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Esl Teachers' Self-Efficacy Toward Pedagogical Use Of Digital Technologies: An Exploratory Case Study In The Ontario Context, Aide Chen Aug 2019

Esl Teachers' Self-Efficacy Toward Pedagogical Use Of Digital Technologies: An Exploratory Case Study In The Ontario Context, Aide Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Digital technologies have been intertwined with English language education globally and have yielded ever-emerging opportunities and challenges. This research aims to explore ESL teacher participants’ perceived abilities to use digital technologies for pedagogical purposes, their implemented integration of technology in classrooms, as well as possible solutions to some of the technology-related difficulties they have experienced throughout their teaching practice. This qualitatively-driven mix-methods study utilizes a constructivist theoretical framework and involves multiple bodies of literature such as digital literacy and teacher self-efficacy. Surveys and semi-structured interviews have been used for data collection. The findings show that teacher self-efficacy beliefs are shaped ...


Does Lexical Frequency Affect Rater Judgement Of Essays? An Experimental Design Using Quantitative And Qualitative Data, Mohammad Muneer Ul-Huda Aug 2019

Does Lexical Frequency Affect Rater Judgement Of Essays? An Experimental Design Using Quantitative And Qualitative Data, Mohammad Muneer Ul-Huda

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Many correlational studies show a positive relation between written assessments of language and use of more diverse vocabulary (Lexical Diversity) and more infrequent words (Lexical Frequency). However, there have been no experimental studies that have isolated the effects of Lexical Frequency from Lexical Diversity. In the present study, 14 raters judged two versions of the same essay that differed only in Lexical Frequency. A Paired T-test showed no difference in mean scores between essays (t(13) = .396, p = .70) when the Lexical Frequency of 23.5% of Content Words were changed in a 347 word essay. Comments explaining scores given ...


From Expectation To Experience: My Changing Identity As A Chinese International Student, Yin Wang Apr 2019

From Expectation To Experience: My Changing Identity As A Chinese International Student, Yin Wang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This autobiographical narrative inquiry investigates what we can learn from my experience as a Chinese international student in both writing and art-based ways, which can inform Chinese international students’ expected supports that can improve their mental wellbeing. The study asks: Are my pre-departure expectations for studying in Canada different from the realities? If so, how and why are they different? And, what is my changing identity to be a Chinese international graduate student? The data sources of the study are my autobiographical memories, posts, blogs, journals, drawings and photography works. Intergroup relationship theories and identity theories are used flexibly as ...


An Interventionist Approach To Language Study Abroad: Exploring Metalinguistic Awareness In The Acquisition Of Spanish Through Digital Portfolio Documentation And Expert Mentorship, Meredith Mcgregor Nov 2018

An Interventionist Approach To Language Study Abroad: Exploring Metalinguistic Awareness In The Acquisition Of Spanish Through Digital Portfolio Documentation And Expert Mentorship, Meredith Mcgregor

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Language study abroad offers the possibility of acquiring a multitude of competencies, linguistic and otherwise. While historically study abroad research has emphasized linguistic gains in isolation, it has gradually moved towards a more sociocultural approach whereby individual factors and intercultural competencies are seen as integral to the process of acquiring knowledge of a language. With remaining gaps in the literature, and as new instruments emerge, so too do new opportunities for tracking and measuring learning outcomes in innovative ways. The present study, framed by the intervention hypothesis and sociocultural theory, utilizes the social media platform Google+ as a space to ...


Reading Comprehension And Strategy Use In Fourth- And Fifth-Grade French Immersion Students, Bailey Frid Jun 2018

Reading Comprehension And Strategy Use In Fourth- And Fifth-Grade French Immersion Students, Bailey Frid

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Simple View of Reading (Hoover & Gough, 1990) assumes that reading comprehension success is determined by decoding skill and language comprehension (e.g., vocabulary). However, the strategies readers recruit during text comprehension should also uniquely contribute to reading comprehension success in both their first and second language. Seventy fourth- and fifth-grade French immersion students were assessed on language proficiency measures and on strategy use during a reading comprehension task by using a think-aloud procedure. Results indicate that students used more complex strategies (i.e., background knowledge, predicting and visualizing) in their dominant language, and more textbase strategies (i.e., summarizing ...


