Influences, Jason N. Schuster, Matthew J. Darr, Robert P. Mcnaull

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Crop yield data and maps from previous years are a primary source of information from which crop management recommendations and decisions are based upon. Yield data is a useful tool for making crop management decisions, but becomes irrelevant when it is not accurate or reliable. The objectives of this research were to benchmark commercial yield monitoring systems to better understand performance and to assess limitations of measurement methods from mechanical and environmental influences. Two commercial yield monitors that measured mass and volumetric flow for yield estimation were selected for benchmarking. Each system was calibrated using manufacturer procedures and evaluated in ...


Performance Benchmark Of Yield Monitors For Mechanical And Environmental Influences, Jason N. Schuster, Matthew J. Darr, Robert P. Mcnaull Jan 2017

Performance Benchmark Of Yield Monitors For Mechanical And Environmental Influences, Jason N. Schuster, Matthew J. Darr, Robert P. Mcnaull

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Crop yield data and maps from previous years are a primary source of information from which crop management recommendations and decisions are based upon. Yield data is a useful tool for making crop management decisions, but becomes irrelevant when it is not accurate or reliable. The objectives of this research were to benchmark commercial yield monitoring systems to better understand performance and to assess limitations of measurement methods from mechanical and environmental influences. Two commercial yield monitors that measured mass and volumetric flow for yield estimation were selected for benchmarking. Each system was calibrated using manufacturer procedures and evaluated in ...


As-Applied Estimation Of Volumetric Flow Rate From A Single Sprayer Nozzle Series Using Water-Sensitive Spray Cards, Michael P. Sama, John T. Evans, Aaron P. Turner, Surya Saket Dasika Jan 2016

As-Applied Estimation Of Volumetric Flow Rate From A Single Sprayer Nozzle Series Using Water-Sensitive Spray Cards, Michael P. Sama, John T. Evans, Aaron P. Turner, Surya Saket Dasika

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of using coverage measurements from water-sensitive spray cards to estimate the volumetric flow rate at an individual sprayer nozzle. TeeJet VisiFlow Even Flat Spray Tips were selected due to their uniform distribution of coverage. Spray distribution for each nozzle was validated using a spray patternator table with 2.5 cm sampling widths. A rotary test fixture translated water-sensitive spray cards through the spray dispersion (water at ambient conditions) at a constant angular velocity and a radius of 1.2 m. The test fixture measured volumetric flow and pressure at the ...


Recalibration Methodology To Compensate For Changing Fluid Properties In An Individual Nozzle Direct Injection System, Joe D. Luck, Scott A. Shearer, Brian D. Luck, Michael P. Sama Jan 2016

Recalibration Methodology To Compensate For Changing Fluid Properties In An Individual Nozzle Direct Injection System, Joe D. Luck, Scott A. Shearer, Brian D. Luck, Michael P. Sama

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Limited advancement of direct injection pesticide application systems has been made in recent years, which has hindered further commercialization of this technology. One approach to solving the lag and mixing issues typically associated with injection-based systems is high-pressure individual nozzle injection. However, accurate monitoring of the chemical concentrate flow rate can pose a challenge due to the high pressure, low flow, and changing viscosities of the fluid. A methodology was developed for recalibrating high-pressure chemical concentrate injectors to compensate for fluid property variations and evaluate the performance of this technique for operating injectors in an open-loop configuration. Specific objectives were ...


Recalibration Methodology To Compensate For Changing Fluid Properties In An Individual Nozzle Direct Injection Systems, Joe D. Luck, S. A. Shearer, B. D. Luck, M. P. Sama Jan 2016

Recalibration Methodology To Compensate For Changing Fluid Properties In An Individual Nozzle Direct Injection Systems, Joe D. Luck, S. A. Shearer, B. D. Luck, M. P. Sama

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Limited advancement of direct injection pesticide application systems has been made in recent years, which has hindered further commercialization of this technology. One approach to solving the lag and mixing issues typically associated with injection-based systems is high-pressure individual nozzle injection. However, accurate monitoring of the chemical concentrate flow rate can pose a challenge due to the high pressure, low flow, and changing viscosities of the fluid. A methodology was developed for recalibrating high-pressure chemical concentrate injectors to compensate for fluid property variations and evaluate the performance of this technique for operating injectors in an open-loop configuration. Specific objectives were ...


