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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education

The Effect Of Error Codes On Second Language Writing, Mike Gilligan Jan 2008

The Effect Of Error Codes On Second Language Writing, Mike Gilligan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study focused on the ability of ESL students to revise their grammatical errors and produce more accurate writing in the future based on error codes. As the researcher, I analyzed the writing over time of four different students who received error codes. I examined three error types for three of the subjects, and two errors types for the fourth subject. The error types included verb errors, preposition errors, determiner errors and plural/singular confusion errors. I analyzed these errors to determine the correction ability and accuracy on future writing of the students.;The subjects were 4 males, two from ...


Context Visuals In L2 Listening Tests: The Effectiveness Of Photographs And Video Vs. Audio-Only Format, Ruslan S. Suvorov Jan 2008

Context Visuals In L2 Listening Tests: The Effectiveness Of Photographs And Video Vs. Audio-Only Format, Ruslan S. Suvorov

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although visual support in the form of pictures and video has been widely used in language teaching, there appears to be a dearth of research on the role of visual aids in L2 listening tests (Buck, 2000; Ockey, 2007) and the absence of sound theoretical perspectives on this issue (Ginther, 2001; Gruba, 1999). The existing studies of the role of visual support in L2 listening tests yielded inconclusive results. While some studies showed that visuals can improve test-takers' performance on L2 listening tests (e.g., Ginther, 2002), others revealed no facilitative effect of visuals on listening comprehension of test-takers (e ...


The Role Of Recasts In The Interactions Of Native-Speakers Of English With Korean English Language Learners, Hyunjung Lee Jan 2008

The Role Of Recasts In The Interactions Of Native-Speakers Of English With Korean English Language Learners, Hyunjung Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study partially replicates that of Braidi (2002). Like the original, it investigates occurrences and use of recasts, that is, reformulations of incorrect utterances, in relation to the number of grammatical errors in conversations of NSEs (Native Speakers of English) and NNSEs (Nonnative Speakers of English) and examines whether different types of tasks can affect the occurrences and use of recasts. In contrast to many previous studies, I examine here the occurrences of recasts in non-instructional interactions between NSEs and NNSEs.;Five dyads of American teaching assistants and Korean graduate students at Iowa State University participated in performing two different ...


An Exploratory Study Of Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call) Glosses And Traditional Glosses On Incidental Vocabulary Learning And Spanish Literature Reading Comprehension, Thomas Michael Lage Jan 2008

An Exploratory Study Of Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call) Glosses And Traditional Glosses On Incidental Vocabulary Learning And Spanish Literature Reading Comprehension, Thomas Michael Lage

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The following is an exploratory study investigating the difference in the incidental vocabulary learning (or recall) of Spanish vocabulary while reading for comprehension. A secondary area of investigation is the influence of learner characteristics on gloss access. High-intermediate/low-advanced Spanish students from two sections of the same Spanish course at an American university participated in this study. One group of participants was provided traditional English marginal glosses to the left of the reading while the second group of students was provided with computer-assisted language learning (CALL) glosses. The participants took three constructed response vocabulary post-tests in the following three weeks ...


Transforming Teacher Education To Support Multicultural Technology Pedagogy: An Assessment Of Preservice Teachers' Beliefs About Multiculturalism And Diversity, Audrey Denise Bowser Jan 2008

Transforming Teacher Education To Support Multicultural Technology Pedagogy: An Assessment Of Preservice Teachers' Beliefs About Multiculturalism And Diversity, Audrey Denise Bowser

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Because schools are becoming increasingly diverse, a significant role of teacher preparation programs is to prepare its prospective teachers with the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to help all students learn. In understanding the responsibility to prepare preservice teachers for working with diverse populations and implementing an effective multicultural curriculum, teacher education programs recognize the imperative that preservice teachers must be trained as technologically competent teachers who can skillfully integrate technology in culturally diverse classrooms. Within the context of teacher education, this research is rooted in social reconstructionist theory (Sleeter & Grant, 2003) based upon a critical multicultural conceptual framework interwoven with critical pedagogy (Freire, 1996; McLaren, 2003). This research study assessed preservice teachers' personal and professional ...


