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Articles 1 - 30 of 37

Full-Text Articles in Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education

A Phenomenological Study On Self-Efficacy And Self-Regulated Learning Strategies And Their Link To Persistence In Hispanic College English Language Learners, Gabriela Defrancisco Mar 2019

A Phenomenological Study On Self-Efficacy And Self-Regulated Learning Strategies And Their Link To Persistence In Hispanic College English Language Learners, Gabriela Defrancisco

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In adult education, studies have been done in the areas of persistence, self-efficacy, self-regulated learning strategies and the Hispanic population. However, this study was unique in its attempt at examining the link between the self-efficacy and self-regulated learning strategies in the persistence of Hispanic college English language learners. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the experience of 1st generation Hispanic English Language learners during their first year at a Hispanic-Serving Institution.

The researcher conducted 14 semi-structured interviews of their experiences both as immigrants learning the English language and first-generation college students by utilizing a phenomenological framework ...


La Sección De Preescolar Del Colegio Espíritu Santo En Villavicencio Un Lugar Para Desarrollar La Conciencia Global De Una Manera Divertida., Ximena Gafaro Mrs, Diana Carolina Zapata Miss, Adriana Marcela Pardo Mrs May 2018

La Sección De Preescolar Del Colegio Espíritu Santo En Villavicencio Un Lugar Para Desarrollar La Conciencia Global De Una Manera Divertida., Ximena Gafaro Mrs, Diana Carolina Zapata Miss, Adriana Marcela Pardo Mrs

ICOT 18 - International Conference on Thinking - Cultivating Mindsets for Global Citizens

LA PINEJA Reggiana es la sección de preescolar del Colegio Espíritu Santo; una institución en Villavicencio Meta, Colombia con 38 años de fundada que atiende una población de 800 estudiantes desde preescolar a grado 11. Está ubicada en una granja en un entorno natural exuberante de 72.000 yardas cuadradas, a 15 minutos de la ciudad. Desde 2011, ha desarrollado un proyecto pedagógico inspirado en la Propuesta Pedagógica de Reggio Emilia , utilizando el Pensamiento Visible para promover las habilidades de pensamiento crítico y creativo. Este Jardín Infantil está ofreciendo un entorno natural para la indagación que promueve proyectos que desarrollan ...


Fashioning Identity Through Creativity In Multilingual & Multicultural Contexts, Aixa Jb Perez-Prado May 2018

Fashioning Identity Through Creativity In Multilingual & Multicultural Contexts, Aixa Jb Perez-Prado

ICOT 18 - International Conference on Thinking - Cultivating Mindsets for Global Citizens

The workshop will focus on thought as it relates to identity and empathy in multilingual and multicultural contexts. The concept of identity as perceived and expressed through an exploration of language, thought, and meaningful experiences will guide the discussion. Participants will take part in a series of interactive thinking activities designed to bring out aspects of identity and empathy as manifested in different cultural and linguistic contexts. They will then be encouraged to explore how these aspects differ among linguistic and cultural groups while reflecting on their personal experiences. After this interactive process, participants will produce a creative representation of ...


Creating Artful Thinkers - Transforming Research Into Practice, Onsite To Online Learning, Julie A. Carmean, Sara M. Lesk May 2018

Creating Artful Thinkers - Transforming Research Into Practice, Onsite To Online Learning, Julie A. Carmean, Sara M. Lesk

ICOT 18 - International Conference on Thinking - Cultivating Mindsets for Global Citizens

National Gallery of Art educators Julie Carmean and Sara Lesk propose presenting about their process of transforming research into practice through creating the National Gallery’s first Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), specifically for K-12 educators, using the pedagogy of Harvard’s Artful Thinking Routines and the National Gallery’s art collection. This free, international, online learning experience aims to democratize the opportunity for teachers to bring critical thinking through art to their students around the world. Participants will experience a combined onsite/online demonstration of one of their MOOC modules by, first, engaging with a work of art, using ...


