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Theses/Dissertations

Iowa State University

Student Counseling and Personnel Services

Psychology

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Stability Of Career Aspirations: A Test Of Gottfredson's Theory Of Circumscription And Compromise, Kate E. Junk Jan 2008

Stability Of Career Aspirations: A Test Of Gottfredson's Theory Of Circumscription And Compromise, Kate E. Junk

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Gottfredson's (1981) developmental theory of career choices was evaluated using longitudinal data. This study builds on previous research into Gottfredson's model by addressing methodological issues in the confounding of sex type, prestige, and interest measures when measuring expressed career choices by statistically controlling for the inter-relations among these variables in the analyses. Participants were 2,353 women enrolled at the Seven College Conference Schools and 321 men enrolled at Harvard and Vassar. Expressed career preferences were coded for sex type, prestige, and the Things/People and Data/Ideas interest dimension. Stability of expressed career choices over a one ...


Success In The Sciences: Potential Influences Of Sex Role Conflict, Self-Efficacy, And Role Modeling On Women's Career Aspirations, Anna Frances Rudroff Jan 2007

Success In The Sciences: Potential Influences Of Sex Role Conflict, Self-Efficacy, And Role Modeling On Women's Career Aspirations, Anna Frances Rudroff

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A discrepancy exists between the number of men and women pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). To investigate this discrepancy, this study examined a model assessing the potential influence of multiple variables on the career aspirations of women pursuing these degrees. Two hundred thirty-two first and second-year women majoring in STEM fields completed measures assessing quality and quantity of role modeling relationships, STEM self-efficacy, STEM interests, sex role conflict, and career aspirations. Quality of role modeling relationships and STEM self-efficacy significantly predicted career aspirations. STEM self-efficacy did not mediate the relation between quality of role modeling relationships ...


Assessment Of Implicit Bias And Self-Reported Multicultural Counseling Competencies Among Counseling Trainees , Guy A. Boysen Jan 2006

Assessment Of Implicit Bias And Self-Reported Multicultural Counseling Competencies Among Counseling Trainees , Guy A. Boysen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research has shown that multicultural training increases competency among counselor trainees. However, these results have been obtained using self-report measures affected by social desirability. In contrast, implicit measures of bias have the advantage of being less susceptible to social desirability. Study 1 explored the reliability and validity of a measure of implicit bias. Study 2 examined self-reported multicultural counseling competency and implicit bias toward lesbian and gay men and African Americans at the start and end of a semester in a sample of counselor trainees (n = 124) enrolled in multicultural counseling or unrelated comparison courses. Results indicated that multicultural competency ...


Online Counseling: Dynamics Of Process And Assessment , Michael John Mallen Jan 2005

Online Counseling: Dynamics Of Process And Assessment , Michael John Mallen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The rise in popularity and use of computer-mediated modes of communication such as email and synchronous chat have resulted in the potential for new delivery methods of mental health services. The present study investigated the dynamics of an initial counseling session held in a synchronous chat environment between therapists-in-training at various graduate programs across the country and a trained confederate posing as a client. Transcripts from the online sessions were analyzed to investigate therapist responses and interventions in the online environment. Therapists-in-training were also asked to respond to questions concerning their satisfaction with the experience, the relationship they were able ...


Concurrent Validity Of The 2004 Strong Interest Inventory: An Examination Of Gender And College Major , Courtney Elaine Gasser Jan 2005

Concurrent Validity Of The 2004 Strong Interest Inventory: An Examination Of Gender And College Major , Courtney Elaine Gasser

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

To keep abreast of the advent of new occupations and majors, the 1994 Strong Interest Inventory (SII) was revised in 2004. This study examined the concurrent validity of the 2004 Strong Interest Inventory, primarily investigating the scales abilities to differentiate between different college majors for women. Discriminant analyses were used to examine the ability of the 41 scales of the SII to separate 31 college majors. Of the 41 scales, 39 scales were statistically significant in separating college majors for women. In addition, the utility of specific sets of scales and the cumulative ability of sets of SII scales to ...


The Measurement Of Optimism And Hope In Relation To College Student Retention And Academic Success , Patrick John Barlow Jan 2002

The Measurement Of Optimism And Hope In Relation To College Student Retention And Academic Success , Patrick John Barlow

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Consistent with research approaches in positive psychology, the variables of optimism and hope were investigated to determine what role these constructs had in the retention and academic success of college students. A sample of 282 students (172 women, 111 men) from a large midwestern university, supplemented by 82 collateral reporters (friends or relatives of the students), participated in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire including Scheier and Carvers' Life Orientation Test (LOT); Peterson, Semrnel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligmans' Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and C. R. Snyder's Adult Trait Hope Scale (HOPE) along with measures of depression ...