Strategies Used By Secondary Spanish Teachers In Heritage Language Student Classrooms, Tracie Korbitz Chandrasekaran Jan 2008

Strategies Used By Secondary Spanish Teachers In Heritage Language Student Classrooms, Tracie Korbitz Chandrasekaran

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Heritage language speakers (HLS) in Iowa have increased annually in recent years due to the growing number of immigrants moving into the state. According to the English Language Learners Report of 2001, English language learners of Hispanic descent have increased by 636.3% between the school years of 1985-1986 and 2006-2007 (Iowa State Board of Education, 2007, p. 64).;Although some educators and members of the public might view HLS in public schools as problematic because of their need for English as a second language (ESL) classes, these unique learners can also be viewed as an asset. HLS possess knowledge ...


Native English Speakers' Perceptions Of Intelligibility In The Extended Discourse Produced By Non-Native Speakers, Jiyon Michelle Im Jan 2007

Native English Speakers' Perceptions Of Intelligibility In The Extended Discourse Produced By Non-Native Speakers, Jiyon Michelle Im

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In pronunciation, segmental accuracy has been recognized as an important aspect in contributing to a non-native speaker's intelligibility. Nonetheless, there has been a lack of research focusing on the role of segmental errors in understanding extended discourse. Furthermore, previous research studies on intelligibility have largely been conducted in a controlled condition where a listener's cognitive process is more limited than in a real-life setting. In addition, proficiency level has not been considered as one of the factors contributing the intelligibility of non-native speech. This thesis uses a think-aloud methodology to investigate how native English speakers perceived how segmental ...


The Influence Of The Grammatical Structure Of L1 On Learners' L2 Development And Transfer Patterns In Esl Academic Writing: A Comparative Study (A Case Of Chinese And Czech Speakers), Anna P. Kosterina Jan 2007

The Influence Of The Grammatical Structure Of L1 On Learners' L2 Development And Transfer Patterns In Esl Academic Writing: A Comparative Study (A Case Of Chinese And Czech Speakers), Anna P. Kosterina

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates whether the grammatical structure of learner's first language (L1) plays a role in English as a second language (L2) development and can result in transfer into L2 writing. The study aims to find patterns of language use and error in learners of English as a second language with respect to their native language by studying a corpus of writings produced by such learners. The main focus of the study is on examining the manually annotated part of the section C of the Longman Learners' Corpus (LLC) corpus (http://www.longman-elt.com/dictionaries/corpus/llcotn.html) which ...


Teacher Attitudes Toward Bilingual Education: The Power And Possibility Of A Two-Way Immersion Program To Effect Change, Holly Janelle Kaptain Jan 2007

Teacher Attitudes Toward Bilingual Education: The Power And Possibility Of A Two-Way Immersion Program To Effect Change, Holly Janelle Kaptain

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The prevailing attitudes and beliefs teachers have toward bilingual programs can have a strong effect on their success. This study, conducted under the auspices National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, tests whether the presence of two-way immersion programs in two elementary schools in Iowa has an effect on teachers' attitudes toward the principles of bilingual education. Effective bilingual programs have a strong impact on student achievement as well as students' staying in school. For programs to be successful, however, teachers must support the underlying principles, philosophies, and approaches that comprise bilingual programs. This study found that ...


The Effects Of Computer-Mediated Interaction In L2 Vocabulary Learning, Soh Youn Kim Jan 2006

The Effects Of Computer-Mediated Interaction In L2 Vocabulary Learning, Soh Youn Kim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the effects of a computer-mediated (CM) interaction task on university level ESL learners' lexical development while doing collaborative dialogues using MSN instant messenger in non-native student to non-native student (NNS-NNS) dyads. Specifically, the study examined the learners' interaction by looking at MSN messenger scripts to find the negotiation routines. Also, the mean pre-test and two post-test scores were compared to assess the acquisition of new lexical items. This study investigated whether the learners used an online dictionary and whether they selected the most appropriate words in the given context. The participants were 10 (6 male, 4 female ...


