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Full-Text Articles in Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education

Effects Of Acculturation On Quality Of Life, Chronic Diseases And Health Behaviors In Persons Of African Ancestry, Danielle Stephenson, Camille Ragin, Phd, Elizabeth Blackman, Mph Aug 2016

Effects Of Acculturation On Quality Of Life, Chronic Diseases And Health Behaviors In Persons Of African Ancestry, Danielle Stephenson, Camille Ragin, Phd, Elizabeth Blackman, Mph

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The Black population in Philadelphia comprises of a diverse mix of persons with varied ancestry. We have established a non-cancer control registry (CAP3 study) which involves the collection of bio-specimens, epidemiological, lifestyle, quality of life, chronic conditions, culture and cancer prevention behaviors. Currently there are 707 participants enrolled, 95% from the African diaspora. In this study, the acculturation (the degree to which an individual holds onto their cultural norms) of new and pre-enrolled participants (n = 100) will be assessed and evaluations will be made to determine the relationship between acculturation, chronic conditions, health behaviors and quality of life.

Since April ...


Elucidating The Expression Profile Of Ezh2 Isoforms In Endometriosis: An Immunohistochemical Study, John Soto-Vargas, Idhaliz Flores, Phd, Mariano Colón-Caraballo, Andrés Velázquez-Garcia Aug 2016

Elucidating The Expression Profile Of Ezh2 Isoforms In Endometriosis: An Immunohistochemical Study, John Soto-Vargas, Idhaliz Flores, Phd, Mariano Colón-Caraballo, Andrés Velázquez-Garcia

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent gynecological disease that affects 1 out of 10 women of reproductive age causing severe pelvic pain and infertility. Factors including genetics, environment, inflammation, and recently epigenetics have been shown to play roles in the pathophysiology of this disease. Histone methylation is an epigenetic modification that modulates gene expression by causing changes in the chromatin structure. Trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine residue 27 (H3K27me3) is a histone mark related to gene repression. EZH2 is the histone methyltransferase (HMT) responsible of catalyzing H3K27me3. It has been shown that the EZH2 is involved in carcinogenesis; however, the specific ...


Glioblastoma Stem Cells, Michael Quintero, Qi Cui, Yanhong Shi, Phd Aug 2016

Glioblastoma Stem Cells, Michael Quintero, Qi Cui, Yanhong Shi, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Glioblastoma multiforme(GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in humans. GBM accounts for 55% of all primary brain cancers, with a median survival rate of 14.6 months. The grim prognosis of GBM can be attributed to glioma stem cells (GSCs), which initiate tumor formation through the stem-like properties of self-renewal and differentiation. The ability of GSCs to resist radiation and chemotherapy contributes to the high rate of tumor recurrence in GBM patients. Consequently, novel therapies that effectively target the population of GSCs are of vital importance.

A promising is to induce the differentiation of GSCs ...


Rgs2 And Human Adipogenesis, Kaia Partlow, Alma Madrigal, Yuanxiang Zhao, Phd Aug 2016

Rgs2 And Human Adipogenesis, Kaia Partlow, Alma Madrigal, Yuanxiang Zhao, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Obesity is characterized by excess adipose tissue and is one of the leading public-health issues of the industrialized world. Gain of adipose tissue can result from accumulation of fat in existing adipocytes (fat cells), as well as increased commitment of stem cells into new adipocytes through a process known as adipogenesis. Although a number of key adipogenic transcription factors such as PPARgamma2 and CEBPalpha are well characterized, the temporal and spatial molecular and cellular events that occur during adipogenesis are still largely unknown. Better understanding of these events could have important implications in finding treatments for obesity.

Human mesenchymal stem ...


