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Doctoral Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Perceived Obstacles By Esl Instructors And Required Support For The Integration Of Educational Technology, Xiaotian Zhang May 2021

Perceived Obstacles By Esl Instructors And Required Support For The Integration Of Educational Technology, Xiaotian Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

Nowadays, the use of technology has become a significant part of the language learning process inside and outside of the classroom. Many previous studies and surveys, most language educators hold a relatively positive attitude to the usage of technology in language teaching and learning. But many other studies also found that language teachers were not really using technology in their classrooms, or only for very low-level learning and teaching. The integration of technology in second language learning and teaching is still a problem that has not been fully researched.This descriptive study was designed to explore the obstacles that prevent ...


How Are The Collaborative Efforts Of The Transition Plan Team Viewed By Its Members, Teresa Henderson May 2021

How Are The Collaborative Efforts Of The Transition Plan Team Viewed By Its Members, Teresa Henderson

Doctoral Dissertations

The views of a transition/IEP team members of the collaborative efforts of each other have had little or limited viewing. Annually there are approximately six million special education students in the United States of America (Samuels, 2017). While in high school, these students and their transition/IEP team are tasked with preparing them for adult life (U.S. Department of Education [USDOE], 2018). The team’s collaborative efforts are a necessary component of ensuring the success of each student’s adult life (Michaels & Ferrara, 2005).

For students to find success after high school, all transition/IEP team members need ...


Exploring The Lived Experiences Of Middle-Eastern And North African (Mena) Jews Through Narrative Inquiry Using A Digital Storytelling Approach, Brandy B. Shufutinsky Apr 2021

Exploring The Lived Experiences Of Middle-Eastern And North African (Mena) Jews Through Narrative Inquiry Using A Digital Storytelling Approach, Brandy B. Shufutinsky

Doctoral Dissertations

Cultural erasure has led to the virtual erasure of many communities from learning spaces. Discrimination, ignorance, and the politicization of knowledge production are all factors that lead to marginalization that sees certain communities being excluded from academia. One such community are the Jewish communities from Middle-Eastern and North African (MENA) lands. This dissertation directly confronts the erasure of MENA Jewish communities and the knowledge they hold by providing a platform for members of these communities to share their experiences. Storytelling is one way to combat cultural and historical erasure (Iseke, 2013). Not only does storytelling provide a way to resist ...


Massachusetts Teachers Of Deaf And Hard Of Hearing Students: A Mixed Methods Workforce Study, Kym Meyer Apr 2021

Massachusetts Teachers Of Deaf And Hard Of Hearing Students: A Mixed Methods Workforce Study, Kym Meyer

Doctoral Dissertations

Massachusetts has a severe shortage of teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing (TODHH) and there is only one deaf education graduate program in the six New England states. The purpose of this study was to survey every currently working teacher of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children in Massachusetts to understand the makeup of the Massachusetts deaf education workforce and gather teacher ideas for retention and recruitments of teachers of DHH children. This mixed-methods sequential explanatory design collected Phase One data through a statewide survey, identifying where Massachusetts teachers are working, how they decided to work in ...


Educators Perceptions Of Ebd, Inclusion, And Evidence-Based Practices, Andrea Larmon Apr 2021

Educators Perceptions Of Ebd, Inclusion, And Evidence-Based Practices, Andrea Larmon

Doctoral Dissertations

The field of education has been changing with regard to inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms. Not only are we seeing more students with disabilities being educated in public schools, but we are seeing students with more significant special education needs. Although schools are expected to provide a Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE), many of the staff within the school, such as special education teachers, general education teachers, related service providers, paraprofessionals, and even administrators, aren’t sure how to provide the services and implement the strategies to allow the ...


Parental Involvement In Support Of African American Families, September Rose Jan 2021

Parental Involvement In Support Of African American Families, September Rose

Doctoral Dissertations

Meaningful parental engagement has historically been identified as the root cause of the United States’ academic achievement gap in African American education. However, the systematic structures that impose difficulties for African American’s access to education in school and other aspects of their social development must be addressed to gain a deeper understanding of the challenges these African American families face. Society must consider the perpetual marginalization of not only African American students’ academic experiences, but also their professional and personal development as well. The parental engagement with educators in the San Francisco K-8 schools, has not been studied. The ...