The Contributions Of Advising Experiences With Faculty And Classroom Social Environment To Undergraduate Students' Persistence In Physical Science, Mathematical, And Engineering Majors , Jennifer Ann Dooley Jan 2001

The Contributions Of Advising Experiences With Faculty And Classroom Social Environment To Undergraduate Students' Persistence In Physical Science, Mathematical, And Engineering Majors , Jennifer Ann Dooley

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study explored the extent to which advising experiences with faculty, classroom social environment, relational-interdependent self-construal, and math and science self-efficacy, both individually and in combination, contribute to the prediction of persistence in the physical sciences, mathematics, and engineering (PSME). Based on the self-in-relation model of identity development and social-cognitive theories, it was hypothesized that: (1) women would prefer a more developmental style of advising than men; (2) a developmental style of advising, advising contact with faculty, and professorial concern would each contribute to the prediction of persistence in PSME majors; and (3) the relationships between: (a) advising experiences and ...


A Longitudinal Evaluation Of Factors Associated With Retaining Women In Science And Engineering , Christina Marie Osslund Gandhi Jan 1999

A Longitudinal Evaluation Of Factors Associated With Retaining Women In Science And Engineering , Christina Marie Osslund Gandhi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the longitudinal effects of a Living Learning Center (LLC) on women studying engineering, science, and Mathematics; The intervention was designed to decrease social isolation within women studying traditionally male-dominated career fields. Secondary goals included increasing LLC participants' retention within nontraditional academic majors and enhancing LLC participants' academic performance within nontraditional courses of study. Finally, increasing LLC participants' university retention, overall academic performance, self-efficacy, and college adjustment were tertiary objectives. Based on previous research, it was hypothesized that women participating in the LLC would report less social isolation, greater major and university retention, higher academic performance, and greater ...


Social Information Processing In Children: Sequential Relations And Syndrome Specificity , Timi Dee Friederichs Jordison Jan 1999

Social Information Processing In Children: Sequential Relations And Syndrome Specificity , Timi Dee Friederichs Jordison

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined social information processing as a function of level of depression, anxiety, aggression and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children. Multiple informants were used to identify symptoms of depression, anxiety, aggression and ADHD in 141 fifth grade children in an Iowa middle school. 91 of these students were randomly selected to be interviewed with an instrument consisting of six vignettes depicting social situations relevant to this age group. Four stages of social information processing were studied: (a) interpretation of cues, (b) goal clarification (i.e., goal generation and evaluation), (c) response generation and (d) response evaluation. The ...


Investigating Antecedents To The Development Of Competence And Fulfillment Among Intellectually Gifted Adolescents: The Validity Of Conjointly Applying Above-Level Ability And Preference Assessment For Early Educational And Career Planning , John Andrew Achter Jan 1997

Investigating Antecedents To The Development Of Competence And Fulfillment Among Intellectually Gifted Adolescents: The Validity Of Conjointly Applying Above-Level Ability And Preference Assessment For Early Educational And Career Planning , John Andrew Achter

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recent efforts examining the educational and vocational development needs of intellectually gifted students have focused on the possibility of early intervention. There is considerable anecdotal evidence that the gifted begin to think earlier about careers than their peers and that their general vocational preferences may crystallize at an earlier age. Empirical research has produced some support for these assertions, as well as the notion that tests and questionnaires devised for use with older students might be applied in early adolescence with intellectually gifted individuals. Instruments measuring abilities and preferences, factors critical to the development of educational and vocational choice, competence ...


A Causal Model Of Predictors Of Research Productivity And Science-Related Career Goals Among Counseling Psychology Graduate Students , Jeffrey Howard Kahn Jan 1997

A Causal Model Of Predictors Of Research Productivity And Science-Related Career Goals Among Counseling Psychology Graduate Students , Jeffrey Howard Kahn

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The present study investigated predictors of research productivity and science-related career goals in a sample of graduate students in counseling psychology. It was hypothesized that Holland personality and perceptions of the research training environment (RTE) influence interest in research and research self-efficacy. These latter two variables, in turn, were hypothesized to influence research productivity and career goals. It was further hypothesized that the students' gender and year in the doctoral program would contribute to this causal model as additional predictor variables. A sample of 287 graduate students (representing a response rate of 55%) from 15 randomly selected APA-accredited counseling psychology ...


Educational And Vocational Choices Of Gifted Individuals: Guidance Counseling And Research For Adolescents Into Adulthood , Teresa Anne Argo Boatman Jan 1997

Educational And Vocational Choices Of Gifted Individuals: Guidance Counseling And Research For Adolescents Into Adulthood , Teresa Anne Argo Boatman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The two papers presented herein focused on guidance and research surrounding educational and vocational development of gifted adolescents. The first paper presented educational interventions to optimize talent development through formulating an individualized educational plan to provide the best match of intellectual ability and preferences with educational opportunities. The paper highlights the school psychologist's role as consultant for serving the needs of the gifted learner;The second paper examined the educational and vocational choices, as well as preference profiles, of intellectually talented individuals with dominant mathematical abilities or dominant verbal abilities at age 13 based upon Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT ...