Dietary Restriction In Drosophila Melanogaster Increases Flight Duration, Nelson Nunez, Mark Frye, Phd, Mehmet Keles, Phd Candidate Aug 2016

Dietary Restriction In Drosophila Melanogaster Increases Flight Duration, Nelson Nunez, Mark Frye, Phd, Mehmet Keles, Phd Candidate

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Caloric restriction extends the lifespan in several model animals, including fruit flies, but less is known about the influence upon endurance and sensory-motor performance. For this experiment, all flies will be raised on standard media. At the point of eclosion, they will be transferred to rich, standard, or restricted media. The endurance of a fruit fly can be tested by monitoring how long it is able to maintain active flight. Flight power is quantified by measuring wing beats per second and total wing stroke amplitude. Sensory-motor performance is measured by the animal’s ability to actively fixate on a black ...


Application Of The Transtheoretical Model In Hispanic And African American Populations To Assess Deceased Kidney Donor Noncompliance, Cynthia Mancilla, Amy D. Waterman, Phd, Crystal Kynard-Amerson, Mph, Aubre Parnicky, Msw Aug 2016

Application Of The Transtheoretical Model In Hispanic And African American Populations To Assess Deceased Kidney Donor Noncompliance, Cynthia Mancilla, Amy D. Waterman, Phd, Crystal Kynard-Amerson, Mph, Aubre Parnicky, Msw

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Given existing health disparities such as financial barriers, lack of education and inadequate health care in minority communities, the rates of deceased kidney donation continues to decline. The transtheoretical model (TTM) assesses the patients’ willingness to pursue deceased kidney donation through application of a stage structured curriculum.

Patients are evaluated into five different stage groups; pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. This assessment of behavior change as applied to the willingness of a patient to pursue a deceased kidney donor transplant can be tracked over time and used to help determine what stage of change a patient is in during ...


Exploration Of Antagonist Efficacy For Lpra2 Like Peptide, Ayobami Loye, Ruben R. Gonzalez-Perez, Phd Aug 2016

Exploration Of Antagonist Efficacy For Lpra2 Like Peptide, Ayobami Loye, Ruben R. Gonzalez-Perez, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Leptin is a small protein hormone that controls satiety and is produced by adipocytes. Obese people have increased levels of circulating leptin. Excessive leptin levels cause a break down in the control of leptin signaling pathways leading to increased angiogenesis, proliferation, cell migration, invasion, and anti-apoptotic events. Obesity and leptin signaling have been linked to cancer progression. Literature shows that LPrA2 is an effective leptin antagonist as it decreases proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro.

This project compares the effectiveness of LPrA2 like compounds in breast cancer cell-line MDA-MB-468 (M-468 BCs). We hypothesize that the new peptide antagonists have ...


Design And Optimization Of A Mycoplasma Detection Assay, Carlos J. León-Rodríguez, Richard J. Noel, Jr., Phd, Tirtsa Porrata-Doria, Ms Aug 2016

Design And Optimization Of A Mycoplasma Detection Assay, Carlos J. León-Rodríguez, Richard J. Noel, Jr., Phd, Tirtsa Porrata-Doria, Ms

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Mycoplasma are among the smallest free living microorganisms. These bacteria grow slowly, lack a rigid cell wall and are not eliminated by filter sterilization methods used in tissue culture. Mycoplasma infection affects biochemical and genetic aspects of cultured cells, resulting in experimental inconsistency. Therefore, it is necessary to establish routine testing for mycoplasma contamination in tissue culture laboratories.

Our goal is to develop a reliable and cost-effective test for mycoplasma in cell culture based on established methods found in literature. We first cloned and sequenced a PCR product from a commercial mycoplasma detection kit. Sequencing revealed the 16s rRNA as ...


