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Environmental Engineering

2006

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Modeling Long-Term Plutonium Transport In The Savannah River Site Vadose Zone, Deniz Demirkanli Dec 2006

Modeling Long-Term Plutonium Transport In The Savannah River Site Vadose Zone, Deniz Demirkanli

All Dissertations

Improved understanding of flow and radionuclide transport in vadose zone sediments is fundamental to future planning involving radioactive materials. Long-term experiments were conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS), where a series of lysimeters containing sources of different Pu oxidation states were placed in the shallow subsurface and exposed to the environment for 2 to 11 years. After the experiments, Pu activity concentrations were measured along vertical cores. The distributions were anomalous in nature, with irregular downward migration and unexpected upward migration. Previous studies suggested that surface-mediated, oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions may be responsible for the anomalies. This hypothesis is ...


A Comparison Of The Zns(Ag) Scintillation Detector To The Silicon Semiconductor Detector For Quantification Of Alpha Radioactivity In Aqueous Solutions, Jennifer Foster Dec 2006

A Comparison Of The Zns(Ag) Scintillation Detector To The Silicon Semiconductor Detector For Quantification Of Alpha Radioactivity In Aqueous Solutions, Jennifer Foster

All Theses

A ZnS(Ag) detector was successfully used in the direct detection of alpha particles from aqueous solutions and the results were compared to the passivated ion implanted planar silicon (PIPS) continuous air monitor (CAM) detector. The ZnS(Ag) detector is recommended for on-line detection of gross alpha radioactivity from high-level liquid waste process streams; however, the detector suffers from limitations due to variations in detection efficiency with alpha energies. The beta and gamma interference did not significantly spillover into the alpha region of interest of the ZnS(Ag) detector which provided absolute detection efficiencies of 7.19 ± 0.13%, 5 ...


Controlling Steam Flood Migration With Air Injection Wells, Rex Hodges Dec 2006

Controlling Steam Flood Migration With Air Injection Wells, Rex Hodges

All Dissertations

Steam flooding is an aggressive remediation technology for removing volatile organic chemical (VOC) sources that slowly dissolve into passing groundwater. Plume concentrations can be reduced, accelerating cleanup, and decreasing plume management costs. Steam injected in wells surrounding the source spreads outward and develops into a front that drives contamination to a system of groundwater pumping wells in the saturated zone and soil vapor extraction wells in the vadose zone. The process can be modeled with the non-isothermal multi-phase flow simulator T2VOC to include operation designs and factors at individual sites.
A pilot field-scale test at the Savannah River Site (SRS ...


Towards A New Taxation System For Motor Vehicles, Theodoros Zachariadis Nov 2006

Towards A New Taxation System For Motor Vehicles, Theodoros Zachariadis

Theodoros Zachariadis

No abstract provided.


Procedure To Quantify Biofilm Activity In Carriers Used In Wastewater Treatment Systems, James Bolton, Archana Tummala, Chirag Kapadia, Manoj Dandamudi, Joanne M. Belovich Nov 2006

Procedure To Quantify Biofilm Activity In Carriers Used In Wastewater Treatment Systems, James Bolton, Archana Tummala, Chirag Kapadia, Manoj Dandamudi, Joanne M. Belovich

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

A procedure is presented for evaluating and comparing the biological activity of biofilms attached to various biofilm carriers by measurement of the glucose consumption rate. This technique allows for the economical design and selection of small particulate biofilm carriers that will maximize substrate removal when used in industrial-scale fluidized bioreactors. Methods for ensuring reproducible results are described. To support the glucose consumption rate findings, biofilm dry weights were obtained at the conclusion of activity rate experiments, and scanning electron micrographs were taken to evaluate the presence of biofilm and to view surface characteristics. Fourteen different biofilm carriers were evaluated ranging ...