Narratives Of Disability And Displacement: Oral Histories Of The Lived Experiences Of Disabled Refugees, Jennifer Lynn Ward Jan 2021

Narratives Of Disability And Displacement: Oral Histories Of The Lived Experiences Of Disabled Refugees, Jennifer Lynn Ward

Doctoral Dissertations

Disabled refugees are considered as the most marginalized group of all displaced populations. Disabled displaced people are at particular risk of violence, exploitation, and abuse. Additional barriers to accessing humanitarian assistance, education, health care, and other services exist for disabled displaced people. The purpose of this study was to collaborate with disabled refugees who have resettled in the United States and to create a space for their stories to be told. This research project explores the narratives of the lived experiences of disabled displaced people through the lenses of three theoretical frameworks: human rights, disability justice, and Critical Refugee Studies ...


An Investigation Of Fit Criteria Within Mg-Cfa For Examining Non-Negligible Measurement Invariance, Abdolvahab Khademi Dec 2020

An Investigation Of Fit Criteria Within Mg-Cfa For Examining Non-Negligible Measurement Invariance, Abdolvahab Khademi

Doctoral Dissertations

One desirable property of a measurement process or instrument is the maximum invariance of the results across subpopulations with similar distribution of the traits. Determining measurement invariance (MI) is a statistical procedure in which different methods are used given different factors, such as the nature of the data (e.g. continuous, or discrete, completeness), sample size, measurement framework (e.g. observed scores, latent variable modeling), and other context-specific factors. To evaluate the statistical results, numerical criteria are often used, derived from theory, simulation, or practice. One statistical method to evaluate MI is multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) in which the ...


How Does Burnout And Self-Efficacy Effect Teacher's Perspectives And Implementation Status Of Evidence Based Behavior Management Practices?, Autumn Jillson Dec 2020

How Does Burnout And Self-Efficacy Effect Teacher's Perspectives And Implementation Status Of Evidence Based Behavior Management Practices?, Autumn Jillson

Doctoral Dissertations

Globally, school systems are struggling with the consequences of teacher burnout (Aloe, Amo et al., 2014). Student behavior has been consistently identified as one of the greatest stressor’s teachers deal with and is a significant predictor of burnout development (Chang, 2013). For the prevention and management of behavioral challenges, it is essential that teachers use evidence-based practices. However, research indicates that classroom management practices are frequently not implemented with sufficient implementation fidelity to be effective, even with didactic training by consultants (Briere et al., 2015). Burnout and self-efficacy are constructs that are rarely incorporated into the understanding of implementation ...


It’S All The Rage: An Animated Approach To Screening For Postpartum Depression, Amanda Gorham Dec 2020

It’S All The Rage: An Animated Approach To Screening For Postpartum Depression, Amanda Gorham

Doctoral Dissertations

Postpartum depression presents a complication for mothers which can, in some cases, be severe and even life-threatening. Instruments commonly used to screen for this psychological condition have been challenged by an extensive body of literature, with many mothers being unidentified and even untreated for their symptoms. The presented research introduces a newly developed screening instrument for detecting probable postpartum depression using text-free scenario-based animations, based on the lived experience of the condition as qualified by empirical research and the existing body of literature. Developed items were controlled for quality via Think Aloud Protocol and alignment studies with subject matter experts ...


Teacher Interactions, Teacher Bias And Child Behavioral Health, Ellen E. Edge Dec 2020

Teacher Interactions, Teacher Bias And Child Behavioral Health, Ellen E. Edge

Doctoral Dissertations

TEACHER INTERACTIONS, TEACHER BIAS AND CHILD BEHAVIORAL HEALTH

SEPTEMBER 2020

ELLEN ELLSBERG EDGE, BFA, THE COOPER UNION SCHOOL OF ART

Post BA, UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST

M.ED, UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST

Ph. D., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST

Directed by: Professor Claire Hamilton

This study utilized a mixed methods study design to gain a clearer understanding of the thoughts and feelings of Lead teachers in Head Start programs who work with children with perceived behavioral health challenges. Utilizing a semi-structured interview, 11 teachers employed in a New England Head Start program were asked about their views associated with child behavioral ...


