Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 29 of 29

Full-Text Articles in Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education

For The Culture: The Importance Of A Critical Social Theory Within The Music Education Classroom, Brianna Thomas Apr 2019

For The Culture: The Importance Of A Critical Social Theory Within The Music Education Classroom, Brianna Thomas

Senior Honors Theses

This paper will analyze the history of music education in the United States and discuss how the music classroom can contribute to and dismantle social inequalities including social class, gender, and race. Class effects music education by creating barriers to necessary resources and opportunities as a result of economic positions.[1] Gender is the second focus because music has historically been a male-dominated profession. As a result, many textbooks and curriculum highlight the achievements of men while erasing the contributions of women which has taught women to devalue their own work.[2] The last focus is race. While the arts ...


Finding Their Place: An Ethnographic Study Of The Culture Of Students Attending A Rural, Self-Paced, Alternative Evening High School, Teena Atkins Aug 2018

Finding Their Place: An Ethnographic Study Of The Culture Of Students Attending A Rural, Self-Paced, Alternative Evening High School, Teena Atkins

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this ethnographic study was to provide a cultural portrait as well as identify methods of success of nontraditional students attending a self-paced, alternative evening high school in the southeast region of the United States in the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. An ethnographic research design was utilized employing data triangulation through observations, interviews, focus group, and journals as methods of data collection. Participants included nontraditional students who were currently attending or recently graduated from an alternative evening high school in the southeast region of the United States. This study sought to better understand what factors contributed to ...


The Impact Of Teacher Motivation In Promoting Academic Achievement Among African American Male Students, Erroll Royal Jul 2018

The Impact Of Teacher Motivation In Promoting Academic Achievement Among African American Male Students, Erroll Royal

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This study investigated the impact of teacher motivation in promoting academic achievement among African American male students in an urban middle school in northeast North Carolina. In this quantitative study, the sample population was comprised of fifty 7th grade students and fifty 8th grade students. Eight teachers, (four science teachers, and four math teachers) both male and female were given the Teacher Efficacy Scale (see Appendix G). The results revealed that there was no relationship between teacher motivation and academic achievement among African American male students. Further research should include similar studies that would examine the impact of teacher motivation ...


The Effect Of Two-Way Immersion On Students' Attitudes Toward Education, Other Cultures, And Self-Esteem, Jonathan Pedrone Mar 2018

The Effect Of Two-Way Immersion On Students' Attitudes Toward Education, Other Cultures, And Self-Esteem, Jonathan Pedrone

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This research compared students who participated in a two-way French/English immersion program to students who participated in an English-only program to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference in their perceptions of: (a) education, (b) attitudes towards other cultures, and (c) self-esteem. The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to identify the differences in attitudes toward education, other cultures, and self-esteem between students enrolled in a two-way French/English immersion program and those enrolled in a traditional English-only program to test the theory of linguistic interdependence. This study is important because English language learners are the fastest ...


How Does An International Spanish Academy (Isa) Bilingual Program Affect The Motivation For Students To Take Four Years Of Spanish Classes Instead Of The Customary Two Years?, Frank Madden Feb 2018

How Does An International Spanish Academy (Isa) Bilingual Program Affect The Motivation For Students To Take Four Years Of Spanish Classes Instead Of The Customary Two Years?, Frank Madden

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this explanatory multi-case study was to determine how an International Spanish Academy (ISA) bilingual education model affects motivation for students to take four years of Spanish classes instead of the customary two years. The study involved three groups of Georgia public high school students currently enrolled in Spanish II classes in schools that did not include an ISA program. There is a growing trend across the United States to drop the world language requirement for high school graduation (National Council of State Supervisors for Languages (NCSSFL), 2016). Because of this national trend, a phenomenon exists among Georgia ...


