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Full-Text Articles in Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education

On A Continuum: Examining Ncore's Influence In The Development Of Multicultural Competence In Student Affairs Educators, Jennifer Lynn Plagman-Galvin, Ann M. Gansemer-Topf Apr 2018

On A Continuum: Examining Ncore's Influence In The Development Of Multicultural Competence In Student Affairs Educators, Jennifer Lynn Plagman-Galvin, Ann M. Gansemer-Topf

Education Publications

Multiculturally competent student affairs educators are required to effectively meet the needs of today’s diverse student population. However, little is known about how educators acquire these skills. This study examined the multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills gained by student affairs educators through their participation in NCORE, an experiential conference exploring race and ethnicity. Results of the study have implications for graduate preparation programs and professional development opportunities for student affairs educators.


Into The Storm: Ecological And Sociological Impediments To Black Males’ Persistence In Engineering Graduate Programs, Brian A. Burt, Krystal L. Williams, William A. Smith Apr 2018

Into The Storm: Ecological And Sociological Impediments To Black Males’ Persistence In Engineering Graduate Programs, Brian A. Burt, Krystal L. Williams, William A. Smith

Education Publications

While much is known about how Black students negotiate and navigate undergraduate studies, there is a dearth of research on what happens when these students enter graduate school. This article presents the results of a study of 21 Black male graduate students in engineering from one highly ranked research-intensive institution. This article provides evidence of structurally racialized policies within the engineering college (e.g., admissions) and racialized and gendered interactions with peers and advisors that threaten Black males’ persistence in engineering. We argue for taking an anti-deficit approach to understanding Black males’ persistence in engineering. We conclude with implications for ...


Experiments With Universal Cefr Classification, Sowmya Vajjala, Taraka Rama Jan 2018

Experiments With Universal Cefr Classification, Sowmya Vajjala, Taraka Rama

English Conference Papers, Posters and Proceedings

The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) guidelines describe language proficiency of learners on a scale of 6 levels. While the description of CEFR guidelines is generic across languages, the development of automated proficiency classification systems for different languages follow different approaches. In this paper, we explore universal CEFR classification using domainspecific and domain-agnostic, theory-guided as well as data-driven features. We report the results of our preliminary experiments in monolingual, cross-lingual, and multilingual classification with three languages: German, Czech, and Italian. Our results show that both monolingual and multilingual models achieve similar performance, and cross-lingual classification yields lower, but comparable ...


Learning Competencies Through Engineering Research Group Experiences, Brian A. Burt Mar 2017

Learning Competencies Through Engineering Research Group Experiences, Brian A. Burt

Education Publications

Purpose - In some fields, research group experiences gained in laboratories are more influential than the classroom in shaping graduate students' research abilities, understandings of post-graduate careers, and professional identities. However, we know little about what and how students learn from their research group experiences. This article explores the learning experiences of engineering graduate students in one chemical engineering research group to determine what students learned and identify the practices and activities that facilitated their learning.

Design/methodology/approach – Ethnography was utilized to observe the experiences of one 20-member research group in chemical engineering. Fieldwork included 13 months of observations, 31 ...


Racializing Experiences Of Foreign-Born And Ethnically Diverse Black Male Engineering Graduate Students: Implications For Student Affairs Practice, Policy, And Research, Brian A. Burt, Alexander Knight, Justin Roberson Jan 2017

Racializing Experiences Of Foreign-Born And Ethnically Diverse Black Male Engineering Graduate Students: Implications For Student Affairs Practice, Policy, And Research, Brian A. Burt, Alexander Knight, Justin Roberson

Education Publications

Despite a growing body of work on the experiences of Black collegians, the higher education knowledge base lacks scholarship focused on Black men in graduate programs who are foreign-born and/or identify ethnically as other than African American. In this article, we provide a domain-specific investigation (i.e., based on students’ field of study), centering on nine Black men in engineering graduate programs. Three themes emerged regarding students’ racialized experiences and effects of racialization: (1) racialization as a transitional process; (2) cultural identity (dis)integrity; and (3) racialized imposter syndrome. We conclude with implications for developing and implementing promising practices ...


Automated Assessment Of Non-Native Learner Essays: Investigating The Role Of Linguistic Features, Sowmya Vajjala Jan 2017

Automated Assessment Of Non-Native Learner Essays: Investigating The Role Of Linguistic Features, Sowmya Vajjala

English Publications

Automatic essay scoring (AES) refers to the process of scoring free text responses to given prompts, considering human grader scores as the gold standard. Writing such essays is an essential component of many language and aptitude exams. Hence, AES became an active and established area of research, and there are many proprietary systems used in real life applications today. However, not much is known about which specific linguistic features are useful for prediction and how much of this is consistent across datasets. This article addresses that by exploring the role of various linguistic features in automatic essay scoring using two ...