Faster, Normal Or Slower?: The Effects Of Speech Rates On High-Intermediate Esl Learners' Listening Comprehension Of Academic Lectures, Fushun Le Jan 2006

Faster, Normal Or Slower?: The Effects Of Speech Rates On High-Intermediate Esl Learners' Listening Comprehension Of Academic Lectures, Fushun Le

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to 1) identify whether three speech rates (SR) (normal, faster and slower) have different effects on high-intermediate ESL learners' listening comprehension of academic lectures, and if so, to determine which SR is the most beneficial to the learners' comprehension; and 2) to identify learners' perception of SRs and reasons for lecture incomprehensibility. Eleven international students were asked to listen to three long academic lectures on unfamiliar topics and answer multiple choice comprehension questions, which was followed by a brief survey of their perception of the SR appropriateness and lecture difficulty. The original SRs of ...


Self-Representations And Power Relations In Peer Review Interactions: A Case Study Of Two International Students In A Composition Class, Lavinia Hirsu Jan 2006

Self-Representations And Power Relations In Peer Review Interactions: A Case Study Of Two International Students In A Composition Class, Lavinia Hirsu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Peer review is a commonly used activity in cross-cultural composition classes; however, little research has investigated how NNSEs' (non-native speakers of English) self-perceptions and power relations reflect and are reflected in their peer discourse, more exactly in the use of social-interactional strategies and personal stance. In this microethnographic study, I followed two NNSEs working in dyads with two different peers (a native and a non-native speaker of English) for a rhetorical analysis assignment in a cross-cultural composition class. First I distributed a survey to the six participants in order to determine their perceptions of previous and hypothetical peer interactions, and ...


Motivation And Acquisition Of Pronunciation In Efl Students In El Salvador, Christian Enrique Meléndez Jan 2006

Motivation And Acquisition Of Pronunciation In Efl Students In El Salvador, Christian Enrique Meléndez

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the effect of pronunciation instruction and motivation in the acquisition of second language pronunciation in EFL students in El Salvador. Eighteen participants were given a pronunciation pre-test and a post-test. They received 20 minutes of pronunciation training each day for fifteen days. The training focused on the pronunciation of two different English sounds, /[O with line through the middle]/ and /-ed/ endings for the past of the regular verbs. The participants also completed a self-report motivation questionnaire containing nine different variables. Three different statistical analyses were used to analyze the data collected: paired t-tests, Cronbach's Alpha ...


Assessment Of Implicit Bias And Self-Reported Multicultural Counseling Competencies Among Counseling Trainees , Guy A. Boysen Jan 2006

Assessment Of Implicit Bias And Self-Reported Multicultural Counseling Competencies Among Counseling Trainees , Guy A. Boysen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research has shown that multicultural training increases competency among counselor trainees. However, these results have been obtained using self-report measures affected by social desirability. In contrast, implicit measures of bias have the advantage of being less susceptible to social desirability. Study 1 explored the reliability and validity of a measure of implicit bias. Study 2 examined self-reported multicultural counseling competency and implicit bias toward lesbian and gay men and African Americans at the start and end of a semester in a sample of counselor trainees (n = 124) enrolled in multicultural counseling or unrelated comparison courses. Results indicated that multicultural competency ...


Patterns Of Adverbial Stance Marking In United Nations Political Discourse: A Corpus-Based Study, Adrian Florea Jan 2006

Patterns Of Adverbial Stance Marking In United Nations Political Discourse: A Corpus-Based Study, Adrian Florea

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


This And These As Pronouns And Determiners: A Corpus-Based Study Of Published Academic Research Articles, Bethany Dianne Ekle Gray Jan 2006

This And These As Pronouns And Determiners: A Corpus-Based Study Of Published Academic Research Articles, Bethany Dianne Ekle Gray

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Technology Integration For Teaching And Learning Spanish In Elementary Schools: Voices Of Designers, Teachers And Students , Eduardo García Villada Jan 2006

Technology Integration For Teaching And Learning Spanish In Elementary Schools: Voices Of Designers, Teachers And Students , Eduardo García Villada

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A critical review of the literature on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) research between 1980 and 2005 indicates that no one in the field of foreign language at the elementary school (FLES) has identified what principles might be useful for practice-oriented CALL that is relevant for young learners, and that very little research had been published in the area. To fill this gap, a theoretical framework is proposed to design, evaluate, and use CALL materials for FLES, and the framework is tested in two studies.;The first was a phenomenological investigation of K-6 teachers' projects from a teachers' professional development program ...