Promoting Student Success: Bilingual Education Best Practices And Research Flaws, Lillian Fassero Dec 2017

Promoting Student Success: Bilingual Education Best Practices And Research Flaws, Lillian Fassero

Senior Honors Theses

This paper first determines the benefits which bilingual education offers and then compares transitional, dual-language, and heritage language maintenance programs. After exploring the outcomes, contexts, and practical implications of the various bilingual programs, this paper explores the oversight in most bilingual studies, which assess students’ syntax and semantics while neglecting their understanding of pragmatics and discourse structures (Maxwell-Reid, 2011). Incorporating information from recent studies which question traditional understandings of bilingualism and argue that biliteracy requires more than grammatical and vocabulary instruction, this paper proposes modifications in current research strategies and suggests best practices for transitional, dual-language, and heritage maintenance programs.


Achievement Gap In United States History End Of Course Assessment Scores In Ga High Schools, Kris Watkins Dec 2017

Achievement Gap In United States History End Of Course Assessment Scores In Ga High Schools, Kris Watkins

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this dissertation study, which employed a quantitative correlational research design, was to determine if the school-level variables of percentage of African American students, the percentage of economically disadvantaged students, and type of school scheduling significantly influence student performance on the Georgia Milestones U.S. History end-of-course assessments (EOCs) for the school years 2014-15 and 2015-16. The study utilized a sample of 163 high schools located in the Atlanta metropolitan statistical area (MSA). Results from simultaneous linear regression analyses showed that school-level percentage of economically disadvantaged students was significantly associated with school-level Georgia Department of Education (GADOE) U ...


Levinas, Leviticus, & Language: A Case Study Exploring Acsi Maritime Teacher Challenges Of Practice Due To Increasing Esl Enrollment, Susanne Huizing Sep 2017

Levinas, Leviticus, & Language: A Case Study Exploring Acsi Maritime Teacher Challenges Of Practice Due To Increasing Esl Enrollment, Susanne Huizing

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this case study was to explain the perceived challenges of practice due to increasing enrollment of English Language Learners (ELLs) for ACSI teachers in the Canadian Maritimes. The theory guiding this study was ethics as first philosophy by Levinas (1981). Levinas’ theory aided in examining the ethical, relational, and linguistic challenges teachers experienced teaching ELLs. The central research question guiding this study was: what are the perceived challenges of practice K-12 ACSI Maritime school teachers face due to increasing ELL enrollment? Data was collected through pre-interview journals, semi-structured face-to-face interviews, and observations. Data analysis included transcriptions, documents ...


A Case Study Of Black Students' Education And Socialization Since Public School Closure In Prince Edward County Virginia, Jeffrey Scales May 2017

A Case Study Of Black Students' Education And Socialization Since Public School Closure In Prince Edward County Virginia, Jeffrey Scales

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this case study was to explore the concerns about lower academic and social achievement of current Black students in Prince Edward County Public Schools where many local citizens believe were the results of public schools closing for five years from 1959-1964 and forced court ordered reopening. This single instrument qualitative study was conducted to gather greater knowledge from participants who had firsthand knowledge of the extended closure of public schools or reopening of schools over 50 years ago from former students, and community leaders. This researcher utilized face-to-face interviews, focus groups and extensive historical documentation to explore ...


Hispanic Students' Perceptions Of Success: A Phenomenological Study On The Impact On K-12 Academic Achievement, Rodney Stephens Apr 2017

Hispanic Students' Perceptions Of Success: A Phenomenological Study On The Impact On K-12 Academic Achievement, Rodney Stephens

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the impact of Hispanic learners’ perceptions of success on their completion of secondary/post-secondary studies. The following served as a guiding research question: How do the perceptions of success among male and female Hispanic high school completers/non-completers ages 18-29 impact their educational pursuits? This qualitative study examined the lived experiences of Hispanic participants through social/cultural contexts framed around Bronfenbrenner’s (1974) ecological systems theory, Vygotsky’s (1978) social learning theory, Rotter’s (1954) social learning, and Bandura’s (2002) social cognitive theory. Participants included 22 Hispanic high school completers ...


