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2015

Theses/Dissertations

Pre-Elementary, Early Childhood, Kindergarten Teacher Education

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Teachers' Attitudes And Their Effect On Placement Recommendations For Students With Cognitive Disabilities, Kathleen M. Everett Dec 2015

Teachers' Attitudes And Their Effect On Placement Recommendations For Students With Cognitive Disabilities, Kathleen M. Everett

Doctor of Education in Special Education Dissertations

The implementation of Public Law 94-142 in 1974 guaranteed that students with disabilities had the right to be educated alongside their peers in the least restrictive environment. However, decades later, administrators, teachers, and parents continue to struggle to resolve the issue on how to include students with disabilities in general education classrooms, as well as how to recognize why students with cognitive disabilities were embodied more in self-contained classrooms than in comprehensive environments. In this study, I aimed to understand how special education teachers’ attitudes about inclusion, LRE, and students with cognitive disabilities influence placement recommendations. Through the qualitative thematic ...


Determining If Custodial Grandparents Of Pre-K - Third Grade Students Perceive Delivery Of Information And Services Offered As Effective In Decreasing Early Chronic Absence, Kimberly S. Cassidy Dec 2015

Determining If Custodial Grandparents Of Pre-K - Third Grade Students Perceive Delivery Of Information And Services Offered As Effective In Decreasing Early Chronic Absence, Kimberly S. Cassidy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the delivery of information and services offered to grandparents who had become the primary caregivers of pre-k through third grade students to determine if the information and services were effective in decreasing chronic early absence as defined by Chang and Romero (2008). This mixed-method, multi-case study focused on the perceived needs of custodial grandparents and examined if the school system was meeting their needs through delivery of information and services. The researcher sought participation from 5 custodial grandparents who had grandchildren in pre-k, kindergarten, first, second, or third grades in a Northeast Tennessee school system and whose ...


Professional Learning Communities As A Professional Development Model Focusing On Instructional Practices Used To Teach Writing In Early Childhood, Jill T. Leonard Dec 2015

Professional Learning Communities As A Professional Development Model Focusing On Instructional Practices Used To Teach Writing In Early Childhood, Jill T. Leonard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the implementation of a Professional Learning Community (PLC) as a professional development model effective in altering teachers‘ perceptions of their knowledge and skill in teaching developmental writing in grades K-3. This research is necessary to examine how offering teachers collaborative support needed for understanding and implementing research-based best practice approaches to teach developmental writing strengthens the quality of instructional practice necessary to meet rigorous standards being imparted from Common Core Standards. Through the development of a PLC, teachers have an opportunity for collaborating within the school building, which provides optimal ...


Modeling Alphabet Skills As Instructive Feedback Within A Phonological Awareness Curriculum, Arnold Olszewski Nov 2015

Modeling Alphabet Skills As Instructive Feedback Within A Phonological Awareness Curriculum, Arnold Olszewski

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the use of instructive feedback for modeling early literacy skills. Instructive feedback is defined as the presentation of additional information during the positive feedback phase of learner trials. Thus, it is a way of modeling additional information when students respond to a trial correctly. Previous studies have demonstrated that instructive feedback can facilitate students’ observational learning of skills, such as sight words, numerals, and vocabulary. Instructive feedback has yet to be investigated when modeling early literacy skills.

A modified version of an evidence-based early literacy intervention, PAth to Literacy, was used. Studies examining the efficacy of this ...


The Impact Of Early Numeracy Intervention On Kindergarten Students, Jennifer L. Hill Oct 2015

The Impact Of Early Numeracy Intervention On Kindergarten Students, Jennifer L. Hill

EDL Sixth Year Theses

The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of early numeracy intervention with kindergarten students. In order to grow a stronger understanding of how providing mathematics intervention can benefit students, the intervention was provided to kindergarten students aimed to seek answers to how providing the earliest possible intervention can positively impact the achievement gap and a child’s understanding of number. This study explored the impact early numeracy intervention had on five kindergarten students and compared their growth to those of their peers not receiving intervention to determine the positive impact providing Response to Intervention had on kindergarten ...