Development And Evaluation Of A Cost Effective Plant Growth Media Moisture Sensor And Development Of An Aqueous Data Transmission System For Irrigation Purposes, Steven Michael Pickett May 2015

Development And Evaluation Of A Cost Effective Plant Growth Media Moisture Sensor And Development Of An Aqueous Data Transmission System For Irrigation Purposes, Steven Michael Pickett

Masters Theses

The ability to accurately monitor and transit the moisture content of soilless growing media in the rooting zone is critical for plant-based research, production of high value crops, and other agricultural production. The focus of this study is the development and evaluation of a cost effective moisture sensor designed to measure the plant-available moisture content of growing media and the development of a aqueous data transmission method for relaying this information back to a central location. While there are currently many commercially available soil moisture sensors on the market, the aim of this research is not to develop a more ...


Flow, Spray Pattern, And Droplet Spectra Characteristics Of An Electronically Actuated Variable-Orifice Nozzle, Joe D. Luck, Santosh K. Pitla, Michael P. Sama, Scott A. Shearer Jan 2015

Flow, Spray Pattern, And Droplet Spectra Characteristics Of An Electronically Actuated Variable-Orifice Nozzle, Joe D. Luck, Santosh K. Pitla, Michael P. Sama, Scott A. Shearer

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the flow rate, spray pattern, and droplet spectra characteristics of an actively controlled variable-orifice nozzle at constant carrier pressures. A commercially available variable-orifice nozzle (VariTarget) was modified to allow for direct electromechanical control of the metering stem. The modified system was tested at five carrier pressures ranging from 138 to 414 kPa and five metering stem (and thus orifice) positions. The metering stem position range was chosen because it provided a linear response in flow rate at each carrier pressure. Flow rate testing indicated a turndown ratio of 2.4 ...


Control System Development And Response Analysis Of An Electronically Actuated Variable-Orifice Nozzle For Agricultural Pesticide Applications, Joe D. Luck, Scott A. Shearer, Michael P. Sama, Santosh K. Pitla Jan 2015

Control System Development And Response Analysis Of An Electronically Actuated Variable-Orifice Nozzle For Agricultural Pesticide Applications, Joe D. Luck, Scott A. Shearer, Michael P. Sama, Santosh K. Pitla

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

The goal of this research project was to further the development of an electromechanically controlled variable-orifice nozzle by creating an electronic control system and then evaluating that system based on step and ramp inputs. The control system was developed in a programming environment that combined an electronic data acquisition system and actuator with pressure and flow sensors. A proportional, variable-gain (based on system pressure) control system was developed to adjust nozzle flow rates to meet target application rates. The constraints were to achieve settling time of less than 1.0 s, overshoot of less than 10% of maximum flow (or ...


Techno-Economic Analysis Of Future Precision Field Robots, Olga M. Toledo, Brian L. Steward, Jingyao Gai, Lie Tang Jul 2014

Techno-Economic Analysis Of Future Precision Field Robots, Olga M. Toledo, Brian L. Steward, Jingyao Gai, Lie Tang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Precision agriculture (PA) technology provides a means to increase equipment productivity and field efficiency, and input efficiency; however, the potential of PA technologies to enable smaller, autonomous machines has yet not been realized in the market place. In developed countries, the size of tractors and implements continue to increase. Such trend cannot continue indefinitely because of size, technical and cost constraints. A long operating life for agricultural equipment enables a greater benefit relative to the high initial cost and investment. However, long equipment life can lead to technologically obsolete machines with potential incompatibility and sub-optimality, since machinery and PA technology ...