Analiza Możliwości Ograniczenia Emisji Zanieczyszczeń Powietrza Z Instalacji Spalania Odpadów Medycznych W Tarnowie, Robert Oleniacz Oct 2006

Analiza Możliwości Ograniczenia Emisji Zanieczyszczeń Powietrza Z Instalacji Spalania Odpadów Medycznych W Tarnowie, Robert Oleniacz

Robert Oleniacz

The paper presents initial research of effects of some factors on the amount of gaseous pollutants formation during medical waste incineration in a two-stage starved air fluidised bed reactor. In the research was included the impact of such factors as oxygen contents in flue gases, frequency of waste loading, momentary mass flow of waste and temperature in the secondary combustion chambers. Measurements showed that the waste incineration in large amount periodically caused excessive emissions incomplete combustion products (CO, HC), especially during wrong operation of the combustion system. The work demonstrated that the essential importance for CO and HC formation reducing ...


Nutrient Recycling: Rural On-Site Wastewater Disposal And Treatment In Can Tho City, Viet Nam, Micah Johnson Oct 2006

Nutrient Recycling: Rural On-Site Wastewater Disposal And Treatment In Can Tho City, Viet Nam, Micah Johnson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In order to research a topic a holistic perspective is important. Often experiments are performed absent from the environment that is being observed. It is like thrusting one’s hand into an ocean to grope around for a specimen, extract it, and examine it apart from its native habitat. Although this is possible and often primarily the method, to immerse oneself into where one is studying is to increase one’s ability to obtain a more holistic perspective. I have come to believe that the more practical and accurate scientific experiments are a combination of laboratories and on the field ...


Emisja Zanieczyszczeń Powietrza Z Procesu Grafityzacji Wyrobów Drobnych, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki, Przemysław Szczygłowski Sep 2006

Emisja Zanieczyszczeń Powietrza Z Procesu Grafityzacji Wyrobów Drobnych, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki, Przemysław Szczygłowski

Robert Oleniacz

The paper presents the research results of the air pollutant emissions from the graphitising process of fine carbon products in the Acheson furnace (discharge capacity 5,5 Mg). Research was performed for two kinds of raw material inputs (based on petroleum coke and pitch coke). Approximately 40-hours measurement series were carried out for each material including mainly such substances like carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, carbon disulphide, ammonia, benzene, toluene, xylenes, total dust, tar substances and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Both average and maximum concentrations and mass streams in the flue gases and average emission factors were ...


Characterization Of Manganese Oxide Coated Filter Media, Joseph Goodwill Sep 2006

Characterization Of Manganese Oxide Coated Filter Media, Joseph Goodwill

Environmental & Water Resources Engineering Masters Projects

Abstract Several methods for removal of soluble maugauese from drinking water exist. One of these options involves adsorption of the maugauese onto Mn oxide coated filter media. Dissolved maugauese (Mn(H)) is adsorbed to sites on the Mn oxide coating aud then oxidized by free chlorine, thus regenerating the media sites for further Mn adsorption. This method has been successfully used by numerous water treatment plauts, decreasing Mn levels to below treatment goals. A disadvautage to this method is the use of chlorine prior to filtration, which cau lead to increased levels of disinfection by-products as compared to post-filter chlorination ...


Application Of Microbial Source Tracking To Separate Microbial Sources To A Tributary Of The Wachusett Reservoir, Michael N. Tache Sep 2006

Application Of Microbial Source Tracking To Separate Microbial Sources To A Tributary Of The Wachusett Reservoir, Michael N. Tache

Environmental & Water Resources Engineering Masters Projects

Surface waters used as sources of drinking water can be at risk for pathogen contamination from non-point source pollution. Non-point source pollution is a problem because it can be difficult to detect and quantify. Source water protection is a tool to protect public health by maintaining and improving source water quality. The Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR), which aims to improve the control of Cryptosporidium, recognizes watershed protection programs as part of both Cryptosporidium and virus removal requirements. Microbial source tracking (MST) is a tool that is currently being developed to aid in source water protection ...