Fuerzas Culturales- Qué Relatos Cuentan Nuestras Aulas?, Maria Eugenia Cossini Mrs May 2018

Fuerzas Culturales- Qué Relatos Cuentan Nuestras Aulas?, Maria Eugenia Cossini Mrs

ICOT 18 - International Conference on Thinking - Cultivating Mindsets for Global Citizens

We are a eco-bilingual (Spanish-English) school in the outskirts of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Our core educational values are TfU and Visible Thinking. Also, we have a strong focus on Sustainable education.

We would like to take advantage of this congress to both reflect with colleagues around the world and share our experiences implementing a Culture of Thinking in the classroom. We have been working with Visible Thinking, Thinking Routines and Teaching for Understanding in our school for years now and have come to have excellent results. We have created our own material to show (professionally taped videos, teacher´s plans ...


La Cultura Del Pensamiento Como Andamiaje Para El Aprendiz Bilingüe, Romina Paola Cariati May 2018

La Cultura Del Pensamiento Como Andamiaje Para El Aprendiz Bilingüe, Romina Paola Cariati

ICOT 18 - International Conference on Thinking - Cultivating Mindsets for Global Citizens

El objetivo fundamental de este taller es mostrar que en el aula bilingüe es posible desarrollar un ámbito de competencias creativas y formativas de la lengua inglesa a través del andamiaje que la cultura del pensamiento nos brinda. Para ello, se mostrará el recorrido que los docentes de inglés del colegio Grilli Canning College hemos hecho junto a nuestros alumnos en la formación de una cultura de pensamiento para adquirir la lengua inglesa. Se podrán compartir y apreciar distintos tipos de experiencias, aprendizajes, documentaciones y videos que evidencian la fuerte conexión que existe entre, la cultura de pensamiento establecida en ...


Vietnamese Teachers’ Perspectives Regarding Task-Based Approach To Vocabulary Instruction In Secondary School English As A Foreign Language Classrooms, Dung Thi Thuy Nguyen Mar 2018

Vietnamese Teachers’ Perspectives Regarding Task-Based Approach To Vocabulary Instruction In Secondary School English As A Foreign Language Classrooms, Dung Thi Thuy Nguyen

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) is considered innovative in foreign language teaching. However, the body of research on TBLT employment in vocabulary instruction is still modest. This study explored teachers’ beliefs and practices regarding vocabulary instruction using TBLT. This study examined such application among Vietnamese high-school EFL teachers (N = 60) using a mixed methods research design. Data were collected using online questionnaires.

Data analysis showed that 53.6% of the participating teachers associated vocabulary instruction with TBLT. However, regardless of their years as instructors, they still found it challenging to implement TBLT vocabulary instruction due to numerous factors. In fact, 66 ...


Effects Of Bilingualism In Short-Term Memory In Individuals With Down Syndrome, Evelyn I. Pinto-Cardona Jun 2017

Effects Of Bilingualism In Short-Term Memory In Individuals With Down Syndrome, Evelyn I. Pinto-Cardona

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of bilingualism in short-term memory (STM) compared to monolingualism with individuals who have Down syndrome. Five tasks were used for STM skills comparison between monolingual and bilingual participants. Sixteen participants between the ages of 13 to 37 were included in this study. Participants were divided based on their language groups. The experimental tasks consisted of non-verbal activities to examine visual (RVDLT) and spatial (Corsi) STM; as well as three verbal STM tasks (RAVLT, WMS, and Digits). The results showed that bilinguals acquired higher overall correct responses, with a significant difference ...


Teachers As Facilitators Or Barriers Of Parent Involvement: Experiences Of African American Mothers Of Children In Special Education Programs, Princess Briggs May 2017

Teachers As Facilitators Or Barriers Of Parent Involvement: Experiences Of African American Mothers Of Children In Special Education Programs, Princess Briggs

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Parents in disenfranchised groups, namely African American parents of children with special needs, are less likely to be involved in their child’s education, although involvement is associated with positive educational outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate African American parents’ perceptions of special education programs, of teacher actions, and of school policies that influence parent involvement of African American parents of children with special needs.