Trends, Affordances, And Implications For Learners' Literacy And Identity Options: A Systematic Review Of Studies On Transnational Education, Bethany C. Mckishnie Mar 2018

Trends, Affordances, And Implications For Learners' Literacy And Identity Options: A Systematic Review Of Studies On Transnational Education, Bethany C. Mckishnie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this systematic literature review (SLR) was three-fold: to identify the trends of the reviewed research on transnational education (TNE) and investigate the reported affordances of TNE and the implications for TNE in curriculum, pedagogy, and teacher training regarding expanding learners’ literacy and identity options. Through the lens of a multiliteracies framework, this SLR is premised on 60 screened articles that are based on the understandings of the relationships between TNE, literacy and identity options for students in globalized contexts. Findings indicate that this study offers TNE scholars future areas of research to investigate. It enhances the existent ...


The Enactment Of Academic Language Policy In The International University: A Mixed-Methods Investigation, Le Chen Mar 2018

The Enactment Of Academic Language Policy In The International University: A Mixed-Methods Investigation, Le Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The existing literature on international education in relation to language policy has suggested that internationalizing higher education (HE) does not ensure interculturality (Bash, 2009; Durant & Shepherd, 2009; Jenkins, 2014; Seidlhofer, 2011); the potential relationship between the internationalization of HE and language remains unclear (Jenkins, 2014; Meyer, Gekeler, Manger, & Urank, 2012; Saarinen, 2012). This study responds to the timely question regarding what kind of language policy can meet the needs of international students in an increasingly globalized academic culture (Jenkins, 2014) by adding a Canadian voice to the debate and featuring the changing sociolinguistic realities in internationalized Canadian HE.

This study aims to investigate the ...


A Case Study Of Literacy Curricula In A Canadian Offshore School In China, Wanjing Li Aug 2017

A Case Study Of Literacy Curricula In A Canadian Offshore School In China, Wanjing Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This single case study is embedded in a multiple case study conducted in Canadian offshore schools in China. In response to the scant literature on literacy curriculum in transnational education contexts, particularly in secondary schools, this study reports findings regarding literacy curricula implementation in a secondary Sino-Canadian school.

The theoretical tools of the study include theories on curriculum, multiliteracies, and multimodality. Data presented in this paper emerges from observations of 46 periods of Mandarin and English literacy classes, interviews with two Chinese and two foreign literacy teachers regarding curricula actualization, and related curriculum documents.

Findings relate how Chinese and Canadian ...


Investigating The Links Between Tblt, Oral Competence, And Student Retention In Fsl, Alexis Newman Jun 2017

Investigating The Links Between Tblt, Oral Competence, And Student Retention In Fsl, Alexis Newman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Through a survey, interviews, and document analysis, this mixed-methods research study involving 751 Ontario university students and a French professor investigated the issue of decreasing enrollment in Ontario FSL programs after Grade 9, low numbers of functionally bilingual graduates, and the possibility of TBLT to improve students’ oral abilities, motivation, and consequently retention in FSL. Following the findings of Lapkin et al.’s (2009) literature review on Core French, the researcher found that a lack of oral practice in FSL classes has been a serious issue leading students to discontinue or feel unsuccessful in FSL programs. Students would enjoy experiencing ...


Exploring The Experiences Of Muslim Students In An Urban Ontario Public School, Asma Ahmed Dec 2016

Exploring The Experiences Of Muslim Students In An Urban Ontario Public School, Asma Ahmed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation explores the experiences of Muslim students in an urban public high school in Ontario with a reputation of having a large Muslim student presence. Much of the studies and surveys involving Islam and Muslims make evident that Islam is the most misunderstood religion in the world. Therefore, Muslims in the West are a “poorly understood” minority group (Environics Institute, 2016). While other ethnic or racial minorities feel moderately comfortable defending themselves and their groups, and asserting their identities, Muslim youth “face qualitatively different identity tasks than do many of their peers”, largely due to feelings of “being under ...