Making Meaning In The Anthropocene: A Constructivist Grounded Theory Investigation Of College Student Response To Planetary Ecological Crises, Kristen Nelson Dec 2020

Making Meaning In The Anthropocene: A Constructivist Grounded Theory Investigation Of College Student Response To Planetary Ecological Crises, Kristen Nelson

Doctoral Dissertations

Higher education, with its core purpose in the generation and transmission of knowledge, has a particular role to play in society’s response to the global ecological crisis. Yet a key question is whether higher education is part of the problem or part of the solution. Sustainability educators insist that higher education, if it is to adequately address these challenges, must shift away from “mechanism” – a rationalist worldview that historically has shaped higher education’s culture and practices – toward an integrative worldview and epistemology that will guide teaching and learning in the new millennium. Emergent pedagogies and student development theories ...


Making Meaning In The Margins: Identities, Belonging, And Social Justice Commitments In A Cross-Race Intergroup Dialogue For Queer And Trans College Students, Nina M. Tissi-Gassoway Dec 2020

Making Meaning In The Margins: Identities, Belonging, And Social Justice Commitments In A Cross-Race Intergroup Dialogue For Queer And Trans College Students, Nina M. Tissi-Gassoway

Doctoral Dissertations

This qualitative research study used constructivist grounded theory methods to explore the lived experiences of 11 queer and trans undergraduate college students of various racial and ethnic backgrounds in a cross-race intergroup dialogue (IGD) course. Using document analysis of course assignments and post-dialogue semi-structured interviews allowed for rich inquiry into how these queer and trans students made meaning of their intersecting identities, sense of belonging, cross-race relationships, and social justice commitments. This study contributes new knowledge about the meaning-making processes of queer and trans college students of various racial and ethnic backgrounds and the role that IGD plays in supporting ...


Uncovering Examples Of Humanizing Praxis And Pathological Violence In Special Education: District, Parent, And Researcher Perspectives, Andy W. Chung Dec 2020

Uncovering Examples Of Humanizing Praxis And Pathological Violence In Special Education: District, Parent, And Researcher Perspectives, Andy W. Chung

Doctoral Dissertations

Students of color continue to be labeled with dis/abilities and funneled into segregated settings by special education staff (Annamma, Connor, & Ferri, 2013; Leonardo & Broderick, 2011). The purpose of this study is to highlight the kinds of experiences students and their family’s experience in special education related to humanization and violence. In addition to gaining a better understanding of how special education district staff are working to both reproduce and disrupt the violent exclusion of students of color, this dissertation aimed to center the experiences of parents and students who are being impacted by the exclusionary policies and practices. Using Disability ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Thompson’S (2105) Survey Of Language Usage And Spanish Of Heritage Learners Placement Program Exam At The High-School Level, Elizabeth Villanueva Dec 2020

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Thompson’S (2105) Survey Of Language Usage And Spanish Of Heritage Learners Placement Program Exam At The High-School Level, Elizabeth Villanueva

Doctoral Dissertations

Language placement test serve with multiple purposes to measure the language abilities and performance of language learners to place them in the most appropriate language course with curriculum that best meets the language needs. There is the need to assess appropriately the Spanish heritage language learners’ (SHLLs) abilities at the high-school level. Therefore, this mixed-method study investigated how Thompson’s (2015) modified Yes or No 10-question Survey of Language Usage (Survey) and the three part Spanish for Heritage Language Learners Placement Program Exam (Placement Test) could be used effectively with three Spanish class levels of HLLs at the high-school level ...


An Analysis Of The Yearly Dynamic Change Relationship Between Working Memory Ability And Mathematics Achievement Of K-5 Students Using The Grimm Et Al. (2012) Extensions Of The Multivariate Latent Difference Score Models, Wenyan (Emma) Jiang Erzincanli Dec 2020

An Analysis Of The Yearly Dynamic Change Relationship Between Working Memory Ability And Mathematics Achievement Of K-5 Students Using The Grimm Et Al. (2012) Extensions Of The Multivariate Latent Difference Score Models, Wenyan (Emma) Jiang Erzincanli

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to conduct a secondary data analysis to examine the dynamic change relationship between working memory and mathematics over time, and to address the working memory training program issue by examining this dynamic change relationship across four different groups of students to provide evidence on how to help different types of students improve their mathematics achievement. To achieve this purpose, the ECLS-K:2011 longitudinal data set and Grimm, An, McArdle, Zonderman, and Resnick (2012) extension of the multivariate latent difference score models were used for the secondary data analysis. Working memory ability and mathematics achievement ...