A phenomenological study was conducted with 15 African American mothers of children with special needs. These parents participated in individual face-to-face interviews, which included a discussion of the child’s Individualized Education ...


Becoming Bilingual: Examining Teachers' Perceptions And Practices For Achieving Bilingualism And Biliteracy In English And Spanish In A Two-Way Dual Language Bilingual Education Program, Carolyn O'Gorman-Fazzolari Mar 2017

Becoming Bilingual: Examining Teachers' Perceptions And Practices For Achieving Bilingualism And Biliteracy In English And Spanish In A Two-Way Dual Language Bilingual Education Program, Carolyn O'Gorman-Fazzolari

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bilingualism characterizes not only people, but homes, schools, and communities across the United States. While some bilingual people are forced to suppress their bilingualism, others are encouraged to develop their skill set to a level of becoming biliterate. Bilingualism and biliteracy are key features in dual language bilingual education (DLBE) programs where students are provided daily opportunities to develop two languages simultaneously, along with grade-level academic content. Research in DLBE suggest closure of the achievement gap (Valentino & Reardon, 2015). Traditionally, DLBE programs were designed to keep the two target languages (for example, Spanish and English) separate as designated by time ...


Travel Education: A Phenomenological Study On Self-Directed Learning And Personal Enrichment Through Foreign Travel Experiences, Richard Jason Dapko Nov 2016

Travel Education: A Phenomenological Study On Self-Directed Learning And Personal Enrichment Through Foreign Travel Experiences, Richard Jason Dapko

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the broad field of education, studies have been done to understand the ways in which adult learning, development, and transformation are fostered in travel contexts. Such studies mainly used the experiential learning and transformational learning theoretical frameworks to look at participants’ lived learning experiences from travel. However, there is a void when one searches for studies that examine the intersection of self-directed learning and travel. This study used self-directed learning theory to explore the essence of learning from foreign travel experiences. The aim of this study was to understand the role of self-directed learning as a learning process that ...


Predictors Of English Reading Comprehension And Performance In College-Level Composition Among Generation 1.5 Students, Ildiko Barsony Nov 2016

Predictors Of English Reading Comprehension And Performance In College-Level Composition Among Generation 1.5 Students, Ildiko Barsony

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Generation 1.5 students, foreign-born children of first-generation immigrants, complete some or most of their K-12 education in the United States. Their oral communicative competence may be advanced, but their academic language proficiency may still be underdeveloped when they enter college. In 2013, SB1720 made placement testing optional for most Florida public high school graduates, including generation 1.5 students, making them eligible to enroll directly in the college-level English Composition 1 (ENC 1101) course. In order to succeed in this course, generation 1.5 students may need additional support appropriate to their unique needs.

This study first described the ...


Meaning Negotiated Through Independently-Written Summaries And Oral Academic Conversations: Enhancing Comprehension Of Science Text By Ninth-Grade, English Learners, Edward C. Burke Oct 2016

Meaning Negotiated Through Independently-Written Summaries And Oral Academic Conversations: Enhancing Comprehension Of Science Text By Ninth-Grade, English Learners, Edward C. Burke

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

English Learners experience challenges related to comprehension of science text particularly at the high school level. The language of science differs significantly from that of conversation and expository text. Students benefit from collaborative interpretation of readings. Additionally, there appears to be a need to train adolescents in the oral language skills requisite for academic discourse.

This study employed a sample of high school physical science students (N = 75) whose first language was Spanish and who were currently developing English language proficiency. It used quasi-experimental methodology with treatment and comparison groups, during the normal operations of the public school classroom. It ...


Public Middle School English Teachers Using Lgbt Discriminatory District Curriculum “Multicultural” Guide, Ruben A. Caceres Sep 2016

Public Middle School English Teachers Using Lgbt Discriminatory District Curriculum “Multicultural” Guide, Ruben A. Caceres

South Florida Education Research Conference

This paper is part of a dissertation in progress exploring why despite increased LGBT visibility and the legalization of gay marriage, in many U.S classrooms, LGBT students are not provided the same level of representation in the English language arts curriculum that other oppressed groups enjoy.


