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2015

Theses/Dissertations

Education

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Full-Text Articles in Education

A New Charter Challenges Popular Paradigms, Levi Sharpe Dec 2015

A New Charter Challenges Popular Paradigms, Levi Sharpe

Capstones

Many popular charter schools in New York City, which are highly rated, are known for being heavy on test prep and rigid in structure. Success Academy, the largest charter network in New York City, is the paragon of this type of model. But these models, known as "no-excuse" charters can burn out teachers. Critics also say they squelch students' creativity and their desire to be in class. A New York Times article from April 2015 described Success’ “polarizing tactics," which lead to high teacher turnover. Six months later, The Times also reported on a Success Academy charter in Fort Greene ...


The Importance Of Maintaining A Heritage Language While Acquiring The Host Language, Anna L. Vallance Dec 2015

The Importance Of Maintaining A Heritage Language While Acquiring The Host Language, Anna L. Vallance

Honors College Theses

Few issues are as relevant to modern education as the topic of bilingual students. As the school-age population in the United States becomes increasingly diverse, teachers and other educational professionals need to know how they can best serve their English learners (students who speak a first language other than English). A common question that many educators grapple with is what role a student’s heritage language (native language) ought to play in the classroom. Specifically, how important is it that students maintain their heritage language? By critically reviewing the existing literature relating to the subject, this article strives to answer ...


The Digital Divide Through The Lens Of Critical Race Theory: The Digitally Denied, Stacy Gee Hollins Dec 2015

The Digital Divide Through The Lens Of Critical Race Theory: The Digitally Denied, Stacy Gee Hollins

Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative research study was to examine African American community college students’ availability to technological resources and how that availability affects their success. In this study, technological resources include access to the internet, software, hardware, technology training, technology support, and community resources. This study included six community college professors and six African American community college students enrolled in a Midwest community college. A major tenet of Critical Race Theory, storytelling, was used to give voice to students who lack sufficient access to technological resources referred to as the digitally denied. Data from this study can create an ...


Social Emotional Learning And Mindfulness: Learning To Be Human, Jena-Lee Rogers Dec 2015

Social Emotional Learning And Mindfulness: Learning To Be Human, Jena-Lee Rogers

Master's Projects and Capstones

I am a teacher. I always have been and always will be. As a little girl, I developed a passionate need to see fairness and justice in my world, which of course outside of my family of origin revolved around my life at school. If one of my friends could not understand something, even if I was not totally sure about it myself, I would endeavor to help them learn it in a way that made sense to them. A small act of friendship helped me learn and develop my own a belief in the oneness that connects all of ...


Enhancing Esl Instruction Through Reflective Teaching: A Resource Guide For Administrators Of Intensive English Programs, Wesley Weston Dec 2015

Enhancing Esl Instruction Through Reflective Teaching: A Resource Guide For Administrators Of Intensive English Programs, Wesley Weston

Master's Projects and Capstones

Reflective teaching practices are meaningful and practical ways for administrators to support and encourage ongoing professional development among ESL teachers. Today, the global demand for English instruction has greatly surpassed the supply of qualified and experienced teachers. Many ESL teachers, therefore, can benefit significantly from continuous professional development, especially at Intensive English Programs preparing international students for higher education in the US.

Administrators can help further teacher development through the implementation of microteaching, peer observations, and surveys. These methods effectively foster professional growth by stimulating reflective inquiry, which promotes personal learning, behavior modification, and better performance. Furthermore, these practices help ...


Exploring The Differences Between Pre-Service Teachers' Analyses Of Various Informal Reading Inventory Results In The Elementary Grades, Tara A. Miller Dec 2015

Exploring The Differences Between Pre-Service Teachers' Analyses Of Various Informal Reading Inventory Results In The Elementary Grades, Tara A. Miller

HIM 1990-2015

Reading is a fundamental skill in our modern society; being able to read with comprehension and fluency is an important skill in all core academic subjects. Reading teachers are charged with the task to analyze student data in order to drive their instructional decisions. Informal Reading Inventories (IRIs) are one type of an informal reading assessment that teachers can use in the classroom to learn about student reading behaviors and drive instruction. Informal Reading Inventories assess fluency and comprehension. Research suggests that fluency and comprehension have a reciprocal relationship; meaning, if you improve one skill, you improve the other skill ...


