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Western Michigan University

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Reflections Of Elementary Principals Leading Through Disruption And Crisis: An Exploration Of Pandemic Leadership, Nicole Renee Peterson Dec 2023

Reflections Of Elementary Principals Leading Through Disruption And Crisis: An Exploration Of Pandemic Leadership, Nicole Renee Peterson

Dissertations

COVID-19 had a tremendous impact on schools across the globe. Educational leaders had to respond to executive orders quickly. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines focused on mandates regarding students’ and staff’s educational, health, and social-emotional needs. This study explored and described the experience and reflections of elementary principals and their staff members during this disruptive time in history.

This qualitative multiple case study involved the interviews of five elementary principals and staff focus groups from each of their buildings. The overarching research questions were: (a) How do principals describe, metacognitively process, and make meaning of their response …


Investigating The Critical Literacy Practices Of Adult Learners: A Case Study Of Four Leveled Reading Courses At A Community College, Anna Fontaine Dec 2023

Investigating The Critical Literacy Practices Of Adult Learners: A Case Study Of Four Leveled Reading Courses At A Community College, Anna Fontaine

Dissertations

This study investigates the critical literacy practices of adult learners at a community college. Student participants were selected from four different leveled reading courses. In this study, four guiding questions were adopted from Klenner and Sandretto (2011): (1) How do students make personal connections to text?; (2) In what ways do students identify multiple points of view in the text?; (3) In what ways do students identify where people in the text and included or excluded from social situations?; (4) In what ways do students discuss the influences the text has had on their views of society? These four questions …


Adaptive Instruction Through Reflection: How Preservice Teachers Create And Implement Individualized Literacy Lessons In A University Reading Center, Jennifer Marie Lennon Dec 2023

Adaptive Instruction Through Reflection: How Preservice Teachers Create And Implement Individualized Literacy Lessons In A University Reading Center, Jennifer Marie Lennon

Dissertations

Modern classrooms are increasingly diverse. Students vary in their academic abilities, personal interests, cultural and linguistic backgrounds, and previous experiences (Allen et al., 2013). To meet the varied needs of students, educators must adapt their instruction so all are able to find success. Modifying lesson plans and changing instruction based on student needs are forms of adaptive instruction (Hoffman & Duffy, 2016; Vaughn, 2019). This study explored the metacognitive processes of preservice teachers (PSTs) as they implemented adaptive instruction within their literacy lessons in a university reading center tutoring program. Adaptive instruction was examined through two lenses: first, as PSTs …


Opportunity That Transforms Lives: Exploring The Lived Experience Of Graduates From A New Community College In The Dominican Republic, Sally Joslyn Peña Martinez Dec 2023

Opportunity That Transforms Lives: Exploring The Lived Experience Of Graduates From A New Community College In The Dominican Republic, Sally Joslyn Peña Martinez

Dissertations

This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of graduates from a recently established community college in the Dominican Republic (DR). The study sought to understand from graduates' perspective the influence of completing an associate degree at the first Dominican Community College, Instituto Técnico Superior Comunitario (ITSC), and if their experience was transformative. Enrolling in higher education initiates a potentially transformative journey, consciously or unconsciously (Taylor et al., 2000). These changes stem from personal reflections on new experiences, forming new beliefs and assumptions that infill life with new meaning (Brookfield, 1984; Mezirow, 1978). This phenomenon is evident in community college students …


Teaching Without A Roadmap: A Mixed Methods Study Of New Teachers' Experience With A Missing Curriculum, Christopher Reid Williams Dec 2023

Teaching Without A Roadmap: A Mixed Methods Study Of New Teachers' Experience With A Missing Curriculum, Christopher Reid Williams

Dissertations

As new teachers enter the field of education, they face many challenges as they work to quickly adapt to the many demands of the job. One of the most pressing factors for new teachers is deciding what to actually teach each day. For educators, the curriculum represents the master plan that both guides their educational efforts and supplies the tools to get the job done. However, new teachers experience varying levels of curriculum support when they begin their careers, and some receive absolutely no support at all. This study describes those cases of beginning a teaching career with little to …