Role Of Hiv-1 Nef Lysine Residues 4 And 7 In The Interaction With Calnexin And Inhibition Of Abca1 Activity, Valeria Kaufman, Michael Burkinsky, Md, Phd, Ruth Hunegnaw, Msc, Phd Candidate Aug 2016

Role Of Hiv-1 Nef Lysine Residues 4 And 7 In The Interaction With Calnexin And Inhibition Of Abca1 Activity, Valeria Kaufman, Michael Burkinsky, Md, Phd, Ruth Hunegnaw, Msc, Phd Candidate

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Patients infected with HIV are at increased risk of developing atherosclerosis, a result due partly to the functional impairment of cellular cholesterol transporter, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). This transporter mediates efflux of cholesterol from cells to high density lipoprotein, thus allowing cells to maintain normal levels of cholesterol. When ABCA1 function is inhibited, cells, and in particular macrophages, accumulate cholesterol, resulting in formation of atherosclerotic plaques. The HIV-1 protein, Nef downregulates ABCA1 and inhibits the activity of this protein, thereby reducing cholesterol efflux and promoting atherosclerosis, but the molecular mechanism by which Nef inhibits ABCA1 is unknown.

Previous studies ...


Collagen Iv Assembly: Production Of A Recombinant Construct For Mechanistic Studies, Kennedy Harris, Billy Hudson, Phd, Isi Ero-Tolliver, Phd, Kyle Brown, Phd Aug 2016

Collagen Iv Assembly: Production Of A Recombinant Construct For Mechanistic Studies, Kennedy Harris, Billy Hudson, Phd, Isi Ero-Tolliver, Phd, Kyle Brown, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Basement membranes, specialized extracellular matrix, provide mechanical support for epithelial cells and shape cell behavior by interacting with cell receptors. Collagen IV, the predominant component of basement membrane, comprises six genetically distinct alpha chains (α1 to α6) that assemble to form protomers, which associate to form hexamers, in the scaffold. Non-assembly due to mutations within alpha chains give rise to kidney diseases. Yet, the mechanism of assembly is poorly understood.

Preliminary data in our lab indicated that amino acid 78 of collagen IV α2 NC1 (non-collagenous) domains may play a role in a chloride-dependent switch that supports hexamer formation. We ...


Sex Differences In The Sex Differences In The Effects Of Environmental Enrichment After An Early Life Stressor, Alfredo Gutierrez, Annelyn Torres-Reverón, Phd, Raura Doreste-Méndez Aug 2016

Sex Differences In The Sex Differences In The Effects Of Environmental Enrichment After An Early Life Stressor, Alfredo Gutierrez, Annelyn Torres-Reverón, Phd, Raura Doreste-Méndez

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Studies have shown that environmental enrichment can compensate for the effects of an early life stressor such as maternal separation. Behavioral responses and immunohistochemical markers in rats are affected by environmental enrichment after maternal separation. In this study we seek to investigate whether sex influences the behavioral responses of environmental enrichment after maternal separation.

Prior scientific evidence suggests that there are behavioral sex differences in: 1) neural processes underlying successful or failed fear extinction (Gruene et al, 2014); (2) prenatal stress exposure and response to behavioral anxiety tests (Said et al, 2015); and (3) glutamate receptor expression in response to ...


Cox2 Plays An Important Role In Maintenance Of Mammary Cancer Stem Cell Population In Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Mayra Garcia, Shehla Pervin, Phd, Easter Thames, Meher Parveen, Phd, Melanie Baker Aug 2016

Cox2 Plays An Important Role In Maintenance Of Mammary Cancer Stem Cell Population In Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Mayra Garcia, Shehla Pervin, Phd, Easter Thames, Meher Parveen, Phd, Melanie Baker

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Breast cancer is a malignant growth in the adipose-rich mammary gland. Initiation and progression of breast tumors involve multiple cell types, among which mammary cancer stem cells play an important role. There are two main types of adipocytes; white adipocytes have previously been found to influence the disease while brown adipocytes, which uniquely express uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), were recently detected in breast tumors.

We have detected Myf5, a transcription factor, which is expressed in the progenitor population of brown adipocytes, in breast cancer cell lines. We also found an association between expression of Myf5 and COX2 (or Ptgs2), which ...