Improving The Accuracy Of Middle School Students' Self-Assessment, Peer Assessment, And Mathematics Achievement., Elizabeth Popelka Dec 2015

Improving The Accuracy Of Middle School Students' Self-Assessment, Peer Assessment, And Mathematics Achievement., Elizabeth Popelka

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Despite the documented advantages of formative assessment (FA) strategies in elevating student achievement, much of the relevant research is dated and undermined by questionable design and inattention to K-12 settings. In order to fill these voids, this quantitative study tested the effect of a self- and peer-assessment-training instructional sequence, developed with recommendations from past research and employing explicitly described assessment measures and criteria, on middle school students’ assessment accuracy and subsequent mathematics achievement. The researcher hypothesized a correlation between measurable growth in assessment accuracy and gains in achievement, as well as a reciprocal effect of self- and peer-assessment ability. The ...


Perceptions Toward The Value Of Higher Education For Hotel Professionals In Las Vegas: A Case Study, Gary Lee Deel Dec 2015

Perceptions Toward The Value Of Higher Education For Hotel Professionals In Las Vegas: A Case Study, Gary Lee Deel

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study concerns a qualitative investigation of the views toward higher education and its importance to hospitality career success among hotel professionals in the Las Vegas, Nevada area. Existing literature supported the premise that education may be important to professional career success in several different ways, and that values concerning education may be passed from one person to another via social learning. However, the relevant theories had not previously been evaluated within the context of the hospitality industry. Professionals in reporting relationships at two Las Vegas hotels were interviewed to determine perceptions about higher education, the sources of those perceptions ...


An Evidence Based Approach To Sepsis: Educational Program, Dolores Perez Dec 2015

An Evidence Based Approach To Sepsis: Educational Program, Dolores Perez

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Evidence-based guidelines for recognizing and treating sepsis have been available for decades, yet healthcare providers do not adhere to the recommendations. Sepsis can progress rapidly if not recognized early. Literature reports reveal that sepsis is the leading cause of death in non-cardiac intensive care units (ICUs), and it is one of the most expensive conditions to treat. A hospital in the Las Vegas, Nevada area had previously introduced sepsis management prescriptions in 2011 with no formal education of sepsis guidelines to nurses. The original hospital’s sepsis management prescription sets followed guidelines dated 2008. The purpose of this project was ...


Duty Hour Limitations And Educational Outcomes: Perspectives From A Community Hospital-Based Family Medicine Residency Program, Maria Eliza Marquise Dec 2015

Duty Hour Limitations And Educational Outcomes: Perspectives From A Community Hospital-Based Family Medicine Residency Program, Maria Eliza Marquise

Theses & Dissertations

In 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Osteopathic Association introduced new models that established limits on residents’ duty hours in training programs across the United States (Miulli & Valcore, 2010; Philibert & Taradejna, 2011); more stringent limitations were implemented in 2011. If these physician training programs decreased the time residents’ spent in a formal learning environment and utilized experiential learning as one teaching method, did the duty hour limitations affect the residents’ learning outcomes? The purpose of this ex post facto, quantitative study was to determine if there were differences in ITE (In-Training Examination) scores of family medicine graduates the year ...


The Relationship Between Pre-Service Teachers’ Basic Technology Competence, Technology Self-Efficacy And Perceptions Of Adopting Educational Applications On Ipads For Classroom Use, Rebecca Ann Martindale Dec 2015

The Relationship Between Pre-Service Teachers’ Basic Technology Competence, Technology Self-Efficacy And Perceptions Of Adopting Educational Applications On Ipads For Classroom Use, Rebecca Ann Martindale

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

iPads and tablets are the latest technological tools that schools are adopting for classroom use. Yet, according to the Teacher’s Use of Educational Technology in U.S. Public Schools: 2009 Report, 25-50% of the teacher population surveyed report rarely or never using basic classroom technologies (LCD projectors, whiteboards, document cameras and computers) for teaching (Gray, Thomas, & Lewis, 2010). A modified Perceived Characteristics of Innovating (PCI) instrument originally developed by Moore & Benbasat (1991) was used to determine intention to integrate educational applications on iPads for classroom use. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine whether technology competence or technology self-efficacy ...