The Intentional And The Grassroots Hispanic-Serving Institutions: A Critical History Of Two Universities, Erin E. Doran, Oscar Medina Jan 2017

The Intentional And The Grassroots Hispanic-Serving Institutions: A Critical History Of Two Universities, Erin E. Doran, Oscar Medina

Education Publications

This study examines the institutional histories of Loma Verde University and Azul City University and their development over time into Hispanic-Serving Institutions. Utilizing a theoretical framework of transformational change, we focus on various aspects of these institutions, including curriculum, the allocation of physical spaces, and the creation of programs that specifically serve Latinx students. The study makes use of archival documents that tell the story of the struggles at each institution to cultivate a campus that addressed the needs of Latinx students to promote their long-term academic success. The findings suggest that these institutions were on paths that were heavily ...


Patterns Of Tasks, Patterns Of Talk: L2 Literacy Building In University Spanish Classes, Jesse Gleason, Tammy Slater Jun 2016

Patterns Of Tasks, Patterns Of Talk: L2 Literacy Building In University Spanish Classes, Jesse Gleason, Tammy Slater

English Publications

ABSTRACT

Second language (L2) classroom research has sought to shed light on the processes and practices that develop L2 learners’ abilities [Nunan, D. 2004. Task-based language teaching. London: Continuum; Verplaetse, L. 2014. Using big questions to apprentice students into language-rich classroom practices. TESOL Quarterly, 179, 632–641; Zeungler, J., & Mori, J. 2002. Microanalyses of classroom discourse: A critical consideration of method. Applied Linguistics, 23(3), 283–288]. Honing in on the micro-level of classroom tasks and even further into the language of the tasks can help to reveal the patterns in teacher- and student-talk that help scaffold students’ academic literacy. Literacy, from a systemic functional view of language learning, entails having the tools to function in the social contexts that are valued in students’ lives. This ...


Effects Of Strength Of Accent On An L2 Interactive Lecture Listening Comprehension Test, Gary Ockey, Spiros Papageorgiou, Robert French Apr 2016

Effects Of Strength Of Accent On An L2 Interactive Lecture Listening Comprehension Test, Gary Ockey, Spiros Papageorgiou, Robert French

English Publications

This article reports on a study which aimed to determine the effect of strength of accent on listening comprehension of interactive lectures. Test takers (N = 21,726) listened to an interactive lecture given by one of nine speakers and responded to six comprehension items. The test taker responses were analyzed with the Rasch computer program WINSTEPS to investigate the relative difficulty of the items associated with the nine versions of the interactive lectures. Results indicated that comprehension of interactive lectures was diminished with quite light accents, as has been found with monologic lectures.


Automated Writing Evaluation For Formative Assessment Of Second Language Writing: Investigating The Accuracy And Usefulness Of Feedback As Part Of Argument-Based Validation, Jim Ranalli, Stephanie Link, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen Feb 2016

Automated Writing Evaluation For Formative Assessment Of Second Language Writing: Investigating The Accuracy And Usefulness Of Feedback As Part Of Argument-Based Validation, Jim Ranalli, Stephanie Link, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen

English Publications

An increasing number of studies on the use of tools for automated writing evaluation (AWE) in writing classrooms suggest growing interest in their potential for formative assessment. As with all assessments, these applications should be validated in terms of their intended interpretations and uses. A recent argument-based validation framework outlined inferences that require backing to support integration of one AWE tool, Criterion, into a college-level English as a Second Language (ESL) writing course. The present research appraised evidence for the assumptions underlying two inferences in this argument. In the first of two studies, we assessed evidence for the evaluation inference ...


Readability-Based Sentence Ranking For Evaluating Text Simplification, Sowmya Vajjala, Detmar Meurers Jan 2015

Readability-Based Sentence Ranking For Evaluating Text Simplification, Sowmya Vajjala, Detmar Meurers

English Technical Reports and White Papers

We propose a new method for evaluating the readability of simplified sentences through pair-wise ranking. The validity of the method is established through in-corpus and cross-corpus evaluation experiments. The approach correctly identifies the ranking of simplified and unsimplified sentences in terms of their reading level with an accuracy of over 80%, significantly outperforming previous results. To gain qualitative insights into the nature of simplification at the sentence level, we studied the impact of specific linguistic features. We empirically confirm that both word-level and syntactic features play a role in comparing the degree of simplification of authentic data. To carry out ...


Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices For Language Assessment, Gary Ockey, Ikkyu Choi Jan 2015

Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices For Language Assessment, Gary Ockey, Ikkyu Choi

English Publications

Studies that use structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques are increasingly encountered in the language assessment literature. This popularity has created the need for a set of guidelines that can indicate what should be included in a research report and make it possible for research consumers to judge the appropriateness of the interpretations made from a reported study. This article attempts to fill this void by providing a set of reporting guidelines appropriate for language assessment researchers.


New And Not So New Methods For Assessing Oral Communication, Gary Ockey, Zhi Li Jan 2015

New And Not So New Methods For Assessing Oral Communication, Gary Ockey, Zhi Li

English Publications

The assessment of oral communication has continued to evolve over the past few decades. The construct being assessed has broadened to include interactional competence, and technology has played a role in the types of tasks that are currently popular. In this paper, we discuss the factors that affect the process of oral communication assessment, current conceptualizations of the construct to be assessed, and five tasks that are used to assess this construct. These tasks include oral proficiency interviews, paired/group oral discussion tasks, simulated tasks, integrated oral communication tasks, and elicited imitation tasks. We evaluate these tasks based on current ...


Overworked And Stressed Teachers Under Market Economy: Case Study In Northwest China, Gulbahar Beckett, Juanjuan Zhao Jan 2015

Overworked And Stressed Teachers Under Market Economy: Case Study In Northwest China, Gulbahar Beckett, Juanjuan Zhao

English Publications

This chapter is based on a case study conducted in Xisheng (pseudonym promised to the participants for anonymity purposes) in Northwest China to explore teachers’ perspectives on teaching under the market economy system. The original plan was to study local indigenous teachers, but that was not possible due to political sensitivity of the region at the time of data collection. As a result, we interviewed mostly Han teachers, including as many local indigenous teachers as possible. We think that the study is still useful as it was the first study of its kind and that it was informative regarding the ...


From One To Multiple Accents On A Test Of L2 Listening Comprehension, Gary Ockey, Robert French Jan 2014

From One To Multiple Accents On A Test Of L2 Listening Comprehension, Gary Ockey, Robert French

English Publications

Concerns about the need for assessing multidialectal listening skills for global contexts are becoming increasingly prevalent. However, the inclusion of multiple accents on listening assessments may threaten test fairness because it is not practical to include every accent that may be encountered in the language use domain on these tests. Given this dilemma, this study aimed to determine the extent to which accent strength and familiarity affect comprehension and to provide a defensible direction for assessing multidialectal listening comprehension. A strength of accent scale was developed, and one US, four Australian, and four British English speakers of English were selected ...


Technology-Mediated L2 Strategy Instruction And Its Potential To Enhance Evaluation And Research, Jim Ranalli Jan 2014

Technology-Mediated L2 Strategy Instruction And Its Potential To Enhance Evaluation And Research, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

This paper discusses the potential of technology-mediated forms of L2 strategy instruction (SI) to not only facilitate SI but to enhance evaluation of SI interventions and L2 strategy research more generally. It uses results from a recent empirical study to show how computer-based forms of SI may offer remedies for problematic features of evaluation, including access to process data showing how learners actually perform strategy-related tasks, the timing and frequency of collection of learner perception data, and most importantly, data about task perception and meta-cognitive monitoring, which can position L2 strategies within frameworks for self-regulated learning. The underlying premise of ...


The Structural Consistency Of A Six-Factor Model Of Academic Self-Concept Among Culturally Diverse Preadolescents In The United States, Gary Ockey, Sarah Abercrombie Jan 2013

The Structural Consistency Of A Six-Factor Model Of Academic Self-Concept Among Culturally Diverse Preadolescents In The United States, Gary Ockey, Sarah Abercrombie

English Publications

For decades, research has indicated that preadolescents’ self-concept is comprised of subject-specific academic factors, a general academic factor, and several nonacademic factors. More recently, there have been some indications that academic self-concept might further be differentiated into competence and affect factors, at least for some preadolescent ethnic groups. This study examines the extent to which a 6-factor model of academic self-concept, in which competence and affect are distinct, is tenable for White, Hispanic, and Native American preadolescents. A total of 313 White, 331 Hispanic, and 224 Native American preadolescents from the southwestern United States were administered a modified version of ...