The Effects Of Adolescent Trauma, Mental Health Treatment, And Demographic Variables On Educational Outcome, Christopher Postema Dec 2023

The Effects Of Adolescent Trauma, Mental Health Treatment, And Demographic Variables On Educational Outcome, Christopher Postema

Dissertations

Poor educational performance in adolescence can occur due to trauma, substance use, or other stressors. This study used conflict theory as a foundation, suggesting differences in educational outcomes can be attributed to systems perpetuating the current power structures that cause inequality in academic opportunities and performance. Trauma in adolescence can have adverse effects on educational outcomes and emotional stability. Research suggests that mental health therapy as well as a reduction in trauma symptoms can improve educational outcomes. Race, gender, substance use, socioeconomic status, and employment are important variables that could influence educational outcomes. Interaction terms were found in the literature …


School Accountability Within The Dominican Republic: A Qualitative Study Of School Principals’ Beliefs And Knowledge, Massiel Cohen Camacho Aug 2023

School Accountability Within The Dominican Republic: A Qualitative Study Of School Principals’ Beliefs And Knowledge, Massiel Cohen Camacho

Dissertations

The school accountability system in the Dominican Republic (DR) involves the use of several national assessments, the reporting of such data, and the training of principals on how to use such data as part of school improvement efforts. While this type of indicator accountability system does not include specific consequences, there is still significant measuring and reporting of student achievement data, with the implied connotation of teacher and principal responsibility for specific school outcomes. The problem addressed in this study was the lack of research on what school principals know about such school accountability in the DR, and how they …


Strategies To Increase Engagement In K-12 Stem Programs Among Bipoc Students Grades 3rd – 8th, Denisha C. Griffey Aug 2023

Strategies To Increase Engagement In K-12 Stem Programs Among Bipoc Students Grades 3rd – 8th, Denisha C. Griffey

Dissertations

The WIRE Youth Development Programs, housed within the Lewis Walker Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnic Relations at Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI foster two enrichment programs geared towards strengthening the gap in academic knowledge through STEM/STEAM activities. Since its inception, WIRE has impacted over 1,000 youth grades 3-8 among the BIPOC population through its programs, most notably the WIRE Math and Science Summer Camp and Saturday Academy. In 2020, during the height of the Covid-19 pandemic, many K-12 education school systems switched to remote learning. As a result of this transition, there was a decrease in access …


The Skin I’M In: A Critical Content Analysis Of Picture Books Written By Black Authors, Angela Latrece Justice Jun 2023

The Skin I’M In: A Critical Content Analysis Of Picture Books Written By Black Authors, Angela Latrece Justice

Dissertations

This study seeks to explore the experiences of Black male protagonists in picture books. The following question guided this study: How do Black authors demonstrate a commitment to social justice? The theoretical framework that guides this study is Critical Race Theory (CRT), which aids in understanding how Black authors use experiential knowledge to represent experiences that challenge dominant ideologies about Black males. The sample consists of 20 pictures books all written by Black authors and published within the United States from 2018 to 2021. The deductive and inductive approaches to critical content analysis is used as it is effective for …


Prospective Mathematics Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge In Pieces, Nicholas Eric Witt Jun 2023

Prospective Mathematics Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge In Pieces, Nicholas Eric Witt

Dissertations

Productively integrating technology is a vitally important part of teachers’ practice (Barlow, 2021; Bezuk et al., 2017; NCTM, 2018). To adequately prepare Prospective Mathematics Teachers (PMTs) for the demands of teaching professionally, we need to understand more about how teachers and PMTs learn to integrate technology into their classroom. Some models exist related to teachers’ knowledge of integrating technology (e.g., Mishra & Koehler, 2006; Rocha, 2020). However, these models do little to conceptualize the knowledge resources that are activated in the moment of designing technologically-enhanced, conceptually-oriented mathematics tasks. This dissertation draws on ideas from the Knowledge in Pieces (KiP) (diSessa, …