Factors That Predict Persistence For Non-Immigrant, International Students At A Private, Four-Year University In Georgia, Shawn Adams Apr 2017

Factors That Predict Persistence For Non-Immigrant, International Students At A Private, Four-Year University In Georgia, Shawn Adams

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this study was to explore factors that predict the persistence of international, non-immigrant students in higher education. A sample of international students from a four-year private university in Georgia served as the focused population for this study. Persistence research asserts that six factors predict persistence: academic integration, social integration, support services satisfaction, degree commitment, institutional commitment, and academic conscientiousness. These six predictor variables were measured via the College Persistence Questionnaire (CPQ). However, cultural intelligence (CQ) is another predictive factor that merited consideration for the unique population of international students. The Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) quantifies CQ and ...


Factors That Influence The Retention Of Urban, Hispanic High School Male Graduates: A Phenomenological Study, Robin Elliott-Ghalleb Mar 2017

Factors That Influence The Retention Of Urban, Hispanic High School Male Graduates: A Phenomenological Study, Robin Elliott-Ghalleb

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to investigate the factors that contribute to the retention of urban, Hispanic high school male graduates in East Harlem, New York. Originated through the works by W. E. B. Du Bois (1968), Gloria Ladson-Billings (1998) and Derrick Bell (1992) pioneered Critical Race Theory (CRT), which reported that the United States Education system has historically failed to adequately provide access to all students. Hispanics continue to have the lowest rates of high school and college degree attainment. This study’s purpose was to address the phenomenon of low retention rates of urban, Hispanic ...


The Girl Factor: How Single-Sex Learning Environments Affect African American Girls' Discipline Referral Rate, Devonne Lampkin Jan 2017

The Girl Factor: How Single-Sex Learning Environments Affect African American Girls' Discipline Referral Rate, Devonne Lampkin

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The mission of the single-sex education is to provide learning environments that will bring out the best in each student and will provide opportunities for success that may not be available in co-educational settings. Several explanations have been suggested for differences between single-sex and coeducational settings in educational processes and in student outcomes. Schools that implement single-sex schools do so with the hope of decreasing the social pressures and distractions that will lead to a decrease in office discipline referrals which unenviably lead to suspensions. The purpose of this ex-post facto casual comparative study examines the impact single-sex schools have ...


Academic Vocabulary Instruction And Adult English Language Learners In The Arabian Gulf: A Phenomenological Study Of Instructor Perspectives, Indrani Ibrahim Aug 2016

Academic Vocabulary Instruction And Adult English Language Learners In The Arabian Gulf: A Phenomenological Study Of Instructor Perspectives, Indrani Ibrahim

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe 11 ESL instructors’ experiences and perceptions of why some adult learners in their college level ESL programs in the Gulf States of the Middle East have challenges to academic reading comprehension success. The theories that guided this study were epistemological and axiological ones whereby participants’ descriptions of perceptions regarding academic vocabulary instruction, instructional self-efficacy, and experiences were explored. Adult learning theory of Malcolm Knowles’ coupled with the social cognitive theory espoused by Albert Bandura are the frameworks that underscore the adult learner context and their social learning and instructional environments within ...


A Correlational Study Of Teacher Demographics And Racial Color-Blindness, Dudley Freeman Aug 2016

A Correlational Study Of Teacher Demographics And Racial Color-Blindness, Dudley Freeman