Can Difference Speak?: Representation And Ethos Of Otherness With/In Postmodern Research, Classroom, And Online Communication Practices , Oksana Hlyva Jan 2006

Can Difference Speak?: Representation And Ethos Of Otherness With/In Postmodern Research, Classroom, And Online Communication Practices , Oksana Hlyva

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines ways difference or otherness is represented at three research sites to underscore practical ethical dilemmas engendered by the postmodern crisis of representation. Inspired largely by Gayatri Spivak's influential Can the Subaltern Speak? the dissertation seeks to illustrate a practical usefulness of postcolonial and post-structuralist insights for rhetoric and composition as well as business and technical communication practitioners who aspire to reconcile their allegiance with the postmodern and postethnographic representation critique and prevalent modernist, positivist, and reductive institutional exigencies;Embedded within the dissertation are three papers that elaborate on concrete representational practices in three specific research locales ...


The Impact Of The Secondary Agricultural Education Program On Latino Students: Perspectives Towards The Agricultural Education Class, The Local Ffa Organization And The Supervised Agricultural Experiences Program In Iowa Public Schools , Aurelio Curbelo Jan 2006

The Impact Of The Secondary Agricultural Education Program On Latino Students: Perspectives Towards The Agricultural Education Class, The Local Ffa Organization And The Supervised Agricultural Experiences Program In Iowa Public Schools , Aurelio Curbelo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Due to the increasing population of Latino students in the Iowa secondary agricultural education program and the need for minority leaders in agriculture, the goal of this study was to survey a group of students in agricultural classes to understand their perspectives towards the learning components of the program. This study found that Latino students in Iowa secondary schools were supportive of the agricultural education program and interested in participating in experiential programs. Recommendations from this study are to encourage Latino students to actively participate in secondary agricultural classes. A greater effort from educators to recruit and research minority students ...


Effect Of Organizational Environments On The Status Attainment Of Students Of Color And Majority Students: A General Linear Model Analysis , Shantha Joseph Ravindra Pieris Jan 2006

Effect Of Organizational Environments On The Status Attainment Of Students Of Color And Majority Students: A General Linear Model Analysis , Shantha Joseph Ravindra Pieris

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to determine if the graduation rates of students of color and majority students at public, research extensive and intensive institutions could be predicted by institutional resource allocation activities in the context of both the internal and external environments of universities. The independent variables for the internal environment were expenditures in regard to instruction, academic support, student services, institutional grants (scholarships, fellowships), research, public service, institutional support, plant operation and maintenance, and institutional selectivity. The independent variables for the external environment were geographical region and degree of urbanization. The independent variables for the internal environment were calculated in ...


Diachronic Linguistic Variation In Academic Papers And Its Relationship To The Enculturation Process Of A Novice Nns Graduate Student Into The Academia: A Developmental Case Study, Moisés Damián Perales Escudero Jan 2005

Diachronic Linguistic Variation In Academic Papers And Its Relationship To The Enculturation Process Of A Novice Nns Graduate Student Into The Academia: A Developmental Case Study, Moisés Damián Perales Escudero

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Variations In Interactional Modifications In Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (Cmc) Between Different Tasks Among Indonesian Non-Native Speakers (Nnss) Of English, Neny Isharyanti Jan 2005

Variations In Interactional Modifications In Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (Cmc) Between Different Tasks Among Indonesian Non-Native Speakers (Nnss) Of English, Neny Isharyanti

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Research Into The Use Of Help Options In A Multimedia Listening Unit, Maja Grgurović Jan 2005

Research Into The Use Of Help Options In A Multimedia Listening Unit, Maja Grgurović

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated learner behavior and performance in a CALL multimedia listening activity which offered a video and two textual help options - a lecture transcript and subtitles in cases of comprehension breakdowns. In particular, the study examined and compared the learners' use of two help options by looking at the time and frequency of interaction with help. The study aimed to identify and compare possible patterns of participants' interaction with help options as well as investigate possible differences between participants at two proficiency levels. The participants in the study were eighteen ESL college students at the intermediate level of listening ...