Leadership Identity Development Among Aspiring Women Leaders In Higher Education: A Phenomenological Study Of Formal Mentoring, Malia E. Roberts Jun 2023

Leadership Identity Development Among Aspiring Women Leaders In Higher Education: A Phenomenological Study Of Formal Mentoring, Malia E. Roberts

Dissertations

Men have held the majority of presidencies, vice-presidencies, deanships, and other top administrative positions on college campuses since 1950 (Parker, 2015). The disproportionately low representation of women holding leadership roles in higher education is even more urgent considering few women ever reach the senior most leadership levels (Hannum et al., 2015). As such, the American Council on Education not only identified the need to increase the presence of women in leadership positions and to cultivate a pipeline of future leaders, but also the need to provide formal leadership training opportunities for women (Howard & Gagliardi, 2018). While various higher education …


Using The Lens Of Flourishing To Understand The Professional Well-Being Of K-12 Teachers Who Have Worked In Urban Schools For Over A Decade, Candis M. Thomas Jun 2023

Using The Lens Of Flourishing To Understand The Professional Well-Being Of K-12 Teachers Who Have Worked In Urban Schools For Over A Decade, Candis M. Thomas

Dissertations

Historically, urban public schools with high concentrations of high-poverty, low-achieving students, report having difficulty attracting, developing, and retaining qualified and effective teachers (Ansley et al, 2019; Petty et.al, 2012; Simon & Johnson, 2015; Wilder, 2012). A common explanation to the attrition crisis in urban schools is that teachers are suffering from stressors (e.g., student characteristics, school climate, concerns for safety, lack of parental support, accountability measures), that leaves them burnt out. Yet, there are experienced and qualified K-12 teachers who are committed to working in these schools. Advances in the field of positive psychology, has spilled over into the educational …


School Principals As Leaders Of Educational Environments In School Settings: Recontextualization Of American Educational Practices In China, Wei Zhang Jun 2023

School Principals As Leaders Of Educational Environments In School Settings: Recontextualization Of American Educational Practices In China, Wei Zhang

Dissertations

Chinese principals play a significant role in recontextualizing the U.S. principals’ practices in leading their school reform and student outcomes in Chinese social, cultural, and educational contexts. The purpose of this basic qualitative study is twofold: (1) to describe and interpret how Chinese principals make meaning of their experiences as active democratic leaders and (2) to identify the challenges they are going through in creating an educational environment based on the creative use of U.S. research and theory supporting best practices for principals. The study has a total of 50 participants (n=50) across the United States (n=32) and China (n=18). …


Experiences Of Female Muslim International Graduate Students With Children In The U.S.: Strategies To Cope With Academics And Family Life, Nizoramo M. Haitova Apr 2023

Experiences Of Female Muslim International Graduate Students With Children In The U.S.: Strategies To Cope With Academics And Family Life, Nizoramo M. Haitova

Dissertations

The literature on adult students, and in particular, graduate students with children, reveals that female students often struggle to balance their studies and home life due to juggling multiple roles. To date, research on student mothers has primarily focused on domestic students, with few studies examining the experiences of international student mothers, and even fewer studying Muslim international student mothers. The purpose of this study was to understand the lived experiences of female Muslim international graduate students with children in the U.S., as well as to explore the coping strategies they employ in both academia and family life. Thus, the …


Using Visual Imagery To Develop Multiplication Fact Strategies, Gina Kling Apr 2023

Using Visual Imagery To Develop Multiplication Fact Strategies, Gina Kling

Dissertations

The learning of basic facts, or the sums and products of numbers 0–10 and their related differences and quotients, has always been a high priority for elementary school teachers. While memorization of basic facts has been a hallmark of elementary school, current recommendations focus on a more nuanced development of fluency with these facts. Fluency is characterized by the ability to demonstrate flexibility, accuracy, efficiency, and appropriate strategy use. Despite recommendations to focus on strategy use, there is insufficient information on instructional approaches that are effective for developing strategies, particularly for multiplication facts. Using visual imagery with dot patterns has …