Exploring The Implementation Of Words Their Way In A First Grade Classroom, Kathryn J. Horch Oct 2015

Exploring The Implementation Of Words Their Way In A First Grade Classroom, Kathryn J. Horch

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This thesis explores the implementation of the program Words Their Way in a first grade classroom. I completed my study to explore the effects this program had on my students reading and writing. My research question is: How might the implementation of the program Words Their Way impact how students use their knowledge of phonics within their real reading and writing experiences?


An Exploration Of Infant And Toddler Child Care Consultation: A Multiple Case Study, Christine Marie John Oct 2015

An Exploration Of Infant And Toddler Child Care Consultation: A Multiple Case Study, Christine Marie John

Communication Disorders & Special Education Theses & Dissertations

This qualitative, multiple case study was an exploration of the professional development (PD) experience of consultation as it occurred within infant and toddler child care settings. Consultation is dependent upon the establishment of a relationship between the consultant and the consultee and offers opportunities for professional growth and enhanced quality child care. This researcher followed four infant and toddler child care consultants working with child care centers through a quality enhancement PD program in a Mid-Atlantic state. Within each of the four participating centers, a member of the administration and one infant and/or toddler caregiver along with their consultant ...


The Relationship Between An Affective Instructional Design, Children’S Attitudes Toward Mathematics, And Math Learning For Kindergarten-Age Children, Wendee B. White Mrs Aug 2015

The Relationship Between An Affective Instructional Design, Children’S Attitudes Toward Mathematics, And Math Learning For Kindergarten-Age Children, Wendee B. White Mrs

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study explores the relationship between an Affective Instructional Design (AID), children’s attitudes toward math, and math learning. Participants included 15 kindergarten children at a university K-12 laboratory school located in East Tennessee. This quasi-experimental study employed a pretest-intervention (AID)-posttest design. Data, including pretest/posttest attitude surveys, and baseline and intervention non-participant video observations of math learning and math attitudes, during 13 math lessons were coded and analyzed. As hypothesized, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.936, p = 0.000) was found between attitude and math learning. Additionally significant differences were found between the baseline (pre-intervention) mean score ...


Use Of The Physical Classroom Environment As A Teaching And Learning Tool Including The Impact Of The Ccssi In Kindergarten Through Third Grade Classrooms In Northeast Tennessee, Charity Hensley-Pipkin Aug 2015

Use Of The Physical Classroom Environment As A Teaching And Learning Tool Including The Impact Of The Ccssi In Kindergarten Through Third Grade Classrooms In Northeast Tennessee, Charity Hensley-Pipkin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The specific goal of this study was to determine the use of the physical classroom environment as a teaching and learning tool in an era of the implementation of the Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). This qualitative multi-case study focused on the learning principles and epistemological beliefs of primary teachers with reference to the physical classroom environment and the teaching process in regard to meeting the expectations set forth by the CCSSI. The researcher sought participation from a city school district in Northeast Tennessee which included a total of 8 participating teachers consisting of 2 each of grades kindergarten ...


Technology Enhancing Kindergarten Students’ Literacy Skills In Math, Alannah N. Heale Aug 2015

Technology Enhancing Kindergarten Students’ Literacy Skills In Math, Alannah N. Heale

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

I planned my methods and procedures in an effort to gain understanding of how technology affects instruction and learning of reading and writing in mathematics. I also focused my research on determining the impact that incorporating technology into mathematics can have on motivation in learning. In order to explore the impact technology can have on math instruction; I randomly selected three five year old students from my kindergarten classroom for a six week time frame during the Fall of 2014. I collected data through use of a variety of observations, audio tools, assessments, and interviews, as participant’s utilized technology ...


Instructional Technology Usage In Early Learning Environments: The Influence On Environmental Access, Training, Parental Use And Education, Nadia J. Jones Jul 2015

Instructional Technology Usage In Early Learning Environments: The Influence On Environmental Access, Training, Parental Use And Education, Nadia J. Jones

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The life of a child has completely transitioned from analogue to digital in the past 20 years. The use of digital devices and media has tripled among children between the ages of 0-8 years old since 2011. With the increasing amount of internet access in places that children and families frequent, it is almost impossible to go anywhere without the Wi-Fi access information being made available to consumers to enjoy while they patronize the business. Educators are in a unique position to find creative ways to incorporate technology into their instruction; however, this nuance is not without its challenges. Many ...