Difficulties Of Chinese Students With Their Academic English: Evidence From A China-United States University Program, Xiuyuan Yang, Yinhong Duan Sep 2016

Difficulties Of Chinese Students With Their Academic English: Evidence From A China-United States University Program, Xiuyuan Yang, Yinhong Duan

South Florida Education Research Conference

This study was conducted with four Chinese international students who were enrolled in a China-United States university program. It examined their difficulties in academic English through interviews, and the data were sorted into four categories: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.


Investigating Vocabulary Abilities In Bilingual Portuguese-English-Speaking Children, Ana Paula Fabian Jul 2016

Investigating Vocabulary Abilities In Bilingual Portuguese-English-Speaking Children, Ana Paula Fabian

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the vocabulary abilities of bilingual Portuguese-English-speaking children compared to their monolingual peers. Parental Report Surveys were conducted using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs), which are standardized norms for vocabulary assessment. Electronic versions of the “Words and Sentences CDI” in English and Brazilian-Portuguese were used in order to assess the vocabulary of children between the ages of 16 and 36 months. Parents answered the surveys online.

Different vocabulary score types were used in order to evaluate the children’s lexicons: The Total Vocabulary score, the Conceptual Vocabulary scores, and the Total Modified Vocabulary. The analyses of the ...


Efficacy And Implementation Of Automated Essay Scoring Software In Instruction Of Literacies To High Level Ells, Aaron J. Alvero Jul 2016

Efficacy And Implementation Of Automated Essay Scoring Software In Instruction Of Literacies To High Level Ells, Aaron J. Alvero

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis explored the integration of automated essay scoring (AES) software into the writing curriculum for high level ESOL students (levels 3, 4, and 5 on a 1-5 scale) at a high school in Miami, Fl. Issues for Haitian Creole speaking students were also explored. The Spanish and Haitian Creole speaking students were given the option to write notes, outlines, and planning sheets in their L1.

After using AES in the middle of the writing process as a revision assistant tool, 24 students responded to a Likert Scale questionnaire. The students responded positively to the AES based on the results ...


A Descriptive Case Study Examining The Perceptions Of Haitian American Parents And The Perceptions Of Their Children’S Teachers On The Parents’ Involvement In A Structured Parent Intervention Program, Kristina M. Taylor Jun 2016

A Descriptive Case Study Examining The Perceptions Of Haitian American Parents And The Perceptions Of Their Children’S Teachers On The Parents’ Involvement In A Structured Parent Intervention Program, Kristina M. Taylor

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Parental involvement is legally mandated requirement in schools across the United States, and prevalent in special education legislation. However, methods for increasing and promoting parent involvement of minority subgroups in low socioeconomic areas are scarce. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and describe Haitian parents’ perceptions of their involvement in a structured parent intervention program and to describe the perceptions of their children’s teachers concerning the parents’ involvement in the program.

In this study, the researcher used a descriptive qualitative case study methodology. All participants in the 5-month program implementation were interviewed at three points throughout ...


Exploring Children's Perceptions Of African American English, Tamika L. Lewis Dec 2015

Exploring Children's Perceptions Of African American English, Tamika L. Lewis

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The differences in attitudes toward African American English (AAE) and Mainstream American English (MAE) were investigated among elementary students (N=34) and middle school students (N=40) using the Speech Evaluation Instrument (SEI). Participants listened to audio recordings of speakers of AAE and MAE and then completed the SEI.

Both elementary and middle school students perceived MAE positively (p =.005), as hypothesized. However, for both hypotheses related to AAE, the researcher hypothesized that both groups would perceive the language negatively; however, in both cases, the researcher failed to reject the null hypothesis. Comparing how each group perceived the two languages ...