Modeling Zone Management In Precision Agriculture Through Fuzzy C-Means Technique At Spatial Database, Laurimar G. Vendrusculo, Amy L. Kaleita Aug 2011

Modeling Zone Management In Precision Agriculture Through Fuzzy C-Means Technique At Spatial Database, Laurimar G. Vendrusculo, Amy L. Kaleita

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Predict the optimal number of zones to manage tasks evolved in precision agriculture applications is challenging issue in classification tasks. Important decisions in the farm required maps of yield classes which contain relative large, similar and spatially contiguous partitions and sometimes without a priori knowledge of the field. The main goal of this study was to apply Fuzzy C-means (FCM), an unsupervised classification technique, in a geo-referenced yield and grain moisture dataset in order to find optimal number for homogeneous zones. Those data were produced by Long-Term Ecological Research in a Biological Station (KBS-LTER), Michigan, during growing season at 2008 ...


Design Of Laser Multi-Beam Generator For Plant Discrimination, Sreten Askraba, Arie Paap, Kamal Alameh, John Rowe Jan 2011

Design Of Laser Multi-Beam Generator For Plant Discrimination, Sreten Askraba, Arie Paap, Kamal Alameh, John Rowe

Research outputs 2011

Optimisation of the optical signal from the laser multi-spot beam generator employed in a photonic based real-time plant discrimination sensor for use in selective herbicide spraying systems is presented. The plant detection sensor uses a three-wavelength laser diode module that sequentially emits identically-polarized laser light beams through a common aperture, along one optical path. Each laser beam enters a multi-spot beam generator which produces 15 parallel laser beams over a 240mm span. The intensity of the reflected light from each spot is detected by a high-speed line scan image sensor. Plant discrimination is based on calculating the slope of the ...


Real-Time Pressure And Flow Dynamics Due To Boom Section And Individual Nozzle Control On Agricultural Sprayers, Ajay Sharda, John P. Fulton, Timothy P. Mcdonald, Wesley C. Zech, Matthew J. Darr, Christian J. Brodbeck Jan 2010

Real-Time Pressure And Flow Dynamics Due To Boom Section And Individual Nozzle Control On Agricultural Sprayers, Ajay Sharda, John P. Fulton, Timothy P. Mcdonald, Wesley C. Zech, Matthew J. Darr, Christian J. Brodbeck

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Most modern spray controllers when coupled with a differential global positioning system (DGPS) receiver can provide automatic section or swath (boom section or nozzle) control capabilities that minimize overlap and application into undesirable areas. This technology can improve application accuracy of pesticides and fertilizers, thereby reducing the number of inputs while promoting environmental stewardship. However, dynamic system response for sprayer boom operation, which includes cycling or using auto-swath technology, has not been investigated. Therefore, a study was conducted to develop a methodology and subsequently perform experiments to evaluate tip pressure and system flow variations on a typical agricultural sprayer equipped ...


Real-Time Pressure And Flow Response For Swath Control Technology, Ajay Sharda, John P. Fulton, Timothy P. Mcdonald, Matthew J. Darr, Wesley C. Zech, Christian J. Brodbeck Jun 2009

Real-Time Pressure And Flow Response For Swath Control Technology, Ajay Sharda, John P. Fulton, Timothy P. Mcdonald, Matthew J. Darr, Wesley C. Zech, Christian J. Brodbeck

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Auto-swath technology is being readily adopted by producers across the US because it can improve in-field equipment efficiency and reduce input usage leading to economic savings. Spray controllers with swath control use GPS to track of areas where inputs have already been applied and areas identified to receive no inputs. However, concerns exist for liquid applicators equipped with auto-swath technology about the system response when shutting ON/OFF of boom-sections or nozzles possibly impacting the desired spray pattern and rate. Therefore, an investigation was conducted to evaluate real-time boom dynamics, pressure and flow, for a typical agricultural sprayer using auto-swath ...