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Two primary camps of thought guide K-12 education: Color-blind ideology and Multiculturalism (Rattan & Ambady, 2013). Color-blindness implies color does not matter (Neville, Lilly, Duran, Lee, & Browne, 2000). Shifting student demographics in K-12 education and unchanging demographics of a predominately White, female teaching force create a need for better understanding the dynamics affecting teachers and their interaction with the students they teach. This correlational study utilized multiple regression analyses to answer the following research question: How accurately can racial color-blindness be predicted from the linear combination of age, years-of-experience, and political philosophy for K-12 teachers located in an urbanized school district in Northwest Georgia? The participating school district was an urbanized school district in Northwest Georgia, employing 425 certified teachers, counselors, and academic coaches. The demographics considered in this study were: age, years-of-experience, and political philosophy. Magnitude of color-blindness was determined by subjects’ total score on the Color Blind Racial Attitude Scale (CoBRAS; Neville et al., 2000). Multiple regression was used to examine the direction and strength of the linear relationships. There were no significant correlations identified between the predictor variables of age, years-of-teaching experience, and political philosophy and the criterion variable of Racial Color-Blindness. Rejection of the null hypothesis was not possible based on the results of this study. However, comparison of mean scores of the CoBRAS in the current study to that of Atwater (2007) found a striking difference between the two studies. This difference suggests that further ...


The Effect Of Gamification On Elementary Students’ Spanish Language Achievement And Academic Self-Efficacy, Jason Rachels Jul 2016

The Effect Of Gamification On Elementary Students’ Spanish Language Achievement And Academic Self-Efficacy, Jason Rachels

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest, non-equivalent control group design was used to examine the effect of gamification on third and fourth grade students’ Spanish language achievement and student academic self-efficacy. In this study, the primary means of incorporating gamification into the experimental group’s Spanish language instruction was through the use of Duolingo®, a computer and mobile app that uses gamification and adaptive learning technology to teach foreign languages. Students in the control group received their regularly scheduled English L1/Spanish L2 class learning activities. The study was 12 weeks in duration. Students were assessed with a 50 question, multiple-choice English to ...


To Build A Better Textbook: Developing A Literature Curriculum For Today’S Christian Schooling, Abby L. Cockrell May 2016

To Build A Better Textbook: Developing A Literature Curriculum For Today’S Christian Schooling, Abby L. Cockrell

Senior Honors Theses

This thesis explores the educational philosophy and the creative process behind the creation of a new textbook and curriculum. The goal of this new textbook and curriculum is to help persuade high school students to view literature as an avenue of life-long learning. The plan to develop this textbook and curriculum is built on five objectives: a recognition of the need for holistic education, the implementation of differentiated teaching methods, the cultivation of student interest, the reflection of diversity within classrooms, and the integration of modern technology. This plan will be proposed in the creation of a textbook for use ...


Exploring Attitude Transformation: A Grounded Theory Study Of Romanian Teachers Of Roma Students, Laura Jones May 2016

Exploring Attitude Transformation: A Grounded Theory Study Of Romanian Teachers Of Roma Students, Laura Jones

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this systematic grounded theory study was to explore the process of change in teacher attitudes toward including Roma (“Gypsy”) students in non-segregated schools in Romania. The theories guiding this study included Mezirow’s (1991, 2000) theory of transformation, Gay’s (2002, 2013) theory of culturally responsive teaching, and Bandura’s (1977, 1997) theory of self-efficacy. These three theories guided this research inquiry into how attitudes change, how teacher attitudes affect beliefs and actions, and how self-efficacy affects teacher attitudes. This study sought to answer the following questions: What is the process of transforming Romanian teacher attitudes toward ...


Teachers’ And Administrators’ Perceptions Of The Under-Representation Of African American Males In Gifted And Talented Education Programs, Roy Sermons May 2016

Teachers’ And Administrators’ Perceptions Of The Under-Representation Of African American Males In Gifted And Talented Education Programs, Roy Sermons

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this phenomenological case study is to explore the reasons for specific perceptions by urban middle and high school teachers and administrators about the underrepresentation of gifted African American male students in educational programs for the gifted and talented. Perceptions about gifted African American male students are generally defined as the views, thoughts, and patterns of educators pertaining to the characteristics of gifted students, recommendations for admission into gifted and talented education programs, and social and psychological factors that impede the enrollment of urban African American males into such programs. The phenomenological case examines social, cultural, and psychological ...


