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Full-Text Articles in Education

What Is Make-Believe Play?: Preschool Teachers' Perspectives , Joanna Jennifer Cemore Jan 2005

What Is Make-Believe Play?: Preschool Teachers' Perspectives , Joanna Jennifer Cemore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to explore preschool teachers' understanding of make-believe play in order to aid understanding and enhance further use of teachers as informants in research on children's play. Participants included preschool teachers (n = 10) and faculty members ( n = 3) who teach early childhood educators. Their descriptions of play and make-believe play were examined through qualitative research methods, including individual interviews. In-depth analysis of the emergent themes used to describe play and make-believe play were conducted. Preschool teachers defined make-believe play as representational play that is intrinsically motivated. This report includes examination of definitions, comparisons between ...


Relationships Among Socio-Economic Status, Parenting, Academic Achievement, And Self-Esteem In Early And Middle Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study , Chiu-Hui Lan Jan 2004

Relationships Among Socio-Economic Status, Parenting, Academic Achievement, And Self-Esteem In Early And Middle Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study , Chiu-Hui Lan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this dissertation are threefold: first, to examine a model of how socioeconomic status, parenting, adolescents' academic achievement, and adolescents' self-esteem might be causally related; second, to examine whether or not the proposed model is structurally invariant across gender and grade; and third, to determine whether family income, paternal and maternal education, and paternal and maternal occupational prestige make unique contributions to nurturant and punitive parenting, adolescents' academic achievement, and self-esteem. Structural equation results showed that socioeconomic status has a significant and positive effect on nurturant parenting and on adolescents' academic achievement, which, in turn, affect adolescent self-esteem ...


The Battleground In Kindergarten: A Contrast Between Pretend Aggression And Real Aggression In A Full-Day Kindergarten Classroom , Heidi Lin Malloy Jan 2000

The Battleground In Kindergarten: A Contrast Between Pretend Aggression And Real Aggression In A Full-Day Kindergarten Classroom , Heidi Lin Malloy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to describe the real and pretend aggression exhibited by 20 middle-class children in a full-day kindergarten. A qualitative analysis was used to discover the sequence of aggressive episodes and how children executed aggressive acts within the episodes. Boys displayed the majority of aggressive behaviors, but only a small group of boys consistently participated in both real and pretend aggression. In episodes of pretend aggression, the aggressor was most likely to shoot, threaten, hit, or blow up a person, object, or imaginary character. In contrast, the aggressor was most likely to grab, taunt, name-call, push ...


Maternal Depression Symptomology, Stress, And Behavioral Outcomes In Children: A One Year Longitudinal Study , Tamara Sue Hechtner Jan 2000

Maternal Depression Symptomology, Stress, And Behavioral Outcomes In Children: A One Year Longitudinal Study , Tamara Sue Hechtner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the longitudinal effects of maternal depression and stress on children's teacher-rated social skills (i.e., assertion, cooperation, and self-control) and playground observed behaviors (i.e., positive, negative, and nonsocial) in a community setting with low-income families. The current study consisted of 122 mothers and their kindergarten and/or first grade child who participated in a larger longitudinal study examining the transition of Head Start students into elementary school. Families were selected from the transition study if their incomes were less than or equal to 200% of the poverty threshold in ...


Parents' And Educators' Beliefs Regarding Their Influence On Preschool Children's Competencies , Bronwyn Sara Fees Jan 1998

Parents' And Educators' Beliefs Regarding Their Influence On Preschool Children's Competencies , Bronwyn Sara Fees

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Traditionally, parents have been considered the primary source of influence on development in children. However many preschoolers spend substantial portions of their day in child care surrounded by peers. This study surveyed mothers', fathers', (n = 112) and early childhood educators' (n = 30) beliefs regarding their influence relative to other developmental agents (genetics, peers, siblings, and the child's own effort) on six cognitively and socially oriented child competencies. The parents' child (M = 49 months) served as the target child. All children received 30+ hours a week of nonparental care. Mother, father, and child lived within the same household. Ile child ...


The Relation Of Violent And Nonviolent Toys To Play Behavior In Preschoolers , Karen Ellen Goff Jan 1995

The Relation Of Violent And Nonviolent Toys To Play Behavior In Preschoolers , Karen Ellen Goff

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although play and toys have been shown in the literature to benefit children in a variety of domains, relatively little is known about the effects of specific types of toys on the behavior and attitudes of children. Chapter 1 consolidates research that has attempted to discover the relationship between children's attitudes/behaviors and war toys. Research concerning the benefits of play and toys to children is presented, followed by the opposing viewpoints of aggression theorists regarding this issue. Research supporting each side of the debate is presented. Finally, variables that are likely to affect the war toy-child aggression relationship ...