Hospitality Education Assessment: A Case Study On The Learning Experience Of Chinese Students In A 4-Year Program At A U.S. Institution, Rossy Ambe-Cohen Nov 2015

Hospitality Education Assessment: A Case Study On The Learning Experience Of Chinese Students In A 4-Year Program At A U.S. Institution, Rossy Ambe-Cohen

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning experience of Chinese hospitality students in a 4-year program at a U.S. institution in order to bridge the gap between Chinese and American education. This study could challenge traditional education and produce more culturally savvy and diverse graduates, in a field as personal and interactive as Hospitality Management, it could also help American students who want to study, work or teach in China, as they would be knowledgeable of the cultural and educational differences. This study used a qualitative approach. The researcher conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with Chinese hospitality ...


An Exploration Of The Reasons And Purposes Of Non-Japanese Undergraduate Students For Taking A Beginners’ Japanese Language Course, Asuka H. Mashav Oct 2015

An Exploration Of The Reasons And Purposes Of Non-Japanese Undergraduate Students For Taking A Beginners’ Japanese Language Course, Asuka H. Mashav

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study took place at Florida International University (FIU), a large public research university in Miami, Florida and one of largest Hispanic serving institutions in the United States. The purpose of this study was to explore the motivations of non-Japanese undergraduate students for taking a beginners’ Japanese language course. In-depth one-hour semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 participants before the fall semester of 2014 (Phase I) and 10 after the semester (Phase II). Two major themes emerged from the inductive analysis of the data: attraction to Japanese culture and utility of using the Japanese language. Sub-themes for attraction to Japanese ...


Exploring Seventh Graders’ Perceptions Of The Picture-Word Inductive Model To Their English Narrative Writing In China, Xuan Jiang Sep 2015

Exploring Seventh Graders’ Perceptions Of The Picture-Word Inductive Model To Their English Narrative Writing In China, Xuan Jiang

South Florida Education Research Conference

In this exploratory study, the researcher interviewed 30 seventh graders in China about their perceptions of the newly tried method, Picture-word Inductive Model (PWIM), to their English narrative writing. Many student participants listed and exemplified positive influence of PWIM on their narrative writing in and from the PWIM trial.


A Historical Overview Of The Challenges For African Americans K12 Through College Education In America, Arthur C. Evans Iii Sep 2015

A Historical Overview Of The Challenges For African Americans K12 Through College Education In America, Arthur C. Evans Iii

South Florida Education Research Conference

The early American education system developed around the segregation of White and African American students. These differences in learning environment have led to inferior education for African Americans and can be linked to challenges still facing minorities in the current American education system.


Higher Education In And For Rural Bolivia: Key Stakeholders' Perceptions Of The Educational Experiences Of Students Who Have Attended Unidad Académica Campesina Carmen Pampa., Claudio R. Merisio Jun 2015

Higher Education In And For Rural Bolivia: Key Stakeholders' Perceptions Of The Educational Experiences Of Students Who Have Attended Unidad Académica Campesina Carmen Pampa., Claudio R. Merisio

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Unidad Académica Campesina-Carmen Pampa (UAC-CP) is an institution of higher education located in the rural community of Carmen Pampa, in the Nor Yungas region of Bolivia. As articulated in its mission, the goal of UAC-CP is to prepare young Bolivians to serve their community as professionals with a commitment to bettering the lot of the poorest among them. This research attempted to answer a main question: What are the perceptions of key UAC-CP stakeholders of how the college prepares seniors and alumni to serve their communities as professionals? The sub-question was: What professional endeavors have seniors and alumni pursued upon ...


Foreign Language Education In Colombia: A Qualitative Study Of Escuela Nueva, Daniel A. Ramirez Lamus Mar 2015

Foreign Language Education In Colombia: A Qualitative Study Of Escuela Nueva, Daniel A. Ramirez Lamus

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Since 2004 the Colombian Ministry of Education has been implementing the Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo (PNB) with the goal of having bilingual high school graduates in English and Spanish by 2019. However, implementation of the PNB has been criticized by English Language Teaching (ELT) specialists in the country who say, among other things, that the PNB introduced a discourse associated exclusively with bilingualism in English and Spanish.

This study analyzed interviews with 15 participants of a public school of the Colombian Escuela Nueva, a successful model of community-based education that has begun a process of internationalization, regarding the participants’ perceptions ...