Investigating Relational Aggression And Bullying For Girls’ Of Color In Oklahoma: A Phenomenological Study, Gayle Flynn May 2016

Investigating Relational Aggression And Bullying For Girls’ Of Color In Oklahoma: A Phenomenological Study, Gayle Flynn

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This qualitative research study, applying aspects of van Manen’s framework for hermeneutic phenomenological research, was conducted to investigate the narratives of relationally aggressive girls of color. The study focused on nine adolescent girls of color who were ages 14-17 years old and exhibited aggressive/bullying behaviors representing the ethnic groups of Black/African American, Latina/Hispanic American, Native American, and other, which included two or more racial identities combined. The participants completed online protocol writing prompts, participated in open-ended interviews and an observation to gain insight regarding relationally aggressive issues that took place in the participants’ settings. An interpretational ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Cultural Diversity Satisfaction Scores Of Undergraduate Students In Online Learning Environment, Orlando Lobaina Apr 2016

A Comparative Analysis Of Cultural Diversity Satisfaction Scores Of Undergraduate Students In Online Learning Environment, Orlando Lobaina

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to analyze the differences of perceived overall satisfaction scores (organizational structure, technology usage, and curriculum design) between Caucasian, Latino-American, and African-American undergraduate students enrolled in an online program, as measured by the Cultural Diversity Satisfaction Survey (CDSS) instrument. This study compared the differences between three distinct diverse groups for overall satisfaction in an undergraduate online general elective course. The study participants were undergraduate students enrolled in an online general elective course in Virginia, n = 433. The study utilized a one-way ANOVA to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in means ...


The Effects Of Student Self-Assessment With Goal Setting On Fourth Grade Mathematics Students: Creating Self-Regulating Agents Of Learning, Laura Clift Nov 2015

The Effects Of Student Self-Assessment With Goal Setting On Fourth Grade Mathematics Students: Creating Self-Regulating Agents Of Learning, Laura Clift

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

With the national trend toward student accountability as learners, few studies have identified effective instructional strategies that motivate elementary students in becoming agents of learning and the effect of these strategies on academic achievement. This quantitative study investigated the effect of student self-assessment with goal setting (SAGS), based on the work of Stiggins, Arter, Chappuis, and Chappuis (2006), on elementary school students’ academic achievement and motivation in mathematics. This study employed a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest, nonequivalent control-group design. Participants were 130 students drawn from six intact classes of fourth graders from five elementary schools located in a large Archdiocese in the ...


Differences In Math Achievement: Utilizing Supplemental Computer-Based Instruction And Traditional Instruction, Todd Clark Feb 2014

Differences In Math Achievement: Utilizing Supplemental Computer-Based Instruction And Traditional Instruction, Todd Clark

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Mathematics achievement has become vitally important in public education, obligating students to meet and exceed higher standards in spite of ability and knowledge level. This causal-comparative study sought to establish the achievement of the Classworks® supplemental math program with seventh grade students from two public schools in Georgia. The national Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) scores in math were used to compare 129 seventh grade students (control group) who used traditional instruction and 129 students (experimental group) who used traditional instruction along with the supplemental Classworks® software program. In addition, the study analyzed the relationships between gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of An Intervention Mathematics Class For Low Achieving Middle School Students In Northwest Georgia, Johnnie Coats Jul 2013

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of An Intervention Mathematics Class For Low Achieving Middle School Students In Northwest Georgia, Johnnie Coats

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

High-stakes testing has become crucial in public education, requiring students to meet increasingly higher standards, regardless of their ability levels. This causal-comparative study sought to determine the effectiveness of an intervention mathematics course in the middle school setting for at-risk, sixth grade students. The Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) math scores of 143 at-risk students enrolled in a remediation mathematics course were compared to scores from a control population of 143 at-risk students who did not participate in the class. Math scores from the 2008 administration of the CRCT test were used as covariates, and comparisons were made using ...