Development Of Modeling Tools To Determine The Effects Of Customer Diversification On Customer Lifetime Value Volatility In Higher Education, Oscar Neal Apr 2023

Development Of Modeling Tools To Determine The Effects Of Customer Diversification On Customer Lifetime Value Volatility In Higher Education, Oscar Neal

Dissertations

As societies become increasingly global the competition for customers continues to increase. In competitive markets, it is important to identify a process to acquire and retain the most profitable customers. To discriminate customers, it is important to understand the value different customers bring to an organization. Much research has been done modeling customer value using customer lifetime value, however, there is limited research on the effect current customer diversity has on future customer lifetime value of future customer portfolios.

In this dissertation, a Lifetime Value Model considering the interaction between customer diversity, revenue management, and customer lifetime value in an …


Community College Students’ Awareness Of Their Reading And Writing Proficiency, Martha Paulina Campusano Rojas Apr 2023

Community College Students’ Awareness Of Their Reading And Writing Proficiency, Martha Paulina Campusano Rojas

Dissertations

Student’s low reading and writing proficiency in higher education has been the subject of a large body of research (e.g., Bahr, 2011; Bailey, 2010; Carlino, 2005, 2010, 2012; Flink, 2017; Jaggars, 2014 Pacello, 2014; Perin, 2011; Perin et al., 2013).The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how students in a first-year developmental Spanish course at the Dominican community college think of the connection between their reading and writing abilities and their performance in both their current and future undergraduate courses. The study also explored how these students view the importance of the developmental course and how they understand …


Research Training And Certification Protocol For Medical Students, Michelle Arisleida Padley Apr 2023

Research Training And Certification Protocol For Medical Students, Michelle Arisleida Padley

Dissertations

Early and frequent exposure to research is imperative to initiating and sustaining long term for medical student research interest. The attitude and approach of physician mentors has been demonstrated to have a substantial effect on student perceptions of research involvement. The purpose of this study is to determine best practices for assessing student perceptions for a research certification program. An additional long-term objective is to utilize these findings to help maintain interest in research throughout their medical careers. Research is an essential aspect of the prestige of medical schools, and the benefits of academic research institutions have numerous facets, including …


Crafting A Different Kind Of Story: Experiences Of Creative Writers Leading In Higher Education, Meredith L. Dodson Dec 2022

Crafting A Different Kind Of Story: Experiences Of Creative Writers Leading In Higher Education, Meredith L. Dodson

Dissertations

Connections between creativity and leadership often focus on how fostering creativity can help an organization. Despite the value that creativity can bring to organizations, Mueller et al. (2011) found that creative people themselves are not seen as leadership material. Yet many people with creative backgrounds do take on leadership roles, particularly in higher education.

This qualitative study explores the experiences of higher education leaders who have a background in creative writing and how those leaders perceive the interaction of the leadership role with their creative experience. The sample included 12 mid-level leaders in higher education who had an MFA or …


Self-Regulation In The Learning Experiences Of School Choice Students, Melody Lynn Schmidt Dec 2022

Self-Regulation In The Learning Experiences Of School Choice Students, Melody Lynn Schmidt

Dissertations

This study explores self-regulation in the learning experiences of school choice students who have attended a traditional public school and a charter public school. Research shows self-regulation is a form of non-cognitive executive functioning characterized by many observable traits children employ in their learning environments. Self-regulation development in the learning investments students make relates to school mobility, social identity, and connectedness while navigating their learning amid school changes (Golden, 2017; Langenkamp, 2016). School mobility may impact students by lowering self-regulation and increasing school dropout through compromised social identity and connectedness (Jdaitawi, 2015; Rumberger & Larson, 1998). Understanding the distinction between …


Heterogeneity Estimators In Random-Effects Meta-Analysis In Education, Qian Wang Dec 2022