Older Siblings As Positive Role Models In The Development Of At-Risk Children , Edith Monica Gozali-Lee Jan 1994

Older Siblings As Positive Role Models In The Development Of At-Risk Children , Edith Monica Gozali-Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study is to explore the sibling relationships in low-income families. This study utilized a subsample of a larger longitudinal study and included 35 Head Start and 45 kindergarten children who had older siblings. All subjects were low income. Among the kindergarten children, 29 had attended Head Start. Children were interviewed about their relationships with their older siblings. When a child had more than one older sibling, random sampling was used to select the older sibling on whom to focus the interview. There were no significant differences between Head Start and kindergarten children in their descriptions ...


Early Mathematics Teaching And Learning In Sudanese Families, Azza Moawia Habib Jan 1992

Early Mathematics Teaching And Learning In Sudanese Families, Azza Moawia Habib

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Economic Hardship, Family Relationships, And Adolescent Distress , Camilla Siu-Na Ho Jan 1991

Economic Hardship, Family Relationships, And Adolescent Distress , Camilla Siu-Na Ho

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Adolescence is a period characterized by multiple life changes. Biological, psychological, and social factors interact at an accelerated rate to shape the adolescent's development. Additional life stress during this time is especially detrimental to the psychological well-being of a person. Not only is economic hardship directly harmful to the socioemotional development of the adolescent, it may exert indirect damaging effects on the adolescent through its adverse effects on the family supporting system of the adolescent. This dissertation aims to (1) examine existing literature on the relationship between life changes and stress during adolescence, (2) examine existing literature on the ...


Mother-Father-Child Play: Investigations Of Preschoolers' Home Play Behavior, Parental Involvement And Home Environment , Chittinun Tejagupta Jan 1991

Mother-Father-Child Play: Investigations Of Preschoolers' Home Play Behavior, Parental Involvement And Home Environment , Chittinun Tejagupta

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Relatively few studies have documented the nature of mother-father-child play interactions at home, especially during the preschool years. Based on the ecological approach regarding the relationship of play behavior as a function of the playing child and the play environment (Darvill, 1982), this study investigated the play of 48 3- and 5-year-old boys and girls with their parents in their home. The mother-father-child play was videotaped for 10 minutes and later coded for child's social-cognitive play behaviors and the parental involvement of mother and father. Quality of home environment was measured using the HOME Inventory scale (preschool version);Differences ...


Educators' Beliefs About Kindergarten Practices , Gloysis Mayers Jan 1991

Educators' Beliefs About Kindergarten Practices , Gloysis Mayers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Educators' beliefs about kindergarten practices were investigated in this study. Subjects were 56 kindergarten teachers, 51 first-grade teachers and 47 principals from Iowa public school districts offering full-day every day kindergarten programs and 46 kindergarten teachers, 43 first-grade teachers and 45 principals from schools offering half-day every day programs. A majority of the kindergarten teachers have 11+ years of kindergarten teaching experience and an elementary (K-6) teaching certification. The Teacher Information Survey and the Teacher Questionnaire addressing teachers' beliefs and instructional classroom practices were completed. Results from ANOVA and the Duncan multiple range test revealed that kindergarten teachers first-grade teachers ...


An Analysis Of Parental Involvement, Least Restrictive Environments, And Preparation Of Personnel In Ecse Classrooms , Debara Sue Forest Jan 1990

An Analysis Of Parental Involvement, Least Restrictive Environments, And Preparation Of Personnel In Ecse Classrooms , Debara Sue Forest

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A 100% response was achieved (N = 106) on a questionnaire sent to educators in public school early childhood education classrooms in South Dakota. Analysis shows the background/certification of educators is significantly related to twenty of a possible thirty-one opportunities available for parental involvement. There is a relationship between the educational background/certification of the educator and curriculum utilization. The opportunities for children with special needs to interact with children, who are typically developing, show a significant relationship to the educational background/certification of the educator. Opportunities for parental involvement increases the likelihood that there will be opportunities for children ...