Input Y Fonf En La Adquisición De La Doble Negación En Español Por Angloparlantes, Yolanda Pangtay Chang Sep 2016

Input Y Fonf En La Adquisición De La Doble Negación En Español Por Angloparlantes, Yolanda Pangtay Chang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Dos factores importantes en la adquisición de una L2: estructura a adquirir y metodología de enseñanza, se estudian en esta tesis. En la negación en español L2, el cambio de la forma del inglés a una forma en principio más sencilla, puede necesitar reestructuración. El segundo factor, la metodología utilizada en su enseñanza, puede variar de manera importante de una clase a otra. Por lo tanto, surgen los siguientes cuestionamientos:

1) ¿Existe la reestructura de la L1 a la L2?

2) ¿Qué tipo de metodología ayuda a la reestructuración?

3) Si hay reestructuración, ¿es ésta permanente o no?

Para el ...


Student Programming And Identity In French Language Studies At An Ontario College, Crystal Brown Aug 2016

Student Programming And Identity In French Language Studies At An Ontario College, Crystal Brown

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This research set out to investigate the following questions: Why do students enroll in French, and in what ways do the students position themselves to learning French? What kinds of social issues do they confront when coming back? How do such issues impact their identities? Using the frameworks developed within sociocultural second language acquisition, identity, and motivational theories, this exploratory study includes semi-structured interviews and an online survey. Some of the reasons why students come back to the college system to study French include family background, political decisions, patriotism, gainful employment, cosmopolitanism, globalization and travel and retirement. Studying languages seems ...


An Investigation Of Multiliteracies Pedagogies In Language Teacher Education: A Mixed Methods Study, Adrienne Doucette-Vanthuyne Jul 2016

An Investigation Of Multiliteracies Pedagogies In Language Teacher Education: A Mixed Methods Study, Adrienne Doucette-Vanthuyne

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Research into teacher preparedness within teacher education programs and its relationship to teacher attrition is an increasing area of interest in Canada and around the world. In Canada, on average, the estimated turnover for second language educators is approximately 30% in the first five years and 50% of these are within the first two years (Canadian Teacher’s Federation (CTF), 2004; Karsenti, Collin, Villeneuve, Dumouchel, & Roy, 2008; Siwatu, 2011; Swanson, 2012). The CTF (2004), French and Collins (2014), Karsenti et al. (2008) and Swanson (2012) have reported on several factors that influence language teacher attrition and retention: teacher preparedness, teacher self-efficacy, and ...


Chinese International Students' Informal Second Language (L2) Learning Through Technology For Enhancing Lived Experiences In Canada, Xuewei Zhou Jun 2016

Chinese International Students' Informal Second Language (L2) Learning Through Technology For Enhancing Lived Experiences In Canada, Xuewei Zhou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An increasing amount of attention has been drawn to international students’ academic development in the context of studying abroad; however, few studies shed light on students’ studying and lived experiences outside of school. This thesis explores how technology can enhance Chinese international students’ informal acquisition of second language (L2) and their lived experiences in Canada. Through a qualitative case study, I describe what language difficulties newly arrived Chinese international students encounter, and how they cope with those language difficulties through technology-assisted informal L2 learning. Data sources include in-depth interviews and follow-up interviews, participants’ personal narratives, and researchers’ reflective journals. Theories ...


A Corpus-Based Comparison Between The Academic Word List And The Academic Vocabulary List, Huamin Qi Apr 2016

A Corpus-Based Comparison Between The Academic Word List And The Academic Vocabulary List, Huamin Qi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study was a corpus-based comparison between two lists of academic words: Coxhead’s (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) and Gardner and Davies’ (2014) Academic Vocabulary List (AVL). Comparisons were made between different types of lexical coverage provided by the AWL and the AVL in the self-created University Academic Corpus (72-million tokens). The findings indicated that the performance of the AWL and the AVL was different when different evaluation criteria were adopted. Implications, limitations, and suggestions are listed for future research.