The Impact Of Abiotic And Biogenic Mn Oxide Coatings On Contaminant Mobility, Bioavailability, And Attenuation, Thipnakarin Boonfueng Aug 2006

The Impact Of Abiotic And Biogenic Mn Oxide Coatings On Contaminant Mobility, Bioavailability, And Attenuation, Thipnakarin Boonfueng

Dissertations

Abiotic and biogenic manganese oxide coatings significantly impact the mobility and bioavailability of metals in soils and sediments. While sorption to discrete Mn oxides has been investigated in a number of studies, coatings have not received as much attention. Abiotic nanocrystalline (hydrous manganese oxide (HMO)) and crystalline Mn oxides (bimessite and pyrolusite) coated on montmorillonite were studied for formation, structure, stability, and surface properties. Coatings dominated the clay surface characteristics where the surface charge behaved similar to that of the discrete oxide and the local structure was consistent with the pure oxide phase. Furthermore, in sorption studies, Zn and Pb ...


Evaluation Of Environmental Carrying Capacity And Application Of The Sustainability Target Method, Chatpet Yossapol Aug 2006

Evaluation Of Environmental Carrying Capacity And Application Of The Sustainability Target Method, Chatpet Yossapol

Dissertations

The environmental carrying capacity (CC) is defined as the capacity of the earth to absorb or tolerate potentially stressful burdens imparted at various scales and locations, that is, to accommodate the ecological stresses without showing permanent damage. The CC can be used as a reference dataset for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) purposes and as a baseline for other environmental studies.

In this research, a set of impact-oriented U.S. CC is developed for both input- and output-related impacts. CC for eight common impact categories is evaluated: resource depletion, global warming, ozone depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone formation, human toxicity, and ...


South Kingstown Ri: New Zoning For An Historic Mill, Maggie Jones, Richard Barringer Aug 2006

South Kingstown Ri: New Zoning For An Historic Mill, Maggie Jones, Richard Barringer

Planning

The village of Peace Dale in the town of South Kingstown, Rhode Island, developed around several mills that commenced operations in the 1800s. One mill, known as the Palisades, is still partially active and in excellent condition, but much of its square footage is unutilized. A citizens’ group of artists and business people joined with the mill owners and the town of South Kingstown to develop new zoning regulations to make more flexible the permitted uses for the mill site. The proposed zoning will allow the mill complex to feature a mix of retail, residential, and manufacturing uses, while preserving ...


Mansfield Ct: Planning A New Village Center, Maggie Jones, Richard Barringer Aug 2006

Mansfield Ct: Planning A New Village Center, Maggie Jones, Richard Barringer

Planning

The case follows the development of a plan for a new village center in Storrs, the central village of Mansfield, Connecticut. A process that was transparent and inclusive of the community members yielded a plan that gained the approval of the Town, the landowner (the University of Connecticut), and the citizenry. The process relied on the mending of fences, the leadership of key participants, and an innovative strategy that included development of a nonprofit corporation and creative use of grant money. While zoning changes are still in the works, the first stage of building goes forward.


Climate Change Sensitivity Assessment On Upper Mississippi River Basin Streamflows Using Swat, Manoj K. Jha, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Philip W. Gassman, Filippo Giorgi, Roy R. Gu Aug 2006

Climate Change Sensitivity Assessment On Upper Mississippi River Basin Streamflows Using Swat, Manoj K. Jha, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Philip W. Gassman, Filippo Giorgi, Roy R. Gu

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to assess the effects of potential future climate change on the hydrology of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB). Calibration and validation of SWAT were performed using monthly stream flows for 1968–1987 and 1988–1997, respectively. The R2 and Nash-Sutcliffe simulation efficiency values computed for the monthly comparisons were 0.74 and 0.69 for the calibration period and 0.82 and 0.81 for the validation period. The effects of nine 30-year (1968 to 1997) sensitivity runs and six climate change scenarios were then analyzed, relative to ...


Use Of A Dynamic Sediment Delivery Model For Watershed Planning In Beaver Creek, Knox County, Tennessee, Shannon Elizabeth Bennett Aug 2006

Use Of A Dynamic Sediment Delivery Model For Watershed Planning In Beaver Creek, Knox County, Tennessee, Shannon Elizabeth Bennett

Masters Theses

Beaver Creek is located in Knox County, Tennessee and is on the 303d list for impairment due to phosphorus, nitrate, Escherichia coli, loss of biological integrity due to siltation, and habitat loss due to impacts from urbanization. The Beaver Creek watershed is rapidly urbanizing, but is still composed primarily of agricultural and forested lands. The watershed also has a large residential area. The purpose of this research is to provide a better understanding to the following questions:

• How does sediment yield change in watersheds as a function of urbanization?