Stress And Coping Resources: A Study Of College Student Families , Barbara Jo Chaney Jan 1988

Stress And Coping Resources: A Study Of College Student Families , Barbara Jo Chaney

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The differences between male and female college student families on stress and coping resources were investigated in a sample of 133 male and 195 female college students and their spouses. The relationships among perceived stress, student stress, locus of control, marital satisfaction, social support, satisfaction with leisure time and housing satisfaction were also investigated. A questionnaire was developed by the researcher to measure student stress, social support, satisfaction with leisure time and housing satisfaction; standardized instruments were utilized to measure perceived stress, locus of control and marital satisfaction. Correlational analyses were used to explore the relationships among the variables. A ...


Maternal Behavior And Child Competence , Janet Nieuwsma Melby Jan 1988

Maternal Behavior And Child Competence , Janet Nieuwsma Melby

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Changes in maternal behavior associated with changes in the age of the child; relationships among maternal behavior, child competence, and family social status; and prediction of child competence using objective and subjective assessments of mothers and children were the focus of the longitudinal research. Fifty-two mothers and their first-born children were assessed when the children were 3, and 4 years old. Forty-eight of the dyads also were assessed when the children were 5 years old. Maternal affective and directive behaviors occurring in a video-recorded mother-child problem-solving situation at assessment Yrs 1 and 2 were observed using the Parent-Child Interaction Code ...


Prediction Of Children's School Readiness By Parent And Teacher Reports And Individual Testing, Ralph Jeffrey Worthing Jan 1986

Prediction Of Children's School Readiness By Parent And Teacher Reports And Individual Testing, Ralph Jeffrey Worthing

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive screening instrument to assess the competencies of young children as they enter kindergarten. A broad range of intellectual, social-emotional, and physical characteristics were evaluated through parental reporting, teacher rating, and direct testing of the children. Each of the three data sources proved to be valuable assets to the screening process. Parents contributed to the screening battery by significantly predicting the success of their children in kindergarten and by rating their children on various competency areas. In addition, such demographic variables as parents' education significantly predicted students' school success;The results ...


Early Childhood Professionals' Perception Of Their Occupational Worth , Pauline Davey Zeece Jan 1986

Early Childhood Professionals' Perception Of Their Occupational Worth , Pauline Davey Zeece

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Sociological trends indicate that as more parents enter the work force, increasing numbers of children and families become involved with early childhood professionals. Little is known about the perceived occupational worth of these workers. Early childhood professionals' perception of their own and their peers' occupational worth, as measured by responses on the Occupational Worth Inventory (OWI) and career-pattern profiled were investigated;Data were collected from 104 family day care providers, 26 group day care providers, 101 day care center teachers, 26 Head Start Teachers, and 95 nursery school teachers. Results of Friedman's rank-order analyses of variance on job pay ...


Children's Awareness Of The Interaction Of Person, Task And Strategy Variables In Memory And Communication , Gordana Miletić Jan 1985

Children's Awareness Of The Interaction Of Person, Task And Strategy Variables In Memory And Communication , Gordana Miletić

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was: (1) to look at when children become aware of how different variables presented individually and in combination influence one's memory and communicative performances, and (2) to assess whether or not children's understanding of these variables follows the same pattern of development across memory and communication. The variables tested were: person (who is doing the memorizing/communicating), task (what is to be remembered/communicated) and strategy (how to memorize/communicate);Eighteen 4, 5 and 7-year-old children participated in the study. The stimuli consisted of 18 sets of 3 or 4 different picture ...


Comparison Of Motor Skills Between Gifted And Normal Children , Christine Mayer Burger Jan 1984

Comparison Of Motor Skills Between Gifted And Normal Children , Christine Mayer Burger

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Purpose was to compare motor skills and abilities of gifted and normal children. Subjects were 13 gifted girls, 12 gifted boys, 12 normal girls, and 13 normal boys that were seven years old. Assessments used were the Short Form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP), handwriting samples, laterality measures, anthropometric data, and grip strength measured by hand dynamometer. Data were subjected to a Pearson product-moment correlation analysis and an analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences between gifted and normal subjects were found on individual test items, gross motor ability, fine motor ability, overall motor performance as well as ...