The Impact Of Selected Initiatives On The Reading Criterion Referenced Competency Test Scores Of African-American And Disadvantaged Students In Grades 3, 5, And 8, Eric Fuller Jul 2013

The Impact Of Selected Initiatives On The Reading Criterion Referenced Competency Test Scores Of African-American And Disadvantaged Students In Grades 3, 5, And 8, Eric Fuller

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to examine the impact of selected research-based whole-school reading reform programs, Success for All (SFA), Core Knowledge, and Direct Instruction (DI) on the Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) reading scores of African-American students and students from disadvantaged subgroups in Grades 3, 5, and 8 in a large urban school system. The target sample consisted of 61 elementary schools and 16 middle schools. Student data consisted of 3,533 data points for African-American students and 7,550 data points for disadvantaged students attending reform and non reform schools respectively. A causal-comparative research design was ...


The Effects Of Collaborative Strategic Reading On Informational Text Comprehension And Metacognitive Awareness Of Fifth Grade Students, Margaret Mccown Jul 2013

The Effects Of Collaborative Strategic Reading On Informational Text Comprehension And Metacognitive Awareness Of Fifth Grade Students, Margaret Mccown

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This study examined the effects of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) on informational text comprehension and metacognitive awareness of fifth grade students. This study tested the theories of metacognition and social cognition with a focus on self-regulation and self-efficacy. Participating students included a heterogeneous mix of regular education students, students with disabilities, and English learners (ELs). Using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design, this study examined the effects of CSR on informational text comprehension using the Qualitative Reading Inventory-5 (QRI-5) and Georgia's Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). Metacognitive awareness was measured using the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI ...


The Effectiveness Of A Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program That Offer Special Benefits For Pregnant And Parenting Teens: A Qualitative Study, Marsha Brown Jul 2013

The Effectiveness Of A Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program That Offer Special Benefits For Pregnant And Parenting Teens: A Qualitative Study, Marsha Brown

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Teen pregnancy continues to be a problem for families, educators, health care professionals, and the government. Teenagers are not afforded the opportunity to learn or receive reinforcement on God's laws on abstaining from premarital sex because religious education is not allowed in the public school system. This increase has led to the creation of the Teenage Parenting Center (TAPP), located in southwest Georgia. TAPP is one of 64 schools in a school district that offers special benefits for pregnant and parenting teens. This qualitative case study used a phenomenological approach to explore the experience of eight former attendees of ...


A Logistic Regression Analysis Of Student Experience Factors For The Enhancement Of Developmental Post-Secondary Retention Initiatives, Michael Shenkle Apr 2013

A Logistic Regression Analysis Of Student Experience Factors For The Enhancement Of Developmental Post-Secondary Retention Initiatives, Michael Shenkle

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

In response to stagnant undergraduate completion rates and growing demands for post-secondary accountability, institutions are actively pursuing effective, broadly applicable methods for promoting student success. One notable scarcity in existing research is found in the tailoring of broad academic interventions to better meet the specific needs of students from known risk populations. The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate possible predictive relationships among three specific pre-matriculation characteristics (gender, ethnicity and secondary school type) and subsequent academic year retention for residential undergraduate students that completed a developmental education course at a private, liberal arts university. A logistic regression was ...


Exploring Factors That Contribute To Academic Persistence For Undergraduate Hispanic Nontraditional Students At Hispanic Serving Institutions In The Southeast, Floralba Arbelo Marrero Jan 2013

Exploring Factors That Contribute To Academic Persistence For Undergraduate Hispanic Nontraditional Students At Hispanic Serving Institutions In The Southeast, Floralba Arbelo Marrero

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This study examined the academic persistence of 10 undergraduate Hispanic nontraditional students enrolled at a public and a private not for profit Hispanic Serving Institution in the southeastern region of the United States, each in their last year of a bachelor degree program. Using a phenomenological research design and an ecological and sociocultural framework the findings indicated that family context, personal aspirations, campus environment within Hispanic Serving Institutions, life challenges, and English language learning each play a vital role in the persistence behaviors of this population. These factors interact at the student and institutional levels to provide students with internal ...