• How do sediment yields change in watersheds as a function of ...


Abet Self-Study Report For The Forest Engineering Program At Suny Esf, Accreditation Board For Engineering And Technology Jul 2006

Abet Self-Study Report For The Forest Engineering Program At Suny Esf, Accreditation Board For Engineering And Technology

Environmental Resources Engineering Documents

In 1971, the Department of Forest Engineering at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (ESF) began offering a BS degree in Forest Engineering (FEG). The BS in Forest Engineering was first accredited by ABET in 1982. This document is the self-study that was submitted during the last Engineering Accreditation Commission review of the FEG program in 2006.


Hillsborough Filter Pilot Project (2006), Stormwater Academy Jul 2006

Hillsborough Filter Pilot Project (2006), Stormwater Academy

BMP Trains Research and Publications

A zeolite filter pilot plant was operated over a 216 day period to evaluate its ability to enhance nitrogen removal from stormwater. When operated at a steady filtration rate of 192 gal/ft2 -day, the zeolite filter was highly effective at removing ammonia, producing an effluent ammonia nitrogen concentration of 0.07 mg/L, and removing 93% of ammonia and 32% of total inorganic nitrogen. A variety of non-steady state experiments demonstrated that the zeolite filter performance was superior to a parallel sand filter under the varying conditions that are common to stormwater management systems. A storm event was simulated ...


The Suitability Of Coliphage As An Indicator Of Potential Fecal Contamination In Groundwater Systems, Keith G. Dewar Jul 2006

The Suitability Of Coliphage As An Indicator Of Potential Fecal Contamination In Groundwater Systems, Keith G. Dewar

Environmental & Water Resources Engineering Masters Projects

Over the years aquifers have been considered a clean source of drinking water as the soil acts as a natural filter. It.has been realized that groundwater used as a source of drinking water can be subject to fecal contamination through a number of various sources. With almost half of the United States national domestic water supply originatng from groundwater, a system of monitoring for contamination should be implemented to ensure public health and safety. Monitoring water to assess its microbial safety has long relied on the detection of indicator microorganisms, total and fecal coliforms in particular. Coliform bacteria has ...


Relationships Between Pacific And Atlantic Ocean Sea Surface Temperatures And U.S. Streamflow Variability, Glenn A. Tootle, Thomas C. Piechota Jul 2006

Relationships Between Pacific And Atlantic Ocean Sea Surface Temperatures And U.S. Streamflow Variability, Glenn A. Tootle, Thomas C. Piechota

Civil & Environmental Engineering and Construction Faculty Publications

An evaluation of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and continental U.S. streamflow was performed to identify coupled regions of SST and continental U.S. streamflow variability. Both SSTs and streamflow displayed temporal variability when applying the singular value decomposition (SVD) statistical method. Initially, an extended temporal evaluation was performed using the entire period of record (i.e., all years from 1951 to 2002). This was followed by an interdecadal-temporal evaluation for the Pacific (Atlantic) Ocean based on the phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO)). Finally, an extended temporal evaluation was performed ...


Layering In A Flow With Diffusively Stable Temperature And Salinity Stratification, Juan Ezequiel Martin, Chris R. Rehmann Jul 2006

Layering In A Flow With Diffusively Stable Temperature And Salinity Stratification, Juan Ezequiel Martin, Chris R. Rehmann

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the formation of layers and interfaces in a fluid stratified with two scalars. Fluid with initially linear, diffusively stable temperature and salinity profiles was stirred using an arrangement of horizontally oscillating, vertical rods. Layers occurred when the density ratio, or the ratio of the contributions of temperature and salinity to the density gradient, was small, but they did not form in similar conditions of turbulence intensity and stratification strength when the density ratio was large. The difference in behavior is ascribed to differential diffusion, or the preferential transport of temperature, which occurred in all ...