Heterogeneity Estimators In Random-Effects Meta-Analysis In Education, Qian Wang

Dissertations

Over the last four decades, meta-analysis has proven to be a vital analysis strategy in educational research for synthesizing research findings from different studies. When synthesizing studies in a meta-analysis, it is common to assume that the true underlying effect varies from study to study, as studies will differ in design, participants, interventions, or sample size that can lead to heterogeneity in their underlying effects. The magnitude of this heterogeneity between studies can be quantified as τ2 in a random-effects meta-analysis. Estimating the between-study heterogeneity (τ2) becomes an important part of random effects meta-analysis reporting, since this quantity plays a …


Factors That Influence High School Students' Postsecondary Career Decisions In A Guaranteed-Tuition Based School District, Tracy Y. Miller Dec 2022

Factors That Influence High School Students' Postsecondary Career Decisions In A Guaranteed-Tuition Based School District, Tracy Y. Miller

Dissertations

This study explored factors that influence the postsecondary career decisions of 427 11th and 12th grade students in a guaranteed tuition-based school district in a Midwestern state. Since 2005, this district has had a “Promise” program where eligible students can get up to 100% of their postsecondary tuition paid to attend a college, university, technical, or skilled trade program, or participate in an apprenticeship. Students have up to 10 years after graduating high school to utilize the funding. In addition, students who decide to enter the military after high school have up to 10 years to utilize the funding after …


Analysis Of The Issue Of New Mexico Black Male Educators’ Underrepresentation In Education Within New Mexico, Robert Sims Jr. Dec 2022

Analysis Of The Issue Of New Mexico Black Male Educators’ Underrepresentation In Education Within New Mexico, Robert Sims Jr.

Dissertations

Increasing the educational profession's racial, gender, and ethnic diversification ensures the intentionality and equity of having more Black male educators serve as role models in U.S. schools. There is a need to understand better the journey and experiences of Black male educators, wherefore greater grassroots recruitment and retention efforts can be implemented to support Black men and young Black males who may aspire to become educators. Research that captures the experiences of Black male youth and educators as they navigate teaching and learning in predominately White educational systems may promote lines of inquiry for further research and intentional dialogue for …


Understanding The Aspirations And Challenges Of Michigan’S Black School Superintendents: A Toolkit For Building Equity In The Superintendency, Kevin Simmons Dec 2022

Understanding The Aspirations And Challenges Of Michigan’S Black School Superintendents: A Toolkit For Building Equity In The Superintendency, Kevin Simmons

Dissertations

Black superintendents are significantly underrepresented in our nation’s schools. Despite a slight increase in representation of female Black superintendents, minorities of all races continue to be underrepresented (Tienken & Domenech, 2020). In this study, I examined the experiences of Black superintendents in Michigan who currently hold superintendent roles, along with the obstacles they faced and their personal characteristics and associated factors that attributed to their resilience and longevity in their role as superintendent. Using a phenomenological qualitative study approach of personal and confidential interviews and survey questions of 12 Black superintendents, data was collected to formulate a toolkit for aspiring …


The Acculturation Process Of International Students In Cacrep Counseling Programs: A Grounded Theory Approach, Hanny Wuysang Dec 2022

The Acculturation Process Of International Students In Cacrep Counseling Programs: A Grounded Theory Approach, Hanny Wuysang

Dissertations

International students bring diverse, multicultural perspectives to the U.S. postsecondary education system through their participation in higher education. However, in their adjustment to U.S. higher education, international students in counseling programs face barriers and challenges such as language differences, lack of support, microaggressions and discrimination, culture shock, and different perspectives on mental health treatment as compared to their home cultures. These factors can interfere with their daily personal and academic lives, yet there is often minimal support from their academic programs and host institutions. The growing number of international students in counseling programs increases the importance of understanding their acculturation …


Higher Education Professional Involved In Or Aspiring To Careers In Strategic Enrollment Management: Competency Development And Career Pathways, Jodi Ward Dec 2022