Simulating The Effects Of Spatially Variable Irrigation On Corn Yields, Costs, And Revenue In Iowa, Kendall C. Dejonge, Amy L. Kaleita, Kelly R. Thorp Aug 2007

Simulating The Effects Of Spatially Variable Irrigation On Corn Yields, Costs, And Revenue In Iowa, Kendall C. Dejonge, Amy L. Kaleita, Kelly R. Thorp

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this study, the CERES-Maize crop model was used in conjunction with Apollo, a shell program, to evaluate potential improved yield in a central Iowa cornfield on a spatially and temporally variable basis. Five years of historical yield and weather data were used to calibrate the model over 100 spatially variable grid cells for non-irrigated conditions in the 20.25 ha field. This calibrated model then used 28 years of historical weather data to simulate three irrigation scenarios: no irrigation, scheduled uniform irrigation, and precision irrigation. Irrigation improved yield by at least 500 kg ha−1 in half of the ...


Using Cross-Validation To Evaluate Ceres-Maize Yield Simulations Within A Decision Support System For Precision Agriculture, Kelly R. Thorp, William David Batchelor, Joel O. Paz, Amy L. Kaleita, Kendall C. Dejonge Jan 2007

Using Cross-Validation To Evaluate Ceres-Maize Yield Simulations Within A Decision Support System For Precision Agriculture, Kelly R. Thorp, William David Batchelor, Joel O. Paz, Amy L. Kaleita, Kendall C. Dejonge

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Crop growth models have recently been implemented to study precision agriculture questions within the framework of a decision support system (DSS) that automates simulations across management zones. Model calibration in each zone has occurred by automatically optimizing select model parameters to minimize error between measured and simulated yield over multiple growing seasons. However, to date, there have been no efforts to evaluate model simulations within the DSS. In this work, a model evaluation procedure based on leave-one-out cross-validation was developed to explore several issues associated with the implementation of CERES-Maize within the DSS. Five growing seasons of measured yield data ...


Technical Note: Field-Scale Surface Soil Moisture Patterns And Their Relationship To Topographic Indices, Amy L. Kaleita, Michael C. Hirschi, Lei F. Tian Jan 2007

Technical Note: Field-Scale Surface Soil Moisture Patterns And Their Relationship To Topographic Indices, Amy L. Kaleita, Michael C. Hirschi, Lei F. Tian

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Understanding variability patterns in soil moisture is critical for determining an optimal sampling scheme both in space and in time, as well as for determining optimal management zones for agricultural applications that involve moisture status. In this study, distributed near-surface gravimetric soil moisture samples were collected across a 3.3 ha field in central Illinois for ten dates in the summer of 2002, along with dense elevation data. Temporal stability and consistency of the moisture patterns were analyzed in order to determine a suitable grid size for mapping and management, as well as to investigate relationships between moisture patterns and ...


Simulation Of Spatially Variable Precision Irrigation And Its Effects On Corn Growth Using Ceres-Maize, Kendall C. Dejonge, Amy L. Kaleita Jul 2006

Simulation Of Spatially Variable Precision Irrigation And Its Effects On Corn Growth Using Ceres-Maize, Kendall C. Dejonge, Amy L. Kaleita

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Few studies have been done considering the possibility of irrigation systems in Iowa or other humid regions. Recent technological progress in precision agriculture may allow irrigation in these areas to become more economically feasible. Crop models have emerged as a method to evaluate different crop management practices such as irrigation without costly and time-consuming onsite experiments. In this study, the CERES-Maize crop model was used in conjunction with APOLLO, a shell program developed at Iowa State University, to evaluate potential improved yield in a central Iowa cornfield on a spatially and temporally variable basis. Five years of historical yield and ...


Laboratory Evaluation Of An Electro-Pneumatic Sampling Method For Real-Time Soil Sensing, Saadettin Yildirim, Stuart J. Birrell, John W. Hummel Jan 2006

Laboratory Evaluation Of An Electro-Pneumatic Sampling Method For Real-Time Soil Sensing, Saadettin Yildirim, Stuart J. Birrell, John W. Hummel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

An automated electro-pneumatic soil sampling method based on pressurized air for real-time soil analysis was developed and tested under laboratory conditions. Pressurized air was applied for 36 ms across a 2.5 cm diameter cylinder to cut a sample from a soil column and convey the sample along a delivery pipe into a container. An electro-pneumatic regulator valve was used to regulate the air pressure at 550, 690, and 830 kPa (80, 100, and 120 psi) using an analog electrical signal. A two-position solenoid valve controlled by a stand-alone microprocessor was used to control pulse duration. Laboratory tests were conducted ...