Enhancing Targeted Traffic Enforcement Efforts In Portland, Oregon, Max Coffman, Christopher Monsere Jun 2006

Enhancing Targeted Traffic Enforcement Efforts In Portland, Oregon, Max Coffman, Christopher Monsere

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Enforcement is a key component of any comprehensive traffic safety program, and through a unique effort the Portland Office of Transportation (PDOT) partners with schools, the court system, community groups and the Police Bureau to develop a coordinated citywide program to improve traffic safety. However, like many government agencies, the Police Bureau faces constraints that limit the resources it can devote to traffic safety. In response, PDOT and the Police Bureau’s Traffic Division have instituted a program of Strategic and Focused Enforcement (SAFE) to better allocate limited traffic safety personnel and resources. Using historical crash data, PDOT identified 30 ...


Molecular Characterization Of Wetland Soil Bacterial Community In Constructed Mesocosms, Ethan C. Bishop Jun 2006

Molecular Characterization Of Wetland Soil Bacterial Community In Constructed Mesocosms, Ethan C. Bishop

Theses and Dissertations

The use of wetlands to effectively remediate aquifers contaminated with chlorinated solvents is an emerging technique, which shows high promise. In order to better understand this process and test its legitimacy, a treatment wetland was constructed at Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio and, in a joint effort with Wright State University (WSU), has previously shown the effective removal of PCE. The purpose of this research was to characterize the soil bacterial community, pre-PCE injection, among three wetland plant species from the sedge family (Cyperaceae) within constructed wetland mesocosms and to identify any bacterial dominance. Carex comosa, Scirpus atrovirens, and Eleocharis erythropoda ...


Evaluation Of Microbial Diversity In Wetland Through Polymerase Chain Reaction (Pcr) And Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (Rflp), Gregory K. Joseph Jun 2006

Evaluation Of Microbial Diversity In Wetland Through Polymerase Chain Reaction (Pcr) And Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (Rflp), Gregory K. Joseph

Theses and Dissertations

The diversity of microbial communities in wetlands has not been fully measured. These communities may offer tools to naturally remediate sites polluted with chlorinated compounds. Polmerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) are genomic techniques that are capable of rapidly characterizing bacteria communities and can provide valuable information about the diversity of microbial communities.


Pomiary Wielkości Cząstek W Powietrzu W Czasie Rzeczywistym, Marek Bogacki, Robert Oleniacz, Marian Mazur, Stanisław Kamiński May 2006

Pomiary Wielkości Cząstek W Powietrzu W Czasie Rzeczywistym, Marek Bogacki, Robert Oleniacz, Marian Mazur, Stanisław Kamiński

Robert Oleniacz

The paper presents the new method for measurements of air particulate size distribution in real time using Kamika Infrared Particulate Sizer type P (IPS-P) with isokinetic air sampler. The device makes it possible to classify (sort) air particulates according to size into 256 granularity classes from about 0.4 µm up to 300 µm. Tests of the IPS-P prototype were conducted in Warsaw at the turn of 2005/2006 and some measurement results were presented in the work.

English title: Measurements of the particulate size distribution in the air in real-time.


Buoyancy Generated Turbulence In Stably Stratified Flow With Shear, Jin Hwan Hwang, Hidekatsu Yamazaki, Chris R. Rehmann Apr 2006

Buoyancy Generated Turbulence In Stably Stratified Flow With Shear, Jin Hwan Hwang, Hidekatsu Yamazaki, Chris R. Rehmann

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

The energy evolution in buoyancy-generated turbulence subjected to shear depends on the gradient Richardson number Ri and the stratification number St, which is a ratio of the time scale of the initial buoyancy fluctuations to the time scale of the mean stratification. During an initial period, the flow state evolves as in the unsheared case. After this period, shear generates fluctuating velocity components for St=0.25, but it depletes the fluctuating vertical velocity component and temperature variance faster than in the unsheared case for St=4. Weak shear causes the kinetic and total energy to decrease faster than in ...