Reading Between The Play Lines, A Play-Based Research Study: Children At Play Acquiring Literacy Skills Socially And Through Self-Discovery, Brianne Siderio Jul 2015

Reading Between The Play Lines, A Play-Based Research Study: Children At Play Acquiring Literacy Skills Socially And Through Self-Discovery, Brianne Siderio

Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this qualitative research were to observe a group of kindergarten students during play exploration and determine how kindergarten students acquire literacy skills socially and through self-discovery. Students demonstrated a wide acquisition of literacy skills in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language during play exploration. Students acquired these skills socially among peers and through self-discovery while experimenting and exploring with play materials. Themes that emerged from play exploration sessions and interpretations of play episodes and student work are discussed. Implications for future research in the area of play in kindergarten are considered.


Improving Student Engagement In Preschool Classrooms With Developmentally Appropriate Read Aloud Opportunities, Kimberly Russomanno Jul 2015

Improving Student Engagement In Preschool Classrooms With Developmentally Appropriate Read Aloud Opportunities, Kimberly Russomanno

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of various presentations of read aloud and engagement in a preschool classroom in order to improve emergent literacy and listening comprehension. Engagement was looked at as well in respect to teacher expectations and what the research unveiled. The research took place over four weeks in a half day preschool inclusion program. The research looked at traditional story book reading, interactive shared reading, e-books, repeated readings and story props for retelling of familiar stories. Read aloud sessions were recorded over the four week period to look for patterns in student and ...


Full Time Attendance In An Early Childhood Education Center Improves Emergent Literacy Skills, Dana Samuelsen Jun 2015

Full Time Attendance In An Early Childhood Education Center Improves Emergent Literacy Skills, Dana Samuelsen

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine whether the predetermined amount of attendance of preschool per week had an effect on the present understanding of early literacy skills in preschool aged children. Archival data, of forty-nine participants, was used to identify amount of attendance in a private early childhood education program. Early literacy skills were assessed by the child care center's previous academic reviews reported by teachers from 2010 to 2014. The "PreK Academic Review" was used to collect data on early literacy skills and oral language abilities. The teachers recorded the students' abilities by marking each category ...


An Analysis Of The Impact Of Emotional Literacy Instruction On At-Risk Students, Shannon H. Garcia May 2015

An Analysis Of The Impact Of Emotional Literacy Instruction On At-Risk Students, Shannon H. Garcia

Dissertations

This study examined the impact of social-emotional literacy instruction for at-risk adolescents ages 13 to 18 at the high school level. Of particular interest is the impact of social-emotional literacy instruction on at-risk youth Grades 9-12 in secondary high schools’ 8-week-long social-emotional literacy class through Project AWARE, particularly in the areas of suspension, expulsion, attendance, connectivity, attitude toward school, resiliency, and relational aggression rates; the data were analyzed using archival data and teacher interview. Project AWARE, the social-emotional literacy intervention examined in this study, educates and provides mentorship for at-risk students, while also providing a group educational component on relationships ...


Improving Pre-Service Teachers' Preparation To Integrate Music And Movement In Early Childhood Classrooms, Elaine Myrianthopoulos May 2015

Improving Pre-Service Teachers' Preparation To Integrate Music And Movement In Early Childhood Classrooms, Elaine Myrianthopoulos

Graduate Student Independent Studies

This study examines student teachers' fieldwork experiences, in order to better support their efforts to integrate music and movement in early childhood classrooms.


Case Study: A Holistic Approach In The Orthographic Development Of One Emergent Learner, Teresa I. Singh May 2015

Case Study: A Holistic Approach In The Orthographic Development Of One Emergent Learner, Teresa I. Singh

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Spelling instruction should go beyond weekly spelling assessments. This was a learning philosophy I believed in prior to conducting this case study. Through this case study, read about how one emergent learner’s orthographic knowledge was strengthened though a holistic instructional approach. Emergent learners enter the classroom with different degrees of what they conceptualize about language and the malleability of words. With this in mind, teacher should do more than approach spelling instruction through a systemic approach that ignores what individual students are capable of and what they still need to develop. By developing spelling instruction through data collection on ...