The Role Of Integrin-Associated Protein “Pinch” In Kidney Development, Tyrone Gamble Jr, Roy Zent, Phd, Bertha C. Elias, Phd Aug 2016

The Role Of Integrin-Associated Protein “Pinch” In Kidney Development, Tyrone Gamble Jr, Roy Zent, Phd, Bertha C. Elias, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

PINCH (a particularly interesting new cysteine-histidine-rich protein) is a protein that binds with Integrin-linked kinase and Parvin, to form an IPP complex. This complex is formed only when integrin molecules are activated upon interaction with the basement membrane. The IPP complex then acts as a platform for other proteins to come together and regulate cell signaling to and from the extracellular matrix (ECM). This allows for various cellular activities to progress like cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, etc. There are two types of PINCH proteins, PINCH-1 and PINCH-2. Studies from our group have shown that the lack of PINCH-1 in the ...


Nitric Oxide And Cyclic Gmp Signaling In Cancer Therapy, Armond Dorsey, Ferid Murad, Md, Phd, Ka Bian, Md, Phd Aug 2016

Nitric Oxide And Cyclic Gmp Signaling In Cancer Therapy, Armond Dorsey, Ferid Murad, Md, Phd, Ka Bian, Md, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The nitric oxide-3’,5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway (NO-cGMP signaling pathway) is a well-known signal transduction pathway which elicits several physiological processes including: cell proliferation, vasodilation, cardiac protection, etc. In this pathway, NO binds to the ferrous heme of histidine-105 on the prosthetic heme of the β1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase, resulting in the production of cGMP. This pathway, however, is inhibited in certain cancer cells—as observed in glioma cell lines. As a result, the production of cGMP is reduced. This mechanism may facilitate uncontrolled tumor cell growth.

The cancers under research—lung carcinoma, glioma, and ...


Potential Cost Savings Of Not Doing Cd4 Counts In Hiv Positive People In Rhode Island With An Undetectable Viral Load, Ruth Dele-Oni, Ferdinand Schumacher, Zachary Markus, Timothy Flanigan, Md Aug 2016

Potential Cost Savings Of Not Doing Cd4 Counts In Hiv Positive People In Rhode Island With An Undetectable Viral Load, Ruth Dele-Oni, Ferdinand Schumacher, Zachary Markus, Timothy Flanigan, Md

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

CD4 cells fight infections in the body. When someone contacts Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), their CD4 cells are taken over by HIV which turns them into manufacturers of many copies of the virus. The Viral Load (VL) measures the amount of virus in the blood. When HIV takes over the CD4 cells, the VL increases while the number of necessary CD4 cells decreases. When patients maintain stable treatment, their CD4 counts rise, and VLs may become undetectable, indicating the virus is too little to be detected in their blood. Knowing this, is frequent CD4 counts necessary for those with undetectable ...


Defining The Role For Zbp-89 In Atm-Mediated Dna Damage Response To Irradiation In The Intestine, Christine Carethers, Juanita L. Merchant, Md, Phd Aug 2016

Defining The Role For Zbp-89 In Atm-Mediated Dna Damage Response To Irradiation In The Intestine, Christine Carethers, Juanita L. Merchant, Md, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

ZBP-89 (ZNF148, Zfp148) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that inhibits cellular proliferation when overexpressed in cell lines. ZBP-89 forms a protein-protein interaction with p53 and Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). However, it is unclear how the interaction modulates the function of these two proteins in vivo.

Double strand DNA breakage induced by -irradiation induces ATM phosphoinositol kinase activity, which initiates a cascade of events culminating in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair or apoptosis. Elevated levels of ZBP-89 induce growth arrest and apoptosis in gastrointestinal cell lines. Therefore, we hypothesize that ZBP-89 facilitates cell growth arrest and activation of the DNA repair pathway ...