Rate Response Assessment From Various Granular Vrt Applicators, John P. Fulton, Scott A. Shearer, Stephen F. Higgins, Matthew J. Darr, Timothy S. Stombaugh Nov 2005

Rate Response Assessment From Various Granular Vrt Applicators, John P. Fulton, Scott A. Shearer, Stephen F. Higgins, Matthew J. Darr, Timothy S. Stombaugh

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Variable-rate technology (VRT) adds complexity to application equipment, thereby confounding the assessment of applicator performance. The intent of this investigation was to assess the rate response of various VRT granular applicators: two spinner spreaders (A and B), and two pneumatic applicators (C and D). Variable-rate (VR) tests were conducted to quantify the rate response characteristics (delay and transition times) for the applicators. A sigmoidal function was used to model the rate response for five of the six tests. Applicator A exhibited a linear response during decreasing rate changes. Results indicated that only applicator B demonstrated consistent delay and transition times ...


Distribution Pattern Variability Of Granular Vrt Applicators, John P. Fulton, Scott A. Shearer, Stephen F. Higgins, Dennis Wayne Hancock, Timothy S. Stombaugh Nov 2005

Distribution Pattern Variability Of Granular Vrt Applicators, John P. Fulton, Scott A. Shearer, Stephen F. Higgins, Dennis Wayne Hancock, Timothy S. Stombaugh

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Granular applicators equipped with variable-rate technology (VRT) have gained popularity in recent years as a result of increased interest in variable-rate application. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize distribution patterns at varying rates for different granular applicators. Uniform-rate (UR) tests were conducted to assess the accuracy of variable-rate application from four granular applicators: two spinner-disc spreaders (A and B), and two pneumatic applicators (C and D). Pattern results indicated a consistent triangular pattern for spinner spreader B and consistent patterns for the pneumatic applicators (C and D). However, applicator D produced pattern variations at the center and right ...


Establishing Conservation Buffers Using Precision Information, Michael G. Dosskey, Dean E. Eisenhauer, Matthew J. Helmers Nov 2005

Establishing Conservation Buffers Using Precision Information, Michael G. Dosskey, Dean E. Eisenhauer, Matthew J. Helmers

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Conservation buffers, such as filter strips and riparian forest buffers, are widely prescribed to improve and protect water quality in agricultural landscapes. These buffers intercept field runoff and retain some of its pollutant load before it reaches a waterway. A buffer typically is designed to have uniform width along a field margin and to intercept runoff that flows uniformly to it. However, spatial analysis of field conditions and runoff patterns indicate that more runoff is likely to flow to some locations along a field margin than to others which can substantially limit a buffer's effectiveness. We propose that precision ...


Crop Yield Response To Precision Deep Tillage, Larry G. Wells, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Scott A. Shearer May 2005

Crop Yield Response To Precision Deep Tillage, Larry G. Wells, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Scott A. Shearer

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Experimental precision deep tillage was applied at three sites in central Kentucky with relatively well-drained silt loam soils in no-till crop production. Fields were divided into 0.4 ha (1 ac) grid cells using DGPS mapping. Assessment of soil compaction by machinery traffic was made using multiple soil cone penetrometer measurements and expressed as cone index (CI). Corn, wheat, and soybean yields were depressed in grid cells with CIavg ≥ 1.5 MPa (218 psi) prior to application of tillage treatments at sites 1 and 3, whereas at site 2, where most of the highest average CI values ranged from ...