Professional Development Based On The Common European Framework Of Reference For Languages And The New Ontario French Immersion Curriculum: A Case Study Of Reflective Practice, Tiffany H. Mui May 2015

Professional Development Based On The Common European Framework Of Reference For Languages And The New Ontario French Immersion Curriculum: A Case Study Of Reflective Practice, Tiffany H. Mui

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this multi-phase case study, the teacher researcher aimed to determine how teachers can be assisted in implementing some principles of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages/CEFR (Council of Europe, 2001) into their pedagogical practices for primary-aged children enrolled in early French Immersion programs. Through a series of interviews conducted over three phases and a five-month period, the researcher led the teacher participant through professional development (PD) to shed light on the PD needed for French Immersion and other FSL teachers to adopt key principles of CEFR-inspired pedagogy into their practice. The results suggest that PD should ...


The Relationship Between Demands And Resources And Teacher Burnout: A Fifteen-Year Meta-Analysis, Tammy Marie Stewart May 2015

The Relationship Between Demands And Resources And Teacher Burnout: A Fifteen-Year Meta-Analysis, Tammy Marie Stewart

Doctoral Dissertations

This meta-analysis explored the phenomenon of teacher burnout— the biggest contributor to teacher attrition (Owens, 2013; Unterbrink, 2014; Yu, 2015). The focus of this study was to use meta-analytical procedures to explore the relationship between burnout dimensions (i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and feelings of personal accomplishment) and specific demand and resource correlates. Demand correlates included work overload, role conflict, role ambiguity, and student misbehavior. Resource correlates included peer support, supervisory support, and decision-making. This meta-analytical research method encompassed fifteen years of published and unpublished studies from January 2000 through January 2015. A total of 116 studies met the following ...


Playful Aggression And The Situational Contexts That Affect Perceptions, Jennifer Hart May 2015

Playful Aggression And The Situational Contexts That Affect Perceptions, Jennifer Hart

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Play is considered a fundamental tool for early childhood education practices as it provides numerous developmental benefits for young children. However, not all play is viewed by children, parents, and early childhood educators the same, especially playful aggression. For example, rough-and-tumble play, risky play, superhero play, “bad guy” play, active pretend play, play fighting, big body play, war play, gun play, and physically active and imaginative play are types of playful aggression that benefits young children’s development; but are often viewed negatively by the adults who observe it. The contextual factors that influence the development of these conflicting perceptions ...


A Comparison Of Piprt To Vmo To Increase Social Play Skills In Children With Autism, Kathleen Scarlett Ohara May 2015

A Comparison Of Piprt To Vmo To Increase Social Play Skills In Children With Autism, Kathleen Scarlett Ohara

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Young children with autism often experience delays in social play skills. These delays result in poor relationships with adults and peers, decreased social interactions, and engagement, and eventually social isolation and withdrawal. Social play skill deficits are essential to the development of self-regulation and cognitive skills. Addressing these delays is critical to improve social functioning and minimize any detrimental effects on future engagement and academic achievement.

The purpose of this study was to use an alternating treatment design to determine whether PIPRT intervention or a VMO intervention would be effective to increase social play skills in two settings for four ...


A Comparison Study Of Parents’ Perceptions Of Quality In Early Childhood Programs, Juanita Ortiz May 2015

A Comparison Study Of Parents’ Perceptions Of Quality In Early Childhood Programs, Juanita Ortiz

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Research has demonstrated that high quality early childhood education (ECE) programs result in short and long-term benefits that are critical for children to reach their full potential and narrow the achievement gap. Parental involvement has been accepted as integral to quality ECE programs, and parental perception drives parental involvement. Perceptions and contributions of parents and caregivers including those who do not speak English have not been adequately addressed in the research. Furthermore, research has not addressed how parental perception regarding quality in ECE programs may vary according to whether their child has or does not have a disability.

This study ...