Induction Of Dusp9 In Xenografts From Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Increases Mammary Cancer Stem Cells, Albert Barrios, Meher Parveen, Phd, Easter Thames, Melanie Baker, Shelha Pervin, Phd Aug 2016

Induction Of Dusp9 In Xenografts From Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Increases Mammary Cancer Stem Cells, Albert Barrios, Meher Parveen, Phd, Easter Thames, Melanie Baker, Shelha Pervin, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Breast cancer remains a complex disease that kills 40,000 women every year. Initiation and progression of breast cancer is influenced by heterogeneous groups of cells, including mammary cancer stem cells (MCSCs). Progression of this dreadful disease is driven by many signaling pathways among which MAPK pathway is highly prominent. Since targeting prominent kinases in MAPK pathway has been unsuccessful to control breast cancer, it is important to examine the phosphatases that regulate the activity of these kinases.

Using xenograft model from breast cancer cell lines, our lab has found that during the initial stages of xenograft development (week 1-4 ...


Preparing Underrepresented High School Students To Increase Diversity In The Research And Health Professions, Dolores E. Caffey-Fleming, Ms, Mph, Christopher Reid, Md, Phd Aug 2016

Preparing Underrepresented High School Students To Increase Diversity In The Research And Health Professions, Dolores E. Caffey-Fleming, Ms, Mph, Christopher Reid, Md, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

This article introduces the work that was done through the Coordinating Center at Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science.


The Step Up Program, Lawrence Agodoa, Md Aug 2016

The Step Up Program, Lawrence Agodoa, Md

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The Short-Term Research Experience Program for Underrepresented Persons (STEP-UP) was established as part of the NIDDK Strategic Plan on Minority Health Disparities. This article provides an overview and introduction of this program. All of the articles that are included in this special issue reflect the work of our coordinating centers, the mentors and their staff, as well as the students.


An Examination Of The Relationships Between Safety Culture Perceptions And Safety Reporting Behavior Among Non-Flight Collegiate Aviation Majors, Daniel Kwasi Adjekum, Julius Keller, Micah Walala, Cody Christensen, Randal J. Demik, John P. Young, Gary J. Northam Jul 2016

An Examination Of The Relationships Between Safety Culture Perceptions And Safety Reporting Behavior Among Non-Flight Collegiate Aviation Majors, Daniel Kwasi Adjekum, Julius Keller, Micah Walala, Cody Christensen, Randal J. Demik, John P. Young, Gary J. Northam

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Some collegiate aviation programs in the United States have adopted the voluntary Safety Management System (SMS) strongly advocated by the Federal Aviation Administration to build a proactive safety culture. While relevant safety culture research has primarily focused on flight personnel, there has been limited investigation on non-flight collegiate aviation majors (collegiate air traffic control, aviation management, and unmanned aerial systems students) perceptions on collegiate aviation safety. This study examined the relationship between safety culture perceptions and safety reporting behavior of non-flight major students at five collegiate aviation programs. One hundred and sixteen completed responses to a validated safety culture perception ...


California Community Colleges Student Equity, Esl And Basic Skills Students, Janet L. Daugherty May 2016

California Community Colleges Student Equity, Esl And Basic Skills Students, Janet L. Daugherty

Scholarship and Engagement in Education

The leadership of California Community Colleges had been tasked with examining the data of English Language Learners (ELL) in urban, rural and suburban settings. This student popluation has difficulty navigating noncredit language courses that are prerequisites to college level credit courses leading to specialized certiciates and/or an associate's degree. The leaders at the community college level discovered gaps in student course completion data, students for whom English is a second language (ESL). These students sometimes do not receive support services toward successful course completion. Through analyzing course completion data, the leaders can implement student support services to assist ...


Beyond Behavior, Craig C. Laupheimer May 2016

Beyond Behavior, Craig C. Laupheimer

Scholarship and Engagement in Education

Teaching to engage students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can inspire the whole classroom and make teaching and learning engaging and exciting. Although teachers and students alike face a challenging educational landscape, much can be done to empower students with special needs. Teaching with the whole classroom in mind with an emphasis on hands on, explorative and inspirational learning experiences to accommodate for these students strengthens and causes student engagement and agency. This article highlights the challenges and potential breakthroughs possible for classroom instruction specifically where the ADHD student is concerned and looks towards teaching mindfulness and empowerment as ...