Critical Followership: Faculty And Leader Relations Impact On Leadership Turnover At A California Community College, Erik William Christianson Dec 2020

Critical Followership: Faculty And Leader Relations Impact On Leadership Turnover At A California Community College, Erik William Christianson

Doctoral Dissertations

Community colleges are experiencing higher levels of executive leader (chancellor, vice chancellor, and dean) turnover than four-year universities. Many different factors account for the high turnover and low retention: the need for dynamic leaders, the leadership succession process, the lack of professional training and development, as well as stakeholders and outside forces. The relationship dynamic between faculty and leaders as a contributing factor has not been previously studied. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine leaders’ misperceptions of faculty’s needs. Surveys and interviews were utilized to cross-examine data and perceptions from faculty and leaders. Through the ...


Betwixt And Between: Qualitative Examinations Of Leaders’ Internal Processes Of Transition, Margaret M. Ritchie Dec 2020

Betwixt And Between: Qualitative Examinations Of Leaders’ Internal Processes Of Transition, Margaret M. Ritchie

Doctoral Dissertations

This study examines alternative forms of school governance from the personal perspectives of leaders, reflecting upon their transition through the organizational governance change. The effects of moving from a local governance authority to a five school multi-academy trust was both thrust upon the leaders who participated in this study as they, in turn, thrust the change upon others. This new vision of schooling rippled throughout the schools involved, the community in which the schools are located, and the greater local authority that did not embrace this change. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine alternative forms of school ...


Women In Science, Technology, Engineering And Mathematics (Stem): Pre-College And College Factors Of Success, Jada Russell Dec 2020

Women In Science, Technology, Engineering And Mathematics (Stem): Pre-College And College Factors Of Success, Jada Russell

Doctoral Dissertations

Scholars have reported that the competitiveness and innovation of the United States’ workforce in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics [STEM] fields are critical to maintaining our nation’s security and economic edge (Chen, 2009; Carlone & Johnson, 2007; Espinosa, 2011). Indeed, STEM is one of the fastest growing fields in the employment industry, according to the U.S. Department of Commerce (Langdon, et. al, 2011), and between 2008 and 2018, the number of STEM jobs is expected to increase 17%. Fostering learning pathways for all individuals interested in pursuing careers and education in STEM disciplines is necessary for us to meet the demands ...


The Design Discourse Of Professional Instructional Designers, Katherine L. Bevins Dec 2020

The Design Discourse Of Professional Instructional Designers, Katherine L. Bevins

Doctoral Dissertations

The design discourse of professional instructional designers (IDs) exposes the inner workings of instructional design because collaboration is integral to instructional design practice. Despite the importance of collaboration, there has been little examination of the collaboration in Instructional Design and Technology (IDT). To examine IDs’ collaboration, I examined the design discourse of IDs in design meetings with clients through a content analysis of their discourse. Analysis revealed areas of design expertise that frequented those discussions. I collected audio recordings of five discussions between one or more IDs and a client. Overall, six IDs and five clients participated in this study ...


Factors Predicting Turnover Of International Science And Engineering Faculty At Us Research Universities, Lauren Longino Jacobs Dec 2020

Factors Predicting Turnover Of International Science And Engineering Faculty At Us Research Universities, Lauren Longino Jacobs

Doctoral Dissertations

In today’s global knowledge-economy, US research universities seek to attract and retain the best and brightest faculty in the world to increase the university’s intellectual capital and compete on a global scale. Increasingly, universities hire talented international faculty to fulfill these needs, which is especially prevalent in the science and engineering fields (S&E). International faculty benefit US universities in areas of research and scholarship as well as increased diversity and internationalization of the campus, however, not all international S&E faculty are retained. In fact, higher turnover has been found among international S&E faculty than their ...