Higher Education Professional Involved In Or Aspiring To Careers In Strategic Enrollment Management: Competency Development And Career Pathways, Jodi Ward

Dissertations

Strategic Enrollment Management (SEM) is an emergent and evolving field in higher education (HE). While the concept has often been researched as a system or process implemented by an institution of HE to optimize enrollment, this study examined the professionals that currently lead or aspire to lead those systems. The HE competencies areas that current SEM professionals are most engaged with, the activities they participate in to gain and cultivate competency development, as well as their educational backgrounds and career pathways was the focus of this study. Additionally, this study investigated the competency development opportunities available to individuals working in …


Power, Privilege, And Permission: A Qualitative Study On The Perspectives Of Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors Who Serve Racially Diverse Clients, Cherrelle Singleton Aug 2022

Power, Privilege, And Permission: A Qualitative Study On The Perspectives Of Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors Who Serve Racially Diverse Clients, Cherrelle Singleton

Dissertations

This qualitative study explored the experiences of vocational rehabilitation counselors (VRC) serving racially diverse clients and how VRCs are trained and educated to work with racially diverse clients. VRCs are typically employed by federally funded state or federal rehabilitation agencies. In their role, they aim to provide individualized tools and services that empower people with disabilities by alleviating barriers to being successful when preparing for and maintaining employment and being independent in their adult life (Donnell et al., 2013). Often tasked to work with clients who have marginalized identities including race and disability, VRCs must be able to understand and …


Graduate Students' Self-Determination As Writers, Need For Cognition, And Sense Of Belonging As Predictors Of Confidence In Program Completion, Mary Ebejer Aug 2022

Graduate Students' Self-Determination As Writers, Need For Cognition, And Sense Of Belonging As Predictors Of Confidence In Program Completion, Mary Ebejer

Dissertations

This study explored graduate student self-determination as a writer, need for cognition, and sense of belonging as predictors of their confidence today in their program completion. The data set consisted of 2,390 graduate students at universities across the United States. The data analysis was conducted using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), with students nested in programs, nested in universities.

The analysis found that both self-determination as a writer and sense of belonging contributed to student confidence in program completion. Need for cognition did not. Seven statistically significant student-level demographic and program-related variables remained in the final model, including: PhD student, returning …


A Qualitative Case Study Of Health-Related Baccalaureate And Graduate Web-Based Simulated Clinical Learning Platforms, Kathrine Choura Branch Aug 2022

A Qualitative Case Study Of Health-Related Baccalaureate And Graduate Web-Based Simulated Clinical Learning Platforms, Kathrine Choura Branch

Dissertations

Simulation has been recognized as a teaching, learning, evaluation, and research strategy based on learning theories, that has come to play a significant role in healthcare education (Beal et al., 2017; La Cerra et al., 2019). Health-related academic programs in higher education have traditionally used simulation to fill gaps in learning and strengthen students’ clinical and critical thinking skills in conjunction with didactic classroom content, laboratory practice, and clinical education in the community setting (Hayden et al., 2014). With the onset and unpredictability of COVID-19, there was almost an immediate need for health-related academic programs across the world to transition …


Pathways To Success For African American Students At Predominately White Institutions: A Qualitative Study Exploring Academic Readiness, Jeffery Jackson Aug 2022

Pathways To Success For African American Students At Predominately White Institutions: A Qualitative Study Exploring Academic Readiness, Jeffery Jackson

Dissertations

African American students’ completion of post-secondary education is among the lowest of any other subgroup in higher education (Banks & Dohy, 2019; Broom, 2018; Carter- Francique et al., 2015; Cokley et al., 2016; Dulabaum, 2016; Karkouti, 2016; Moragne-Patterson & Barnett, 2017; Strayhorn, 2017). This study focuses on addressing this problem by exploring the academic and social experiences of African American college students who persisted at a regional predominantly White institution (PWI) in the Midwest and secure information that can be used to improve their graduation rates.

To address this issue, this study is designed to explore initiatives and practices that …