Enhancing The Professionalisation Of Student Affairs Through Assessment, Ann M. Gansemer-Topf Jan 2013

Enhancing The Professionalisation Of Student Affairs Through Assessment, Ann M. Gansemer-Topf

Education Publications

The past decades have seen an increase in the attention and focus of student affairs work in Africa. As the profession works to strengthen its reputation and value within higher education through conferences, organisations and publications, student affairs professionals can also raise the stature of the profession through work on their individual campuses. Engaging in assessment may be one such opportunity. As a way to create a common language regarding student affairs assessment, this paper provides an overview of the definitions, types and purposes of assessment. The thought is that viewing assessment as an integral, rather than ‘extra’ aspect of ...


Mentoring Perceptions And Experiences Of Minority Students Participating In Summer Research Opportunity Programs, Marcus Glenn, Levon T. Esters, Michael S. Retallick Jan 2012

Mentoring Perceptions And Experiences Of Minority Students Participating In Summer Research Opportunity Programs, Marcus Glenn, Levon T. Esters, Michael S. Retallick

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

Literature has documented the underrepresentation of minority students in higher education and the importance of mentoring programs in retaining these students in the academy. This study examines the perceptions of mentoring and actual mentoring experiences of minority students participating in two Summer Research Opportunity Programs (SROPs) at Iowa State University. Seven mentoring functions (Clarity of Project, Challenging Assignment, Training, Contact, Assistance, Feedback and Role Modeling) were identified through the literature as being important in the mentoring relationship. Findings indicated that the students’ mentoring experience was better than expected, but students also noted that mentors should devote more attention to the ...


Towards Effective Integration And Positive Impact Of Automated Writing Evaluation In L2 Writing, Elena Cotos Jan 2012

Towards Effective Integration And Positive Impact Of Automated Writing Evaluation In L2 Writing, Elena Cotos

English Publications

The increasing dominance of English has elevated the need to develop an ability to effectively communicate in writing, and this has put a strain on second language education programs worldwide. Faced with time-consuming and copious commenting on student drafts and inspired by the promise of computerized writing assessment, many "educational technology enthusiasts are looking to A WE [automated writing evaluation] as a silver bullet for language and literacy development" (Warschauer & Ware, 2006, p. 175). This chapter reviews what AWE offers for learners and teachers and raises a number of controversies regarding A WE effectiveness with the underlying message that clear ...


Potential Of Automated Writing Evaluation Feedback, Elena Cotos Jan 2011

Potential Of Automated Writing Evaluation Feedback, Elena Cotos

English Publications

This paper presents an empirical evaluation of automated writing evaluation (AWE) feedback used for L2 academic writing teaching and learning. It introduces the Intelligent Academic Discourse Evaluator (IADE), a new web-based AWE program that analyzes the introduction section to research articles and generates immediate, individualized, and discipline-specific feedback. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential of IADE’s feedback. A mixed-methods approach with a concurrent transformative strategy was employed. Quantitative data consisted of responses to Likert-scale, yes/no, and open-ended survey questions; automated and human scores for first and final drafts; and pre-/posttest scores. Qualitative data ...


Review Of Wimba Voice 6.0 Collaborative Suite, Elena Cotos Jan 2011

Review Of Wimba Voice 6.0 Collaborative Suite, Elena Cotos

English Publications

Wimba Voice 6.0TM is a component of the Wimba Collaboraton SuiteTM 6.0, which is a set of tools for online communication that combines a series of interactive technologies. Wimba Voice allows teachers to complement their pedagogical approaches with five web-based applications: Voice Authoring, Voice Board, Voice Podcaster, Voice Presenter, and Voice Email. These applications add audio and video components to asynchronous communication and can be easily integrated into different course management environments (e.g., Angel, Blackboard, Moodle, WebCT). Consequently, Wimba Voice has attracted the interest of an increasing number of language educators who are striving to enhance teaching ...


Call Evaluation By Developers, A Teacher, And Students, Joan Jamieson, Carol Chapelle, Sherry Preiss Jan 2005

Call Evaluation By Developers, A Teacher, And Students, Joan Jamieson, Carol Chapelle, Sherry Preiss

English Publications

Researchers and teachers agree that evaluation of CALL should ideally inform pedagogical choices about how best to use CALL, but how to go about such an evaluation is not clear. This study offers an example of a context-based evaluation by operationalizing criteria for CALL evaluation and administering the instruments to three groups of stakeholders: the people who developed the content for the CALL materials, the teacher, and the students. The CALL materials were Longman English online (LEO). The setting was a community college English as a second language class in New York. Results, which focused on the agreement among stakeholders ...