An Investigation Of How Institutional And State Characteristics Influence Community College Award Rates, Jacob A. Kamer Dec 2020

An Investigation Of How Institutional And State Characteristics Influence Community College Award Rates, Jacob A. Kamer

Doctoral Dissertations

Community colleges are an essential element of the American postsecondary landscape and workforce preparation. In 2017, over six-million students, which represented roughly one-third of the total undergraduate enrollment in the United States, were enrolled in community colleges. In the past ten years, the importance of community colleges in the economic need for greater postsecondary credential attainment has been underscored by state policies and national initiatives. The wide variation in both the nature of community colleges and the students they serve makes examining the outcomes of these institutions difficult and oftentimes imprecise.

Assessing the performance of community colleges and determining what ...


A Meta-Analysis Of Gender Gap On The Fci In High School And College Introductory Physics Courses In The Us And International Countries., Polin Yadak Dec 2020

A Meta-Analysis Of Gender Gap On The Fci In High School And College Introductory Physics Courses In The Us And International Countries., Polin Yadak

Doctoral Dissertations

This meta-analysis synthesized research on gender gap in the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). The main goal of the present meta-analysis was to identify the moderator variables that mediate effect size differences. Furthermore, the statistical significance of the average effect sizes was investigated. The inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis resulted in 22 empirical research articles that studied gender gap and reported the number of male and female students in the study. The included articles reported multiple studies; therefore, there were 34 studies on pretest and 43 studies on the posttest FCI. The average effect size for the pretests was 0.62 ...


Increasing Senior High School Students' Mathematical Problem-Solving Skills Through Improving Their Spatial Visualization Skills By Learning And Practicing Three-Dimensional Dynamic Geometry With Cabri 3d, Nurul Yaqin Jul 2020

Increasing Senior High School Students' Mathematical Problem-Solving Skills Through Improving Their Spatial Visualization Skills By Learning And Practicing Three-Dimensional Dynamic Geometry With Cabri 3d, Nurul Yaqin

Doctoral Dissertations

Problem-solving is one of the standards of mathematics processes developed by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Many research studies indicated that there was a relationship between mathematics achievement and spatial visualization skills. But the research results still didn’t indicate whether or not there was a causal mediation relationship between the achievement of learning-and-practicing three-dimensional geometry and mathematical problem-solving skills mediated by spatial visualization skills. Therefore, it’s still necessary for us to specifically investigate whether or not spatial visualization skills can be a medial factor between the increase of mathematical problem-solving skills and the effects of learning ...


Expanding Access To Elite Institutions Through Community College Transfer: An Intrinsic Case Study Of Bucknell University’S Community College Transfer Initiatives, Catherine Sanchez Jul 2020

Expanding Access To Elite Institutions Through Community College Transfer: An Intrinsic Case Study Of Bucknell University’S Community College Transfer Initiatives, Catherine Sanchez

Doctoral Dissertations

Elite institutions of higher education have been under increased scrutiny for failing to provide equitable access, and rightly so. Recent research reveals that students from underserved populations are severely underrepresented at elite colleges and universities. These findings echo research conducted nearly fifteen years ago, indicating that despite class-based policy efforts, like need-blind admission and no-loan financial aid, little movement has been made to expand access to students who could benefit the most from an elite education. This lack of movement serves as the entry point for this study, which argued that if community college transfer is to make a difference ...


Examining Instructional Shifts Within Dialogic Interaction In Japanese University Efl Education, Roehl Sybing Jul 2020

Examining Instructional Shifts Within Dialogic Interaction In Japanese University Efl Education, Roehl Sybing

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation presents a study aimed at exploring the influences on language learners' contributions to dialogic classroom interaction in a Japanese university EFL (English as a foreign language) classroom context. Dialogic approaches to teacher discourse rely on the contributions of students to classroom interaction as well as the interpretive skills of teachers to facilitate understanding and co-construction of knowledge. However, the contemporary literature has reported on challenges involved in fostering mutual classroom dialogue with language learners, owing to challenges with linguistic and academic resources and differences in culturally informed perceptions regarding academic roles and expectations. This paper explores the need ...