Control Of Hydrogen Sulfide From Groundwater Using Packed-Bed Anion Exchange And Other Technologies, Camilo Romero Cotrino Apr 2006

Control Of Hydrogen Sulfide From Groundwater Using Packed-Bed Anion Exchange And Other Technologies, Camilo Romero Cotrino

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Hydrogen sulfide imparts odors and taste to drinking water and can be corrosive to distribution systems. Groundwater sources used to produce drinking water tend to have sulfide concentrations ranging from below 0.1 to over 3 mg/L. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrogen sulfide can be formed from reduction of sulfate and elemental sulfur through chemical or biological reactions. Therefore, to decrease the potential for hydrogen sulfide in water systems, control of all forms of sulfur should be consistent.

Hydrogen sulfide in groundwater can be controlled through conversion or removal mechanisms. Conversion reactions result from chemical or biological reactions that oxidize ...


An Analysis Of Indicator Organism Suitability For Lower James And York Rivers, Rhonda Ashonti Ford Apr 2006

An Analysis Of Indicator Organism Suitability For Lower James And York Rivers, Rhonda Ashonti Ford

Civil & Environmental Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The primary objectives of this thesis are (1) determine if the proper indicator organism is being utilized to determine the bacterial water quality in the State of Virginia. (2) If other environmental factors can predict the bacterial water quality. The current indicator organism of choice for bacterial water quality of waters in the State of Virginia is enterococci, for estuarine and brackish waters. E. coli is the indicator organism of choice for fresh waters in Virginia.

The study concluded (1) Enterococci are the best indicator organism for beaches located in the Hampton Roads Harbor and the Lower James River. (2 ...


Risk Of Colon Cancer In Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer Patients As Predicted By Fuzzy Modeling: Influence Of Smoking, Rhonda M. Brand, David D. Jones, Henry T. Lynch, Randall E. Brand, Patrice Watson, Ramesh Ashwathnayaran, Hemant K. Roy Mar 2006

Risk Of Colon Cancer In Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer Patients As Predicted By Fuzzy Modeling: Influence Of Smoking, Rhonda M. Brand, David D. Jones, Henry T. Lynch, Randall E. Brand, Patrice Watson, Ramesh Ashwathnayaran, Hemant K. Roy

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

AIM: To investigate whether a fuzzy logic model could predict colorectal cancer (CRC) risk engendered by smoking in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients.

METHODS: Three hundred and forty HNPCC mismatch repair (MMR) mutation carriers from the Creighton University Hereditary Cancer Institute Registry were selected for modeling. Age-dependent curves were generated to elucidate the joint effects between gene mutation (hMLH1 or hMSH2), gender, and smoking status on the probability of developing CRC.

RESULTS: Smoking significantly increased CRC risk in male hMSH2 mutation carriers (P < 0.05). hMLH1 mutations augmented CRC risk relative to hMSH2 mutation carriers for males (P < 0.05). Males had a significantly higher risk of CRC than females for hMLH1 non smokers (P < 0.05), hMLH1 smokers (P < 0.1) and hMSH2 smokers (P < 0.1). Smoking promoted CRC in a dose-dependent manner in hMSH2 in males (P < 0.05). Females with hMSH2 mutations and both sexes with the hMLH1 groups only demonstrated a smoking effect after an extensive smoking history (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: CRC promotion by smoking in HNPCC patients is dependent on gene mutation, gender and age ...


Investigation Of Copper Contamination And Corrosion Scale Mineralogy In Aging Drink Water Distributions Systems, Nadja F. Turek Mar 2006

Investigation Of Copper Contamination And Corrosion Scale Mineralogy In Aging Drink Water Distributions Systems, Nadja F. Turek

Theses and Dissertations

Research has shown higher levels of copper appear in drinking water conveyed through relatively new copper piping systems; older piping systems typically deliver lower copper levels in their drinking water. This research contributes field data from a real drinking water distribution system, providing a better understanding of this phenomenon, as it relates to treatment considerations and compliance with the Lead and Copper Rule. Copper pipes and copper levels were sampled from drinking water taps of 16 buildings with pipes ranging in age from less than 1 to 48 years. Water samples from each building were collected before and following a ...