Controller Area Network Based Distributed Control For Autonomous Vehicles, Matthew J. Darr, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Scott A. Shearer Mar 2005

Controller Area Network Based Distributed Control For Autonomous Vehicles, Matthew J. Darr, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Scott A. Shearer

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

The goal of this project was to evaluate the potential of a controller area network (CAN bus) to be used as the communication network for a distributed control system on an autonomous agricultural vehicle. The prototype system utilized microcontroller-driven nodes to act as control points along a CAN bus. Messages were transferred to the steering, transmission, and hitch control nodes via a task computer. The task computer utilized global positioning system data to generate appropriate control commands. Laboratory and field testing demonstrated that each of the control nodes could function simultaneously over the CAN bus. Results showed that the task ...


Rate Response Assessment From Various Granular Vrt Applicators, John P. Fulton, Scott A. Sherer, Stephen F. Higgins, Matthew J. Darr, Timothy S. Stombaugh Jan 2005

Rate Response Assessment From Various Granular Vrt Applicators, John P. Fulton, Scott A. Sherer, Stephen F. Higgins, Matthew J. Darr, Timothy S. Stombaugh

Matthew J. Darr

Variable-rate technology (VRT) adds complexity to application equipment, thereby confounding the assessment of applicator performance. The intent of this investigation was to assess the rate response of various VRT granular applicators: two spinner spreaders (A and B), and two pneumatic applicators (C and D). Variable-rate (VR) tests were conducted to quantify the rate response characteristics (delay and transition times) for the applicators. A sigmoidal function was used to model the rate response for five of the six tests. Applicator A exhibited a linear response during decreasing rate changes. Results indicated that only applicator B demonstrated consistent delay and transition times ...


Controller Area Network Based Distributed Control For Autonomous Vehicles, Matthew J. Darr, Timotthy S. Stombaugh, Scott A. Shearer Jan 2005

Controller Area Network Based Distributed Control For Autonomous Vehicles, Matthew J. Darr, Timotthy S. Stombaugh, Scott A. Shearer

Matthew J. Darr

The goal of this project was to evaluate the potential of a controller area network (CAN bus) to be used as the communication network for a distributed control system on an autonomous agricultural vehicle. The prototype system utilized microcontroller-driven nodes to act as control points along a CAN bus. Messages were transferred to the steering, transmission, and hitch control nodes via a task computer. The task computer utilized global positioning system data to generate appropriate control commands. Laboratory and field testing demonstrated that each of the control nodes could function simultaneously over the CAN bus. Results showed that the task ...


Size And Shape Analysis Of Corn Plant Canopies For Plant Population And Spacing Sensing, Dev Sagar Shrestha, Brian L. Steward Jan 2005

Size And Shape Analysis Of Corn Plant Canopies For Plant Population And Spacing Sensing, Dev Sagar Shrestha, Brian L. Steward

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

An effective corn plant population and spacing sensing system may provide a key layer of field variability information useful for crop management. An algorithm was developed to count corn plants and to estimate plant location and intra-row spacing in segmented images of 6.1-m (20-ft) long row sections. Images were scanned to detect and determine the boundaries of top projected corn plant canopy objects using a chain code methodology. Plant objects were fused together based on a multi-step process that took into account the spatial structure of the crop row. Position, roundness, and area of plant canopies were used to ...


Comparison Of Vrt Granular Applicators, John P. Fulton, Scott A. Shearer, Steven F. Higgins, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Matthew J. Darr, Dennis W. Hancock, Edward L. Hutchins Aug 2004

Comparison Of Vrt Granular Applicators, John P. Fulton, Scott A. Shearer, Steven F. Higgins, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Matthew J. Darr, Dennis W. Hancock, Edward L. Hutchins

Matthew J. Darr

Granular applicators equipped with variable-rate technology have gained popularity in recent years due to increased interests in variable-rate application. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize distribution patterns at varying rates and quantify rate transitions from various granular applicators. Both uniform- and variable-rate tests were conducted to assess the accuracy of variable-rate application from four granular applicators (2 spinner spreaders and 2 pneumatic applicators). The patterns results indicated a consistent triangular pattern for spinner spreader B and consistent patterns for pneumatic applicators C and D. However, applicator D produced pattern variations at the center and right side. Simulated overlap ...