The Efficacy Of An Eight-Week Undergraduate Course In Resilience, Asher J. Morgan Dec 2015

The Efficacy Of An Eight-Week Undergraduate Course In Resilience, Asher J. Morgan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to measure the efficacy of an 8-week undergraduate

course in resilience. Finding useful strategies to understand how college students manage stress

and adversity is important to college administrators. The main topics that were assessed were

resilience, well-being, and assertiveness. Participants for this study included undergraduate

students enrolled either in a 8-week course on Resilience or a Public Health course. The

Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Questionnaire for Eudaimonic Well-Being, and the Simple

Rathus Assertiveness Scale were used to determine the efficacy of the 8-week course. Overall,

there was not a significant difference in resilience and well-being ...


A Comparison Of Athletic Identity And Career Maturity Of Female Student-Athletes At Different Levels Of Competition, Simeon Hinsey Dec 2015

A Comparison Of Athletic Identity And Career Maturity Of Female Student-Athletes At Different Levels Of Competition, Simeon Hinsey

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study explored the relationship between the athletic identity and career maturity of women’s basketball student-athletes. Differences in athletic identity and career maturity were also investigated based on a women’s basketball student-athlete’s level of competition, race, year in school, socioeconomic status, and professional athletic career aspirations. In order to examine the relationship between these variables, a convenience sample of 209 women’s basketball student-athletes from NCAA Division I (n = 62), NCAA Division II (n = 40), NCAA Division III (n = 50), and NAIA (n = 57) institutions located in the southeastern region of the United States participated in the ...


Satisfaction Of Graduates/Completers Of A Career And Technical Teacher Education In-Service Program: Professional Currency, Sho-Hsien Su Dec 2015

Satisfaction Of Graduates/Completers Of A Career And Technical Teacher Education In-Service Program: Professional Currency, Sho-Hsien Su

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the learning satisfaction of graduates or completers from the Career and Technical Teacher Education (CTTE) in-service program at a public university in the state of Kansas. The conceptual framework and the survey instrument were adapted from the Performance-Based Teacher Education learning packages and revised based on current educational situations, technologies, and terminologies to measure participants’ learning satisfaction. The participants included 96 career and technical education in-service teachers who had completed their degrees or certificates requirements from the CTTE in-service program between 2004 spring and 2015 summer. An on-line survey was administered by ...


An Exploration Of Performance-Based Funding At Four-Year Public Colleges In The North Central Association Of Colleges And Schools, Samuel Fincher Dec 2015

An Exploration Of Performance-Based Funding At Four-Year Public Colleges In The North Central Association Of Colleges And Schools, Samuel Fincher

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Performance-based funding has been used to help alleviate state and public calls for higher education accountability and more states have adopted this type of funding model (Tandberg & Hillman, 2014; Dougherty, Natow, & Vega, 2012). The purpose of this study was to explore performance-based funding and examine the relationship between types of funding and performance indicators in the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA). The state funding trends were examined for all of the states in the NCA. The correlations for state funding and four performance outcomes for all four-year higher education institutions were compared for three states with performance-based funding and ...


What Keeps Us Here? Perceptions Of Workplace Supervision Among African American Men In Student Affairs, Todd C. Jenkins Jr. Dec 2015

What Keeps Us Here? Perceptions Of Workplace Supervision Among African American Men In Student Affairs, Todd C. Jenkins Jr.

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

African American male professionals continue to be lower in numbers in the workplace across the United States compared to their White counterparts. However, the division of student affairs and student services of higher education institutions continue to serve as a gate way for African American men to serve as administrators. Several higher education institutions and sectors continue to invest in the recruitment and retention for African American male professionals, and research has shown that supervision is the key to employee professional development, performance, and success. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of African American male professionals ...