Effects Of Images On The Incidental Acquisition Of Abstract Words, Anne O'Bryan Jan 2005

Effects Of Images On The Incidental Acquisition Of Abstract Words, Anne O'Bryan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recently, research has investigated whether glossing individual vocabulary words in a reading text with multimedia annotations-either with text, video, or still images- helps students learn the individual items, and therefore improve comprehension (Chun, Plass, 1996; Al-Seghayer, 2001). The studies, which are built around the assumption that students can learn better and more efficiently when information is presented in more than one mode, revealed a positive correlation between imagery and vocabulary acquisition. However, most studies focusing on teaching vocabulary incidentally with multimedia annotations annotated only the more concrete words which can easily be portrayed using still images or video. Research attempting ...


Functions Of "Shell Nouns" As Cohesive Devices In Academic Writing: A Comparative Corpus-Based Study, Rahime Nur Aktas Jan 2005

Functions Of "Shell Nouns" As Cohesive Devices In Academic Writing: A Comparative Corpus-Based Study, Rahime Nur Aktas

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study compares the functions of abstract nouns previously defined as "shell nouns" (Schmid, 2000) to create cohesion in academic texts written by professional published authors and international graduate students. To make this comparison, two corpora of research papers, one by international graduate students and one by published authors, were collected from 6 different academic disciplines (Art and Design, Biology, Computer Science, Economics, Environmental Engineering, and Physics and Astronomy). The 35 shell nouns (Hinkel, 2004) were investigated in order to find out the frequency patterns in both corpora. The six shell nouns identified as the most common ones in the ...


Communication During Public Service Encounters: Spanish L1 Immigrant Consumers And English L1 Employees, Robin Lanae Hinders Jan 2005

Communication During Public Service Encounters: Spanish L1 Immigrant Consumers And English L1 Employees, Robin Lanae Hinders

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As the state of Iowa continues to see an influx in 'new immigrants,' English speaking retail and service agency employees often assist consumers who are nonnative speakers of English on a regular basis. This mismatch between language and culture can sometimes cause misunderstanding and discomfort in cross-cultural relationships. Six Hispanic Spanish LI adult consumers and 13 White English LI employees from one rural Iowa community participated in this study. Both groups were asked a series of interview questions to share their perceptions about their ability to communicate with people in the other group. The participants were also asked to consider ...


Retelling As An Effective Reading Comprehension Strategy For Young Esl Learners, Jung-Ah Han Jan 2005

Retelling As An Effective Reading Comprehension Strategy For Young Esl Learners, Jung-Ah Han

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Retelling is not a new strategy, but it has been underestimated for a long time. This study investigates the effectiveness of retelling as a reading strategy for elementary school students of English as a Second Language (ESL). Two first graders, three second graders, and three fifth graders participated in the study. They were divided into two groups (Group A and B) considering their English competence and other factors. Their retelling outcomes including oral, written and drawings during 2 months period were collected and analyzed. During the study, students were being read stories and asked to retell the stories orally and ...


A Comparison Of The Use Of Strategies In Reading Electronic And Printed Text By Chinese Adult Esl Learners, Ching-Hui Wang Jan 2005

A Comparison Of The Use Of Strategies In Reading Electronic And Printed Text By Chinese Adult Esl Learners, Ching-Hui Wang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates whether Chinese adult ESL learners use the same reading strategies online as they do in traditional print. Three Chinese-speaking graduate students at Iowa State University participated in this study. To best elicit information regarding subjects' thought processes and their use of reading strategies, several methods were used, including think-aloud protocols, Morae software, and a follow-up interview. During the think-aloud process, subjects were assigned two reading tasks. One process involved reading in traditional print, and in the other process, participants read in hypertext. Each text format consisted of three passages. Each subject had the option of choosing two ...


The Impact In-Class Activities In An Academic Communication Skills Class For International Teaching Assistants (Itas) Have On Avoiding Miscommunication In An Out-Of-Class Simulated Office Hour, Elizabeth Clare Tremmel Jan 2005

The Impact In-Class Activities In An Academic Communication Skills Class For International Teaching Assistants (Itas) Have On Avoiding Miscommunication In An Out-Of-Class Simulated Office Hour, Elizabeth Clare Tremmel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Fluency Through Friends: Authentic Video, Subtitle Modification, And Oral Fluency, Christopher Mark Rozendaal Jan 2005

Fluency Through Friends: Authentic Video, Subtitle Modification, And Oral Fluency, Christopher Mark Rozendaal

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.