Canada's Bilingual Dilemma: A Critical Discourse Analysis, Katherine Maccormac Apr 2016

Canada's Bilingual Dilemma: A Critical Discourse Analysis, Katherine Maccormac

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

While employing a qualitative, critical discourse analysis approach this thesis examined the discourses of official bilingualism and French as a second language (FSL) education in Canada as they appeared in stakeholder promotion efforts. The aim of the research was to gain insight into the underlying sources of tension contributing to the disconnect between the vision for official bilingualism and FSL education and the reality of it within Canadian society. Through a critical discourse analysis approach, it was found that there are two conflicting sets of discourses which paint very different pictures of the actual state of official bilingualism and FSL ...


Linguistic Identity And Investment In Grade 8 Core French Students, Heather B. Gauthier Jun 2015

Linguistic Identity And Investment In Grade 8 Core French Students, Heather B. Gauthier

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study examines the linguistic identities and language-learning investment(s) of eight Grade 8 core French students at a Cambridge, Ontario elementary school. I address the following questions: (1) How do FSL students in a Grade 8 classroom in Ontario identify themselves linguistically? (2) Does linguistic identity play a role in students’ investment in French language learning? (3) Do students who perceive themselves as bilingual, multilingual, or learners of French have more success than peers who identify themselves as ‘English only’? Following Blackledge and Creese (2010), Byrd Clark (2008, 2009, 2010, 2014), Lamoureux (2012, 2014), Roy (2010), and Taylor (2009 ...


Professional Development Based On The Common European Framework Of Reference For Languages And The New Ontario French Immersion Curriculum: A Case Study Of Reflective Practice, Tiffany H. Mui May 2015

Professional Development Based On The Common European Framework Of Reference For Languages And The New Ontario French Immersion Curriculum: A Case Study Of Reflective Practice, Tiffany H. Mui

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this multi-phase case study, the teacher researcher aimed to determine how teachers can be assisted in implementing some principles of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages/CEFR (Council of Europe, 2001) into their pedagogical practices for primary-aged children enrolled in early French Immersion programs. Through a series of interviews conducted over three phases and a five-month period, the researcher led the teacher participant through professional development (PD) to shed light on the PD needed for French Immersion and other FSL teachers to adopt key principles of CEFR-inspired pedagogy into their practice. The results suggest that PD should ...


Writing Narratives With The Aid Of Picture Stories, David S. Rayo Apr 2015

Writing Narratives With The Aid Of Picture Stories, David S. Rayo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of picture stories in improving the use of various verb tenses in the writing of narratives of adult English language learners (ELL) over five treatment sessions. The participants in this classroom study consisted of two cohorts for a total of 36 participants between the ages of 18 and 22, eight from Angola and 28 from China; 18 males and 18 females. The results showed no significant improvement in the experimental picture condition compared to the control group across three tests; possible reasons are discussed. However, the study shows that ELL ...


Media Literacy And The English As A Second Language Curriculum: A Curricular Critique And Dreams For The Future, Clara R. Madrenas Nov 2014

Media Literacy And The English As A Second Language Curriculum: A Curricular Critique And Dreams For The Future, Clara R. Madrenas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis investigates whether or not the Ontario English as a Second Language/English Literacy Development (ESL/ELD) curriculum imparts the critical literacy skills necessary for students to deconstruct the multimedia messages with which the contemporary world is saturated, in order to function as informed, agentic citizens of Ontario society. Using foundations of cultural theory, radical critical pedagogy, and critical race theory, particularly the work of James Paul Gee, Henry A. Giroux, Paulo Freire and Michael Apple, this thesis explores the ways in which the current ESL/ELD curriculum can be found lacking due to its enforcement of the banking ...


Our Stories: Inuit Teachers Create Counter Narratives And Disrupt The Status Quo, Dawn E L Fyn Sep 2014

Our Stories: Inuit Teachers Create Counter Narratives And Disrupt The Status Quo, Dawn E L Fyn

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Canada has a reputation for diversity and acceptance and of late has made significant strides in formalizing apologies for the maltreatment of Aboriginal populations (Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, 2010). The purpose of this study was to investigate Inuit educators’ perceptions of education in Nunavik. While multiple studies consider concerns regarding Inuit education and low graduation rates (Brady, 1996; Walton, 2012), few studies consider the role that Inuit educators can play in assuring the optimal success of Inuit students. This study, situated in Nunavik, the Inuit homeland located within Northern Quebec, fills that gap. Using qualitative methodology and a ...