Does A Positive Male Role Model Affect The Achievement Of Adolescent African-American Males? A Case Study, Elphin Maxwell Smith Jr. Dec 2015

Does A Positive Male Role Model Affect The Achievement Of Adolescent African-American Males? A Case Study, Elphin Maxwell Smith Jr.

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

African-American males are at risk. A continuous cycle of low academic achievement, low academic attainment, and high incarceration rates threaten to end the lives of many of these young men one way or another. There are many challenges faced by African-American men that have caused economic opportunities to evade these young men. The concern is whether families, educators, and communities can help every African-American male achieve at a higher level in order to participate in better economic opportunities. This qualitative case study is designed to help families, educators, and community leaders understand and help African-American males achieve academically, close the ...


A Comparison Of Academic Performance And Persistence Of Incoming Freshman Participants In A First-Year Experience Program, David Lee Stevens Dec 2015

A Comparison Of Academic Performance And Persistence Of Incoming Freshman Participants In A First-Year Experience Program, David Lee Stevens

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to compare first-time, full-time incoming freshmen from 2008 to 2011 who participated in an extended orientation, first-year experience (FYE) program at the University of Arkansas Fort Smith known as Cub Camp with incoming freshman from the same time period who did not participate. The study was designed to identify possible significant differences in the persistence rates and the academic performance of these two groups.

The study utilized a series of two proportion z-tests and two tailed t-test to compare persistence and academic performance data for the two groups. The two groups were further compared ...


Examining Teachers' Perceptions And Adaptations Related To The First-Year Of Implementation Of The Common Core State Standards In A Rural Elementary School In Central Illinois, Jason Vicich Dec 2015

Examining Teachers' Perceptions And Adaptations Related To The First-Year Of Implementation Of The Common Core State Standards In A Rural Elementary School In Central Illinois, Jason Vicich

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the latest mandated government policy of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC), which fully took effect during the 2014-2015 school year. The study sought to look at these changes through the eyes of a group of elementary teachers in rural Illinois as they work with and through these policy mandates during their initial year of implementation.

The study was conducted over the course of the 2014-2015 school year. Data was gathered through a three interview sequence, site visits and the administration of the SOCQ 75 ...


Perceptions Of Teacher Evaluation Systems At Cte Centers In Michigan, Michael A. Martel Dec 2015

Perceptions Of Teacher Evaluation Systems At Cte Centers In Michigan, Michael A. Martel

Dissertations

This study investigated Career and Technical Centers in Michigan and their teachers’ and principals’ perceptions of their teacher evaluation systems which include a student growth mandate. CTE center teachers and principals were asked to provide their perceptions on how well their teacher evaluation systems provide information to improve teaching and learning. Differences between teachers and principals were explored.

The study was quantitative in design using survey research to obtain perceptions of CTE center teachers and principals. The data collection tool utilized a Likert scale moving from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Open-ended questions provided system quality information from respondents. Demographic ...


The Nature And Function Of Professional Support Networks For Teachers Of English Language Learners, Betsy Lynn Ferguson Dec 2015

The Nature And Function Of Professional Support Networks For Teachers Of English Language Learners, Betsy Lynn Ferguson

Theses and Dissertations

The English learner (EL) population in the United States continues to grow. To improve their pedagogy in working with this population, many educators have received training in English as a Second Language (ESL), but the gap between ELs and their native English speaking peers persists. When teachers engage as members of professional support networks, they are more likely to successfully implement the strategies learned in their ESL professional development (Echevarria, Richards-Tutor, Chinn, & Ratleff, 2011). This study considered the nature and function of the professional support network of a district's ESL-endorsed teachers. Using network theory methods, 257 teachers and other ...


From Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder To Substance Use Disorder: Perspectives From Recovering Addicts, Elena Potovsky Dec 2015

From Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder To Substance Use Disorder: Perspectives From Recovering Addicts, Elena Potovsky

Graduate Master's Theses, Capstones, and Culminating Projects

People who have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are often at high risk of acquiring Substance Use Disorder (SUD). When a diagnosis is determined for a school age child, the special education team mainly focuses on the most obvious problems that occur with ADHD: executive function issues, reading and writing impairments, and disruptive behavior. They may not realize how common it is for those identified with ADHD to also acquire SUD.