Teaching Respect, Inclusion, And Acceptance In Ethnically And Culturally Diverse Early Childhood Classrooms, Romina S. Sapinoso May 2015

Teaching Respect, Inclusion, And Acceptance In Ethnically And Culturally Diverse Early Childhood Classrooms, Romina S. Sapinoso

Master's Projects and Capstones

Given the increasingly diverse demographics of American public schools, it is necessary for teachers who are interested in exposing their students to concepts of inclusion, respect, and acceptance to have access to a resource guide and model for implementing a curriculum that is culturally and ethnically inclusive. This project sought to develop a resource guide for teachers of early childhood in schools to teach about inclusion, respect, and acceptance in a diverse classroom setting. This resource will be useful for teachers in grades Transitional Kindergarten, Kindergarten, first and second in creating a safe space to celebrate students’ differences and increase ...


A Study Of Prekindergarten Impact On Early Literacy Readiness, Lakeisha Shantae Stokes May 2015

A Study Of Prekindergarten Impact On Early Literacy Readiness, Lakeisha Shantae Stokes

Dissertations

The awareness of the positive impact of prekindergarten programs on the success of early literacy of students has heightened due to the research performed on the topic (Barnett et al., 2003; Cohen, 1996; Magnuson & Waldfogel, 2005). The purpose of this study was to evaluate prekindergarten student gains in the development of early literacy skills, depending on their prekindergarten program experience. The study further examined Head Start and public school prekindergarten teachers’ knowledge of early literacy skills.

Results from the prekindergarten teacher survey indicated that public school prekindergarten teachers had higher levels of education than Head Start prekindergarten teachers. The analysis ...


Assessing Vocabulary Of Children: Investigating The Evaluation And Instruction Of Basic Concepts, Rebecca Elizabeth Smith May 2015

Assessing Vocabulary Of Children: Investigating The Evaluation And Instruction Of Basic Concepts, Rebecca Elizabeth Smith

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Vocabulary knowledge of preschool children is a key factor in predicting literacy success in elementary school (Hammer, Farkas, & Maczuga, 2010). However, few deliberate attempts to teach basic concept vocabulary have been studied (Bowers & Schwarz, 2013; Wilson, 2004). The purpose of this research is to determine if large group explicit instruction with interactive activities of specific basic concept vocabulary will increase preschool children's understanding of basic concept terms when measured by a standardized basic concept assessment. This research will also assess the validity of a basic concept-curriculum based measure (BC-CBM) as an efficient tool to monitor a child's understanding of basic concept vocabulary over time. There were 30 preschool children (M age=53.8 months) who ...


Beliefs About Toddler And Care: A New Measure For Infant Toddler Teachers, Treshawn L Anderson Apr 2015

Beliefs About Toddler And Care: A New Measure For Infant Toddler Teachers, Treshawn L Anderson

Open Access Dissertations

The first three years in a child's life are particularly important, as this is a critical time for development in all learning domains, however some of the settings in which infants and toddlers are learning and developing (i.e., child care) have been found to be of despairingly low to mediocre quality, with teacher qualifications also being minimal (Burchinal, Roberts, Nabors, & Bryant, 1996; Howes, Whitebook, & Phillips, 1992; Ruzek, Burchinal, Farkas, & Duncan, 2014; National Survey of Early Care and Education [NSECE] Project Team, 2013, 2014; Vandell & Wolfe, 2000). With more than 60% of children birth to age three currently in non-parental child care (NSESE Project Team ...


Parent-Child Interaction Therapy As A Treatment For Adhd In Early Childhood: A Multiple Baseline Single-Case Design, Kendall Jeffries Deloatche Mar 2015

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy As A Treatment For Adhd In Early Childhood: A Multiple Baseline Single-Case Design, Kendall Jeffries Deloatche

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of PCIT as an alternative to medication in managing symptoms and behavior problems of preschool-aged children with ADHD. Using a multiple baseline single-case design, the study measured the impact of PCIT on four preschool-aged children's problem behaviors and ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, and mothers' attitudes towards therapy. Outcome measures included the Child Behavior Checklist, Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, Behavior Assessment System for Children, ADHD Symptom Observation form, Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System, Parenting Practices Interview, and Therapy Attitude Inventory. Results from visual analyses, a visual permutation test, and hierarchical ...