Dental Health Practices In Us College Students: The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment Findings, Lori Dewald Edd, Atc, Mches, F-Aahe Mar 2016

Dental Health Practices In Us College Students: The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment Findings, Lori Dewald Edd, Atc, Mches, F-Aahe

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the dental health seeking practices of US college students. Participants: The total number of college students who participated in the ACHA-NCHA survey from 2000-2013 was 1,201,531. Methods: The data requested were the demographic questions and the dental health question from both the ACHA-NCHA I and II. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: The percentage of students who reported having a dental exam and cleaning in the last year averaged 76.6% in this study period of time. However, dental health care declined annually following their freshman ...


Realizing The Dream: African American Males’ Narratives That Encouraged The Pursuit Of Doctoral Education, Ted N. Ingram Jan 2016

Realizing The Dream: African American Males’ Narratives That Encouraged The Pursuit Of Doctoral Education, Ted N. Ingram

Journal of Research Initiatives

This article used personal narratives to discover factors affecting the decision of African American males to consider doctoral education. This study was based on qualitative interviews with 18 African American male doctoral students enrolled at predominantly white institutions as they reflected on their reasons for pursuing an advanced degree. The following were found to influence their decision: (a) need for faculty encouragement, (b) motivation to pursue a doctorate, and (c) their personal motivations. Recommendations are offered for increasing the numbers of African American male doctoral students.


“We’Re Still Here … We’Re Not Giving Up”: Black And Latino Men’S Narratives Of Transition To Community College, Beth E. Bukoski, Deryl K. Hatch Jan 2016

“We’Re Still Here … We’Re Not Giving Up”: Black And Latino Men’S Narratives Of Transition To Community College, Beth E. Bukoski, Deryl K. Hatch

Faculty Publications in Educational Administration

Objective: This study examines masculinity in a manner commensurate with established feminist frameworks to deconstruct a patriarchal system that ill-serves both men and women. Method: We utilized standpoint theory and narrative analysis to examine longitudinal, qualitative data from first-year Black and Latino males as they transition into community college through their second semester. Findings: Positionality is critical to understanding the success of Black and Latino males and their response to institutional structures. In many instances, men leveraged normative constructions of masculinity as aids to their success, and their resilience and confidence were filtered through their perceived development into adults. Conclusion ...


An Exploration Of The Impostor Phenomenon And Its Impact On Black Women Administrators In Higher Education In The South, Marian Muldrow Jan 2016

An Exploration Of The Impostor Phenomenon And Its Impact On Black Women Administrators In Higher Education In The South, Marian Muldrow

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Numerous studies document Black student and faculty underrepresentation in higher education and the obstacles blocking their access to the classroom either as students or as instructors. As Black women students work toward graduate degrees, Black women administrators are needed so these students can see their identity reflected in their academic leaders.

As a result, this study focused on the particular challenges that limit upward mobility to senior-level administrative positions and highlighted some of the obstacles and conflicts that arise when Black women pursue leadership positions at institutions of higher education. The highlighted historical events related to education, as well as ...


Engaging Latino Men In Community Colleges: The Role Of Student-Faculty Interactions, Sarah L. Rodriguez, Kristine Massey, Victor B. Saenz Jan 2016

Engaging Latino Men In Community Colleges: The Role Of Student-Faculty Interactions, Sarah L. Rodriguez, Kristine Massey, Victor B. Saenz

Education Publications

Community college faculty members are essential to promoting student engagement and success, yet little research in this area has focused on the interactions of Latino men with their faculty members. The study utilized Harris and Wood’s (2013) Socio-Ecological Outcomes (SEO) model which focuses on the educational success of men of color in community colleges, to examine how Latino men made meaning of their interactions with faculty members and how these interactions influenced their community college success. Latino men made meaning of their faculty experiences based on (a) the accessibility and approachability of the faculty member, (b) their own hesitancy ...