Navigating Chinese And English Multiliteracies Across Domains In Canada: An Ethnographic Case Study Of Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Children’S Literacy Practices, Xiaoxiao Du Aug 2014

Navigating Chinese And English Multiliteracies Across Domains In Canada: An Ethnographic Case Study Of Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Children’S Literacy Practices, Xiaoxiao Du

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Increasing diversity in the globalized world challenges the field of education such as policy development and curriculum design (Suarez-Orozco & Suarez-Orozco, 2009). With more and more students speaking a home language other than English entering schools, numerous studies have examined their English language development with a focus on how they learn to read and write at home and school. However, less is known about culturally and linguistically diverse children’s literacy practices across domains. This study investigated Chinese children’s literacy practices and asked What are Chinese children’s literacy practices at school, home, and in the community? What(linguistic and sociocultural) resources do Chinese children draw upon in their literacy practices? In what ways (if any) do classroom teachers, parents, and communities support Chinese children’s literacy practices?

The study took the social and cultural perspectives toward literacy with a focus on multiltieracies (the New London Group, 1996). In order to examine children’s literacy practices across domains, I employed the case study approach using ethnographic tools such as participant observations and semi-structured interviews to collect data (O’Reilly, 2005; Yin, 2005). Participants included Chinese families and teachers. Data analysis involves data triangulation, constant comparison and critical reflection.

Findings of the study indicate that children’s literacy practices were directed to print literacy in adult-organized literacy events and children’s literacy practices were multimodal in children-initiated literacy events, children drew upon their social, cultural and linguistic backgrounds to explore literacies, and adults provided certain degrees of support based on their understanding and backgrounds.


Encouraging Diversity And Multiculturalism In London, Ontario: A Case Study Of Two Elementary Schools, Abhilasha Duggal Aug 2014

Encouraging Diversity And Multiculturalism In London, Ontario: A Case Study Of Two Elementary Schools, Abhilasha Duggal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Elementary school students have diverse learning needs and their academic learning in particular varies between students especially so for students those from culturally non-dominant backgrounds. The focus of my research is on understanding the perceptions and practices of eleven teachers teaching in two schools within the London, Ontario school system, along with the perceptions of two principals and two vice principals in relation to the organizational learning opportunities provided for encouraging multicultural education. This study’s purpose was to explore what teaching strategies were used to support diverse students’ learning within the classroom setting. My data gathering sought to respond ...


Learners' Stories: A Study Of Hong Kong Post-Secondary Students' English Learning Experiences And Identity Construction, Vickie Wai Kei Li Apr 2014

Learners' Stories: A Study Of Hong Kong Post-Secondary Students' English Learning Experiences And Identity Construction, Vickie Wai Kei Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This is a narrative study of Hong Kong post-secondary students’ English learning experiences, focusing on: i) the meanings that the student participants attached to their English learning; and ii) their identity (re-)construction during the course of English learning. Theoretically informed by Norton’s (1997, 2000) work on identity and English learning, this study pays particular attention to how the interactions within the participants’ English classroom have shaped and informed their English learning experiences and their English learner identities. A multi-method approach was adopted in order to capture a more complete picture of post-secondary students’ English learning. Data collection techniques ...


Newcomer Youths' Experiences Of School, Lori-Ann A. Brown Feb 2014

Newcomer Youths' Experiences Of School, Lori-Ann A. Brown

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of the study was to identify positive and negative aspects of school experience among newcomer youth. More specifically, the purpose of this research was to give a voice to a group of newcomers that have been largely ignored by the literature. To accomplish this goal, participants were male and female youth, aged 15 to 18, who had migrated to Canada within the past two years and resided in London at the time of interview. To gather information from participants focus group interviews were conducted with participants from a culturally diverse community centre. The results were analyzed using a ...