Using Echo Reading And Tracking Simultaneously During Small Group Read Alouds With Preschool Children, Erica Knoll Feb 2015

Using Echo Reading And Tracking Simultaneously During Small Group Read Alouds With Preschool Children, Erica Knoll

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to observe what skills, social and academic, are positively affected when echo reading and tracking print were incorporated simultaneously into small groups read alouds with preschool children. A group of four preschool students participated, each of varying levels and abilities. The students took turns echo reading a line of print while pointing to the words at the same time. The techniques were used one day per week over the course of four weeks. Each week, a different book was used and paired with two extension activities. Data collection included anecdotal note record sheets, behavioral ...


Opportunities For Play-Based Experiences In Post "No Child Left Behind" Kindergarten Classrooms: The Role Of Training, Resources, And Accountability Pressures In Meeting Best Practices, Cristina Medellin Feb 2015

Opportunities For Play-Based Experiences In Post "No Child Left Behind" Kindergarten Classrooms: The Role Of Training, Resources, And Accountability Pressures In Meeting Best Practices, Cristina Medellin

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In response to No Child Left Behind (NCLB), opportunities for play-based experiences in classrooms have been challenged over the past decade. Despite research demonstrating the educational benefits of child driven play, teachers and schools have been pressured to focus on improving children's success on standardized assessments which may not relate to the developmental achievements expected from activity based experiences. To explore teachers' response to the tension between assessment driven mandates and best early childhood practices, this study investigated which factors influence teacher practices and values. Specifically, how do teacher training and classroom resources influence teachers' values about the appropriateness ...


Delivering The Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (Pics) Intervention Using Distance Training And Coaching With A Father And His Child Who Is Hard Of Hearing, Marc Daczewitz Jan 2015

Delivering The Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (Pics) Intervention Using Distance Training And Coaching With A Father And His Child Who Is Hard Of Hearing, Marc Daczewitz

Theses and Dissertations

Many children with disabilities (i.e., deaf/hard of hearing; DHH) experience language delays (Sarant, Holt, Dowell, Rickards, & Blamey, 2009). Parents of children who are DHH can mediate their children's language delays with responsive communication (Guralnick, 2011; Pressman, Pipp-Siegel, & Yoshinaga-Itano, 1999; Warren & Brady, 2007). This study is a partial replication of the Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (PiCS) Project (Meadan, Angell, Stoner, & Daczewitz, 2014). The PiCS project was implemented with 11 parents and their children with various disabilities (e.g., Down syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorder). These parents were trained and coached to use naturalistic teaching strategies (i.e., environmental arrangement, modeling, mand-model, and time delay) with fidelity and parents reported positively regarding social validity. In the current study, one parent and his child who is DHH participated. A single-case design across teaching strategies was used to evaluate the functional relation between the PiCS protocols and the parent's use of naturalistic teaching strategies.

Parents of children with low-incidence disabilities (i.e., DHH) may experience difficulty locating services within their region (Jackson, Traub, & Turnbull; Proctor, Niemeyer, & Compton, 2005). Offering services through distance technologies (i.e., videoconferencing, cloud-based file sharing). Earlier implementation of the PiCS project included coaching through videoconferencing (i.e., SkypeTM) and file sharing (DropboxTM) to transmit videos the parents took. The current study delivered training and coaching via SkypeTM and used CamtasiaTM to record video from the screen.

The dependent variables were the parent's quality and frequency of use of teaching strategies. The video data were coded using an event-recording system and displayed visually in a single-case multiple-baseline design across strategies for analysis. Intervention effect was evaluated through adjacent condition analysis and Tau-U non-overlapping data analysis (Parker, Vannest, Davis, & Sauber, 2011). The secondary outcome of child language and communication was evaluated using observational data, the MacArthur Bates Communication Developmental Inventories (CDI; Fenson, Dale, Reznick, Pethick, & Reilly, 1993), and the Cottage Acquisition Scales for Listening, Language, and Speech (Wilkes, 1999). Social validity was evaluated through pre- and postintervention surveys and interviews. The parent's interview responses were analyzed with qualitative analysis.

The outcomes of this study include the effectiveness of the PiCS intervention protocols and the feasibility of training and coaching using distance technologies. The results of analysis show that the parent learned to implement the teaching strategies with ...