The literature revealed that there may be a shared genetic basis between ADHD and SUD, that there is commonly an early onset of SUD for those who have ADHD ...


School Counselors Lived Experience Of A Rampage School Shooting, Carleton H. Brown Dec 2015

School Counselors Lived Experience Of A Rampage School Shooting, Carleton H. Brown

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Minimal research has been conducted to examine school counselors’ lived experiences of rampage school shootings. The purpose of this research is to increase school counselors’ knowledge and skills in responding effectively to such a crisis. A single-case qualitative dissertation study was completed at a rampage school shooting site, a middle school, and the immediate surrounding area in Bono, AR, located in the northeast part of Arkansas. School counselors’ decisions, perceived expertness, and lessons learned were investigated. Data collected included relevant research literature (including comparison research), archival records, direct observation, media reports, and interviews. Participants interviewed were individuals who lived through ...


Examining Employability As Associated With Ic3, Mos, And Aca Certifications, Kelley Leigh Todd Dec 2015

Examining Employability As Associated With Ic3, Mos, And Aca Certifications, Kelley Leigh Todd

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Forrier and Sels (2003) define employability as “an individual’s chance of a job on the internal and/or external labor market” (p. 106) and is important (Wittekind, Raeder, & Grote, 2010). Possessing an industry certification may be considered an example of human capital skill. The human capital theory suggests qualifications, knowledge, skills, and experience of individuals may lead to increased earnings or productivity (Becker, 1993; Rosen, 1987; Schultz, 1971). As such, the human capital theory provides a framework for studying perceived employability (Wittekind, Raeder, & Grote, 2010; Verhaar & Smulders, 1999) as associated with IC3, MOS, and ACA industry certifications.

Randall and Zirkle (2005) suggested that entry-level certification is promoted as a “vehicle to provide students with viable skills needed by the workforce, to satisfy state skill standards, and to prepare students for postsecondary studies” (p. 287). Beyond intrinsic pride in one’s accomplishment and praise received from classroom teachers, there is a need to make the connection for how industry certification relates to employability. Therefore, gaining a better understanding of how achieving industry certification relates to employability opportunities in Arkansas will provide certification candidates with more concrete answers to possible essential questions such as “why should I be certified” and “how am I going to use this certification.”

The purpose of this study was to investigate how achieving IC3, MOS, and ACA industry certification relates to employability opportunities in Arkansas as perceived by human resource (HR) and information technology (IT) professionals. To narrow the gap in the knowledge regarding employability implications for certification holders in the state of Arkansas, a convenience sample of HR and IT professionals was used. Participation was voluntary. Instrumentation was based upon CompTIA’s (2011) Employer Perceptions of IT Training and Certification. CompTIA is the Computing Technology Industry Association; a non-profit trade association. Research questions addressed familiarity with IC3, MOS, and ACA certifications, perceptions regarding preference for candidates possessing certification, compensation for certification credentials, and value placed upon certification credentials.


"Socratic Circles Are A Luxury": Exploring The Conceptualization Of A Dialogic Tool In Three Science Classrooms, Michelle Renee Copelin Dec 2015

"Socratic Circles Are A Luxury": Exploring The Conceptualization Of A Dialogic Tool In Three Science Classrooms, Michelle Renee Copelin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Research has shown that dialogic instruction promotes learning in students. Secondary science has traditionally been taught from an authoritative stance, reinforced in recent years by testing policies requiring coverage. Socratic Circles are a framework for student-led dialogic discourse, which have been successfully used in English language arts and Social studies classrooms. The purpose of this research was to explore the implementation process of Socratic Circles in secondary science classes where they have been perceived to be more difficult. Focusing on two physical science classes and one chemistry class, this study described the nature and characteristics of Socratic Circles, teachers’ dispositions ...