Exploring Teachers’ Understanding Of Equity And Inclusive Education And Their Pedagogical Choices, Kelley G. Porteous Jones Dec 2013

Exploring Teachers’ Understanding Of Equity And Inclusive Education And Their Pedagogical Choices, Kelley G. Porteous Jones

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis investigates how teaching in a low-diversity school environment affects equity education. The theoretical frameworks as elaborated by Banks with regards to critical multiculturalism and Kumashiro’s approach to anti-oppressive education underpin the analysis. Four Ontario elementary teachers participated in semi-structured interviews. The purpose was to examine their decisions when teaching about equity and how they arrived at those decisions. By drawing on their experiences and viewpoints, the perceptions and practices of these participants were analyzed. Consistent with teachers in high-diversity environments, these teachers in low-diversity classrooms taught about equity when they saw a student need. Since they did ...


Transition Of Newcomer Youth In Ontario Educational Policies: A Critical Discourse Analysis, Cameron Scott Nov 2013

Transition Of Newcomer Youth In Ontario Educational Policies: A Critical Discourse Analysis, Cameron Scott

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transition in school is an inherent function of each student’s educational experience. However, newcomer youth face unique transitional challenges. This qualitative study was conducted to answer how Ontario educational policies shape the transition of newcomer youth. A critical discourse analysis was used to analyze practical guides and policy texts, framed through critical policy sociology and critical pedagogy. Findings illustrated that a fractured policy landscape exists, where there is a heavy emphasis on literacy, language development, and language acquisition for newcomer youth, but there remains a lack of policies to support a more holistic transition. Dominant policy discourses serve to ...


The Self-Efficacy Beliefs Of Novice Elementary French As A Second Language Teachers, Shelley Cooke Sep 2013

The Self-Efficacy Beliefs Of Novice Elementary French As A Second Language Teachers, Shelley Cooke

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This mixed-methods study was conducted to examine the self-efficacy beliefs of novice elementary French as a Second Language (FSL) teachers in Ontario. Comparisons were made between the self-efficacy appraisals of English-dominant and French-dominant teacher participants, and core French (CF) and French immersion (FI) teacher participants. An online questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were conducted. Findings showed that French-dominant novice FSL teachers felt more effective in delivering a FSL program as compared to their English-dominant colleagues. As well, the FI teacher participants demonstrated a higher sense of efficacy than their CF colleagues. Factors identified as contributing to the participants’ sense of efficacy ...


A Case Study Mapping Literacy Learning Opportunities And Identity Construction Among African Immigrant Youth In A Canadian Secondary School, Wambui J. Gichuru Aug 2013

A Case Study Mapping Literacy Learning Opportunities And Identity Construction Among African Immigrant Youth In A Canadian Secondary School, Wambui J. Gichuru

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Studies with immigrant and refugee youth highlight challenges, school failure and early push-out rates (Anisef, 2008; James, 2012; Roessingh, 2010). There is limited research about how immigrant students especially from continental Africa negotiate their identity at school for positive outcomes. The goal of this qualitative case study was to explore literacy learning opportunities afforded by the school for African youth who were learning to become literate in English as an additional language in a Canadian secondary school and the implications for the students’ communicative and identity options.

The study utilized ethnographic tools, i.e., interview, classroom observation, mapping literacy activities ...


Core French Teachers’ Perceptions Of Ell Inclusion: A Mixed-Methods Investigation, Jordana F. Garbati Aug 2013

Core French Teachers’ Perceptions Of Ell Inclusion: A Mixed-Methods Investigation, Jordana F. Garbati

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Canada is perceived around the world as a bilingual country that embraces linguistic and cultural diversity. The purpose of this study was to examine French as a second language (FSL) teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion of English language learners (ELLs) and the contributing factors affecting teachers’ attitudes toward ELLs. The province of Ontario served as the context for this study and the participants were elementary core French (CF) (where French is taught as a subject) teachers. Theories of multilingualism and positioning theory were drawn on in order to understand CF teachers’ perceptions of ELL inclusion and the contributing factors affecting these ...