Negotiating Behaviors In Same- And Mixed-Age Dyads Of Preschool Children , Richard Vern Tuveson Jan 1982

Negotiating Behaviors In Same- And Mixed-Age Dyads Of Preschool Children , Richard Vern Tuveson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effects of same- versus mixed-age and sex dyad composition on the negotiating and general social interaction behaviors of preschool-age children were investigated. Subjects were 32 male and 32 female children who ranged from 3 to 5 years of age. A subject matching procedure produced 10 groups of dyads that varied systematically in age and sex composition. Dyadic behaviors of individual pairs were videotaped in an experimental room which was structured to elicit negotiating behaviors. Trained judges (n = 2) scored the videotapes by using a profile of negotiating behaviors and a profile of general social interaction behaviors; judges agreed uon ...


Parental Perceptions Of Children's Competencies , Choon-Sim Park Jan 1981

Parental Perceptions Of Children's Competencies , Choon-Sim Park

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to conduct a factor analysis on the parents' Iowa Parent Assessment of Child Inventory (IPACI) responses in order to develop further the IPACI. The study included the examination of relationships between demographic variables of subjects and the parents' IPACI responses;Subjects were 256 families involving 200 mother-fathers pairs and 56 single parents. A total of 256 preschool and elementary school children with a mean age of 94 months were represented in the sample of parents;Mean IPACI item responses indicated that both mothers and fathers, in general, rate their children as above average, and ...


Sex-Role Orientation And Vocational Orientation Of Mothers And Daughters , Judith Meredith Weeden Ziffer Jan 1980

Sex-Role Orientation And Vocational Orientation Of Mothers And Daughters , Judith Meredith Weeden Ziffer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The present study was undertaken to explore the relationship among the variables: the mother's vocational orientation, the mother's educational level, the mother's masculine personality traits, the mother's feminine personality traits, the mother's perceived vocational orientation of her daughter, the mother's desired vocational orientation for her daughter, and the vocational orientation of the daughter. Two models were developed and tested using 101 mother-daughter pairs. All subjects were White and middle class. The daughters were enrolled in either third or fourth grade;Twelve bivariate relationships were significant. (1) The mother's vocational orientation was positively and ...


Factors In Vocational Choice By College Women , Karen L. Peterson Jan 1980

Factors In Vocational Choice By College Women , Karen L. Peterson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The major purpose of the study was to investigate antecedents of vocational choice in college women. Additional purposes include: development of a comprehensive instrument to assess vocational choice; subjection of the instrument to factor analysis; and identification of demographic differences by declared major;A Work Interest Questionnaire (WIQ) was devised for use in the study and consisted of 120 items organized around the areas of career considerations, role expectations, and work components. The WIQ was designed from literature search, review of established instruments, and input from faculty and students. The WIQ was administered to 437 junior and senior students in ...


Form And Function As A Basis For Referential Development In Children , Ferol Schricker Menzel Jan 1979

Form And Function As A Basis For Referential Development In Children , Ferol Schricker Menzel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Affect And Moral Judgment In Older Children, Sonia Soneson Werner Jan 1979

Affect And Moral Judgment In Older Children, Sonia Soneson Werner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Parental Perceptions Of Socially Competent Behaviors Of Boys And Girls , Ann Katharine Reardon Jan 1978

Parental Perceptions Of Socially Competent Behaviors Of Boys And Girls , Ann Katharine Reardon

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Relationships Between Parental Behaviors And Children's Moral Reasoning , Ronald Lynn Mullis Jan 1978

Relationships Between Parental Behaviors And Children's Moral Reasoning , Ronald Lynn Mullis

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Development Of Children's Cognitive And Affective Role-Taking Abilities In Relation To Aggressive Behavior In The Classroom , Bruce Michael Gilberg Jan 1977

The Development Of Children's Cognitive And Affective Role-Taking Abilities In Relation To Aggressive Behavior In The Classroom , Bruce Michael Gilberg

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Feedback On Teachers' Assessments Of Young Children's Developmental Status , Dorothy Lee Hutchins Jan 1975

Effect Of Feedback On Teachers' Assessments Of Young Children's Developmental Status , Dorothy Lee Hutchins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Parental Self-Actualization And Child's Self-Concept , Mark Edwin King Jan 1974

Parental Self-Actualization And Child's Self-Concept , Mark Edwin King

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Social Interaction In Middle Childhood Within Dyadic Groups , Dahlia Ann Frey Stockdale Jan 1972

Social Interaction In Middle Childhood Within Dyadic Groups , Dahlia Ann Frey Stockdale

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.