English Language Learners: A Correlational Study Of The Relationship Between A Proficiency Level Assessment And End Of Course Test Scores At One Georgia High School, Jacqueline Caroline Ellis Mar 2015

English Language Learners: A Correlational Study Of The Relationship Between A Proficiency Level Assessment And End Of Course Test Scores At One Georgia High School, Jacqueline Caroline Ellis

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the language of one’s cultural environment is important for effective communication and function. As such, students entering U.S. schools from foreign countries are given access to English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) programs and they are referred to as English Language Learner (ELL) students. This dissertation examined the correlation of ELL ACCESS Composite Performance Level (CPL) score to the End of Course tests (EOCTs) and the Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGTs) in the four content courses (language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies). A premise of this study was that English language proficiency is critical ...


Curriculum Development In A Heritage Language Community-Based School: A Qualitative Inquiry Regarding A Brazilian-Portuguese Program In South Florida, Ivian Destro Boruchowski Oct 2014

Curriculum Development In A Heritage Language Community-Based School: A Qualitative Inquiry Regarding A Brazilian-Portuguese Program In South Florida, Ivian Destro Boruchowski

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research aimed to describe, understand, and discuss the curriculum development process of a Brazilian-Portuguese heritage language community-based school in South Florida.

This study was guided by the following research questions: (a) What roles does this HL community-based school aim to play for its students? This investigation was also related to the subsidiary question: (b) How does this HL community-based school organize its curriculum development process? In order to explore these research questions, I observed and interviewed teachers and coordinators based on a qualitative research approach.

I analyzed the interviews’ transcripts, and the program’s website with a central focus ...


The Response To An Esl Population Boom In The Beaufort County, South Carolina School System: A Case Study, Amanda G. De Varona Jun 2014

The Response To An Esl Population Boom In The Beaufort County, South Carolina School System: A Case Study, Amanda G. De Varona

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this case study was to examine the why the English language learners (ELLs) in the Beaufort County, South Carolina school system have been so successful. This school system has recently experienced a boom in its ESL student population, and this population has performed very well on standardized tests. This study used critical theory as its theoretical framework and examined why the students have been successful rather than marginalized in Beaufort County schools. This phenomenon was investigated using semi-structured interviews with the ESOL Coordinator for Beaufort County, 4 ESL-lead teachers, and 6 mainstream teachers.

Data were collected using ...


The Effects Of Trained Teachers’ Integration Of Dialogic Reading Discourse On Hispanic English Language Learners’ Literacy Skills In Kindergarten, Isela S. Rodriguez Nov 2013

The Effects Of Trained Teachers’ Integration Of Dialogic Reading Discourse On Hispanic English Language Learners’ Literacy Skills In Kindergarten, Isela S. Rodriguez

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This quasi-experimental Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) study explored whether the vocabulary and reading comprehension mean scores of Hispanic Kindergarten ELs whose teachers were trained to utilize Dialogic Reading (DR) discourse were higher than the mean scores of Hispanic ELs in kindergarten whose teachers were not trained to utilize DR discourse strategies. Sixty-three self-identified Hispanic, English Language Kindergarten students and four teachers participated in the study. The teachers were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (DR trained) or control group by drawing names from a hat. Student assignment to experimental versus comparison group was based on the teacher’s assignment ...


The Relationship Between The Use Of Academic Text Talk And The Comprehension Of Scientific Academic Language For Diverse Second Graders, Peggy Lee Mandel Nov 2013

The Relationship Between The Use Of Academic Text Talk And The Comprehension Of Scientific Academic Language For Diverse Second Graders, Peggy Lee Mandel

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Changing demographics impact our schools as children come from more linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds. The various social, cultural, and economic backgrounds of the students affect their early language learning experiences which expose them to the academic language needed to succeed in school. Teachers can help students acquire academic language by introducing words that are within their Zone of Proximal Development and increasing exposure to and use of academic language. This study investigated the effects of increasing structured activities for students to orally interact with informational text on their scientific academic language development and comprehension of expository text.

The Academic ...