Putting Principles Into Practice, Joan Jamieson, Carol Chapelle, Sherry Preiss Jan 2004

Putting Principles Into Practice, Joan Jamieson, Carol Chapelle, Sherry Preiss

English Publications

CALL evaluation might ideally draw on principles from fields such as second language acquisition, language pedagogy, instructional design, and testing and measurement in order to make judgments about criteria such as elaborated input, feedback, collaborative learning, authentic tasks, navigation, screen design, reliability, validity, impact, and practicality. In this study, a subset of criteria were used to evaluate the design of English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) online courses and assessments, Longman English Online. This article illustrates how a set of principles suggested evaluation criteria which, in turn, suggested particular variables for the instructional design; these variables, again ...


Innovative Language Learning: Achieving The Vision, Carol Chapelle Jan 2001

Innovative Language Learning: Achieving The Vision, Carol Chapelle

English Publications

The technologies demonstrated at the InSTIL and EUROCALL 2000 conferences were very inspiring. They gave participants the sense that the technologies of their wildest imaginations are at last materializing, particularly in long awaited advances in speech technologies. Some challenges, however, remain ahead as attempts are made to put these technologies to use in CALL. Past experience demonstrates for example that software designed for recognition of a proficient speaker’s language is different than that required for learner language. It is also evident that while language use may be critical for language acquisition, language use does not necessarily indicate language acquisition ...


Methodilogical Issues In Research On Learner-Computer Interactions In Call, Volker Hegelheimer, Carol Chapelle Jan 2000

Methodilogical Issues In Research On Learner-Computer Interactions In Call, Volker Hegelheimer, Carol Chapelle

English Publications

CALL materials may provide a mechanism for implementing theoretically-ideal conditions for second language acquisition and for conducting empirical research to investigate effects of these conditions. This paper explores methodological issues involved in realizing this potential by focusing on investigation of the noticing hypothesis (Schmidt, 1990) in CALL reading materials. It reviews the problem of assessing noticing in classroom and experimental settings through a) conditions for noticing, b) retrospective assessment, and c) concurrent assessment. Concurrent assessment, which provides the most direct measure of noticing, is illustrated through CALL materials that gather data on noticing, test retention of word meaning, and calculate ...


Research Questions For A Call Research Agenda: A Reply To Rafael Salaberry, Carol Chapelle Jan 1999

Research Questions For A Call Research Agenda: A Reply To Rafael Salaberry, Carol Chapelle

English Publications

I am grateful to Rafael Salaberry for his comments on my paper "CALL in the year 2000: Still in search of research paradigms?" takes up the discussion that I hoped the paper would motivate about fundamental issues in CALL research--issues such as what the relevant research questions are, why particular research methods are appropriate, and how CALL research relates to second language acquisition (SLA) research. In the interest of moving the discussion forward, I have responded to each of the points that Salaberry has raised. Points (a) through (e) below are quoted directly from his paper:


From Reading Theory To Testing Practice, Carol Chapelle Jan 1999

From Reading Theory To Testing Practice, Carol Chapelle

English Publications

This chapter acts as a link between the theoretical concerns laid out in the previous section and the computer-adaptive L2 testing issues and practices discussed in this part. It defines and situates critical testing concepts used by authors in this section-test purpose, inference and construct definition-to show potential connections of theory and research in L2 reading to design and development of computer-adaptive reading tests.


Multimedia Call: Lessons To Be Learned From Research On Instructed Sla, Carol Chapelle Jan 1998

Multimedia Call: Lessons To Be Learned From Research On Instructed Sla, Carol Chapelle

English Publications

This paper suggests that some design features and evaluation criteria for multimedia CALL might be developed on the basis of hypotheses about ideal conditions for second language acquisition (SLA). It outlines a relevant theory of SLA and enumerates the hypotheses it implies for ideal conditions such as input saliency, opportunities for interaction, and learner focus on communication. Implications of each hypothesis for multimedia CALL design and evaluation are outlined and exemplified.


Call In The Year 2000: Still In Search Of Research Paradigms?, Carol Chapelle Jan 1997

Call In The Year 2000: Still In Search Of Research Paradigms?, Carol Chapelle

English Publications

Advancements in the design and use of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) activities require that key questions about CALL be identified and effective research methods be used to answer them. In this paper, I suggest looking to research on other types of second language (L2) classroom learning activities for guidance in framing CALL research questions and in discovering relevant research methods. I begin with examples from the CALL literature demonstrating the diverse perspectives (e.g., cognitive psychology, constructivism, psycholinguistics) which have been suggested as ways of approaching CALL research. I then summarize the research questions and methods of L2 classroom research ...