An Analysis Of Request-Centered Relational Communication Within Behavioral Consultation Using A Sample Of Practicing School Psychologists , Tracey Lynn Johnson Jan 1997

An Analysis Of Request-Centered Relational Communication Within Behavioral Consultation Using A Sample Of Practicing School Psychologists , Tracey Lynn Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The Folger and Puck (1976) request-centered relational communication coding system was used to examine the relationship between measures of consultant and consultee control in behavioral consultation and (a) consultee satisfaction; (b) client behavior change; (c) perceived treatment integrity; and (d) perceptions of client behavior change. School psychologists from across Iowa served as consultants to one consultee each across three problem-solving interviews. The Problem Identification Interview was audiotaped and request-response transactions were coded. Requests were coded as either: dominant, dominant-affiliative, or submissive and served as measures of consultant and consultee control. Measures of consultant and consultee control and the outcome measures ...


American Indian College Students' Counseling Attitudes: College Adjustment And Counselor Influences , Brian Keith Price Jan 1994

American Indian College Students' Counseling Attitudes: College Adjustment And Counselor Influences , Brian Keith Price

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The counseling attitudes of 305 entering freshmen, representing 122 tribes at an American Indian college, were surveyed both at the beginning of the fall semester and at the end of the semester following contact with American Indian counselors through campus activities and in a freshman orientation course. Counseling attitudes included the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help (ATSPPH) scale and items pertaining to willingness to use the counseling center. Sociocultural, campus adjustment, and counseling center-specific variables were analyzed to determine whether they influenced or predicted either general or specific counseling attitudes. Sociocultural variables included the students' cultural commitment, gender, and ...


Women In Engineering: Factors Affecting Persistence And Attrition In College Majors , Kathleen Galvin Schaefers Jan 1993

Women In Engineering: Factors Affecting Persistence And Attrition In College Majors , Kathleen Galvin Schaefers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined factors related to persistence in engineering and related college majors, with attention to women's experiences. Participants were 278 upper-class undergraduates (135 women and 143 men) who as freshmen entered the college of engineering at a large midwestern university. Persisters in engineering, physical science, and mathematics were compared with those who did not persist. Participants completed a survey questionnaire, including variables predicted by self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1986), expectancy-valence theory (Vroom, 1964), and interest congruence theory (Holland, 1973). Social support/environmental barriers, grade point averages, pre-college ability, and interests also were included. Four sources of self-efficacy information (personal ...


Senior Center Counseling Services: A National Survey, James Dean Thompson Jan 1992

Senior Center Counseling Services: A National Survey, James Dean Thompson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Two hundred twenty-eight National Institute of Senior Center members, representing a 50.1% response rate to a national survey, completed a questionnaire regarding their centers' present or potential counseling services. Respondents indicated that beginning or continuing to offer counseling programs was important and necessary. Results revealed that lack of funding was the primary reason for not offering or discontinuing counseling services;Almost 45% of the responding centers reported offering counseling for their participants. These centers indicated that, on average, over 65 clients or over 7% of the centers' participants, were utilizing their counseling services. In addition, centers offering counseling programs ...


A Cluster Analytic Approach To Interest Measurement With The Act Interest Inventory , David Clay Barnett Jan 1991

A Cluster Analytic Approach To Interest Measurement With The Act Interest Inventory , David Clay Barnett

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study attempted to identify, replicate and validate subgroups of high school students based on similarity of their responses to items of the ACT-Interest Inventory. A data set collected in 1973 and in 1976-1979 by the American College Testing Program/Institute for Demographic and Economic Studies was used for this study. Random samples were selected and clustered with two hierarchical cluster analysis techniques (Ward's method and average linkage method). Average linkage did not yield a meaningful structure. A six-group solution was selected from Ward's method results for further study. Evidence for replicability of the clusters across samples was ...


Counseling Ethics And Practice: Student Understanding Of The Ethical Practices Of Counseling And Psychotherapy, Jon Michael Schwabach Jan 1991

Counseling Ethics And Practice: Student Understanding Of The Ethical Practices Of Counseling And Psychotherapy, Jon Michael Schwabach

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Enhancing Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Via A University Career Course Intervention , Craig Allan Oreshnick Jan 1991

Enhancing Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Via A University Career Course Intervention , Craig Allan Oreshnick

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The present study further evaluated the extension of Bandura's self-efficacy (SE) theory to the career decision-making (CDM) domain. The purposes of this investigation were to: (a) evaluate the effectiveness of a SE based career intervention using various outcome variables, including measures of CDM self-efficacy and career indecision; (b) examine the relationship between CDM self-efficacy and CDM task (performance) success, CDM anxiety, and career indecision (decidedness); and (c) further evaluate the validity of the Short-Form Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (SFCDMSE). Subjects consisted of 159 college students, primarily undergraduates, who participated in either a career decision-making and planning course (treatment group ...


Teacher And Student Characteristics Associated With Referrals To A Child Guidance Clinic , Susan Laurie Graham-Clay Jan 1987

Teacher And Student Characteristics Associated With Referrals To A Child Guidance Clinic , Susan Laurie Graham-Clay

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Relative to other areas of special education, much less attention has been paid to the first step that initiates special education consideration: the referral itself. The intent of this study was to investigate actual referrals submitted to a child guidance clinic during an entire school year, and associated student and teacher characteristics;Referral results indicated that about 4% of the total student population was referred during the year, and most referrals were school-based. Twice as many boys were referred as girls. The majority of referrals (73%) occurred at the elementary level, and learning problems were the most frequently cited referral ...