Core Content Items And Constructs To Inform Student Nurse Handoff Communication, Kelley Mcafee Jul 2020

Core Content Items And Constructs To Inform Student Nurse Handoff Communication, Kelley Mcafee

Doctoral Dissertations

This study describes nurse educators’ perceptions of content items for a high-risk, high frequency process essential for entry as a nurse generalist into clinical practice. The process of interest is student nurse handoff communication.

Research Questions:

  1. What do nurse educators identify as core content for successful student nurse handoff communication?
  2. Do nurse educators identify with one handoff communication tool for student use?
  3. Are student nurses expected to engage in nurse handoff communication during simulation experiences and/or clinical experiences?
  4. What educator characteristics are associated with his/her perceptions of the core content?

This was a descriptive study involving the administration ...


Building Capacity For Academically Productive Talk: The Development Of Teacher Leaders In Science Professional Development, Renee Affolter Jul 2020

Building Capacity For Academically Productive Talk: The Development Of Teacher Leaders In Science Professional Development, Renee Affolter

Doctoral Dissertations

Despite decades of research on the type of classroom dialogue that supports collaborative student sensemaking and professional development efforts to support such dialogue, opportunities for students to incrementally deepen their understanding of science ideas through engagement in science practices and to engage in complex reasoning and argumentation through classroom talk is limited in most K-12 science classrooms (Driver, Newton, & Osborne, 2000; Lemke, 1990; Michaels, Shouse, & Schweingruber, 2008; Mortimer & Scott, 2003; C. O’Connor, Michaels, & Chapin, 2015; Reinsvold & Cochran, 2011; Scott, Mortimer, & Aguiar, 2006; Weiss, Pasley, Smith., Banilower, and Heck, 2003; Wilson, Schweingruber, & Nielsen, 2015). In order to address the bigger question of how to prepare PD Leaders to support the knowledge and ...


“I Missed A Lot Of Childhood Memories”: Trauma And Its Impact On Learning For Formerly Incarcerated Adolescents In The Age Of Zero Tolerance Policies, Alberto Guerrero Jul 2020

“I Missed A Lot Of Childhood Memories”: Trauma And Its Impact On Learning For Formerly Incarcerated Adolescents In The Age Of Zero Tolerance Policies, Alberto Guerrero

Doctoral Dissertations

The literature makes abundantly clear that trauma has a detrimental impact on students’ academic and behavioral efforts. It also challenges the notion of zero tolerance disciplinary practices being effective in redirecting student behaviors, making schools safer, and creating an environment that is conducive to learning. Yet, our current school climate consists of educators who have not been exposed to trauma-informed learning, while also incorporating disciplinary practices that are both draconian in nature and push students out of their learning spaces. This unfortunate reality is felt even more harshly by students who return to schools following an incarceration. This phenomenological study ...


Locating Safe Spaces For Food Insecure Female Community College Students, Michelle Errington Nicholson Jul 2020

Locating Safe Spaces For Food Insecure Female Community College Students, Michelle Errington Nicholson

Doctoral Dissertations

Food insecurity is a problem on many college campuses and as such is an increasing focus of research (Ferguson, 2004; et al., 2014; Meldrum & Willows, 2006; Patton-López, et al., 2014; Powers, 2012; Rondeau, 2007). These studies and others (Chaparro, et al., 2009; Freudenberg, et al, 2011; Hughes, et al., 2011; Lindsley & King, 2014) report that from 21-69% of college students experience food insecurity. I examined college student food insecurity at a small rural community college in Massachusetts in an attempt to discover safe spaces for female students to disclose food insecurity and the characteristics of those safe spaces. Additionally, I explored various aspects of identity, including gender, that impact student’s willingness and ability to seek resources for food insecurity. Eight students participated in two rounds of interviews and provided photographic data of spaces they identified as safe on campus.

I discovered that gender and other identities such as race and LGBT status do not play a large role in comfort seeking resources; however, gender does shape how students define safe spaces. Safe spaces were characterized in abstract terms for all participants (safe people being the biggest theme) but for females, safety was also concrete and included physical characteristics such as lighting and proximity to campus police.

Finally, although participants did not hold spaces ...