More Than Plumbing: The History Of Sexual Education In Ontario, 1960-1979, Michelle K P Hutchinson Grondin Nov 2015

More Than Plumbing: The History Of Sexual Education In Ontario, 1960-1979, Michelle K P Hutchinson Grondin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

During the 1960s and 1970s, Ontario educators were concerned that the “sexual revolution” would encourage youths to engage in sexually promiscuous behaviour, become unwed mothers, and contract STIs. As parents were perceived as unreliable sex educators, school administrators and educators felt compelled to teach traditional sexual values, and the importance of the nuclear family through sexual education. This dissertation analyzes the creation and instruction of sexual education in physical and health education courses throughout the 1960s and 1970s in Ontario. This study provides the first comprehensive discussion of sexual education in Ontario during the sixties and seventies through an examination ...


Adolescent Females With High-Functioning Asd: Self And Mothers’ Perspectives Of Their School And Social Experiences, Lindsey Land Nov 2015

Adolescent Females With High-Functioning Asd: Self And Mothers’ Perspectives Of Their School And Social Experiences, Lindsey Land

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is currently 1 in 68 (Centers for Disease Control, 2015) and research in this area is growing, high-functioning individuals on the spectrum are often overlooked. This is because of their relatively milder symptoms. The recent collapse of Asperger Syndrome (AS) with autism in the most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5; APA, 2013) also has obscured the differences that may exist between those with higher vs. lower levels of functioning. Among youth with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD), girls are a particularly understudied and potentially vulnerable group. Previous research ...


Exploring The Role Of Feedback And Its Impact Within A Digital Badge System From Multiple Perspectives: A Case Study Of Preservice Teachers, Erin D. Besser Nov 2015

Exploring The Role Of Feedback And Its Impact Within A Digital Badge System From Multiple Perspectives: A Case Study Of Preservice Teachers, Erin D. Besser

Open Access Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative case study is to examine the role feedback plays within the instructional process, and how students are using feedback to inform their course work within Digital Badge contexts. Educators are looking toward Digital Badges as a way to increase student engagement (Abramovich et al., 2013; Glover & Latif, 2013), develop mastery with critical concepts (Mehta et al., 2013), and reduce gaps in student knowledge (Bowen & Thomas, 2014; Guskey, 2007). Feedback is emphasized as a critical component (Bloom, 1968, 1976; Guskey, 2007; Kluger & DeNisi, 1996; Slavin & Karweit, 1984). Instructors need to be able to not only display characteristics of a good instructor, but understand the functions (Balzer et al., 1989; Butler & Winne, 1995) and dimensions (Yang & Carless, 2013) of feedback, and then be able to deliver effective feedback (Nicol & Macfarlane-Dick, 2006).

Participants in this study included 78 students and 2 instructors from a ...


Addressing The Past, Embracing The Future: An Analysis Of How Historic Inequality Has Created Current Obstacles To Learning English In Brazil And A Proposal For A New Community-Based Approach, Aja C. Bryant Nov 2015

Addressing The Past, Embracing The Future: An Analysis Of How Historic Inequality Has Created Current Obstacles To Learning English In Brazil And A Proposal For A New Community-Based Approach, Aja C. Bryant

MA TESOL Collection

This paper contextualizes current challenges to English learning in Brazil within the educational history of the country. It explores the ways in which language, both native literacy and foreign, has been used to set apart and advantage the elite class, while educational policy and approaches have served to pacify and control the majority. This history has left psychological, cultural, and economic legacies which inhibit learning today. Nevertheless, modern globalization is placing increasing pressure on Brazilians to achieve fluency in English and other languages. This paper briefly outlines the new and complex intellectual and social skills needed to participate in a ...


Investigation Of Mentoring For Instructional Leadership Within An Educational Consortium, Scott A. Sturgeon Nov 2015

Investigation Of Mentoring For Instructional Leadership Within An Educational Consortium, Scott A. Sturgeon

Student Work

The support of novice principals in their development as instructional leaders is an issue that impacts all school districts. Mentoring is a common method of supporting novices in their development and this study sought to understand the ways in which district members within a midwestern educational consortium were using mentoring to increase instructional leadership skills. First, the study sought to understand how districts supported development of instructional leadership through mentoring. Second, the study looked at if and how districts adjusted supports to meet the modern shift in principal roles from building managers to instructional leaders. Through a combination of interviews ...