Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Theses/Dissertations

Science and Mathematics Education

Algebra

Institution
Publication Year
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 43

Full-Text Articles in Education

Implementing A Flipped Classroom In A Unit On Slope, Ryan Tuggle-Haskins May 2020

Implementing A Flipped Classroom In A Unit On Slope, Ryan Tuggle-Haskins

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

As instructional technology increases, educators seek ways to incorporate it into their curriculum. One effective method teachers use is the flipped classroom. It can be challenging to incorporate a flipped classroom; thus, this curriculum project was designed to support its implementation. The curriculum project presents an exemplar on using remote instruction with the Algebra topic of slope. During the Spring 2020 global pandemic that resulted in the shutdown of public schools, many teachers looked to the flipped classroom for best practices in remote instruction. This project was designed to highlight instructional technology to support remote instruction as well as presenting ...


Revised Bloom's Taxonomy: Providing Structure For Levels Of Learning Required In Systems Of Equations In Algebra 1, Michael Larkin May 2020

Revised Bloom's Taxonomy: Providing Structure For Levels Of Learning Required In Systems Of Equations In Algebra 1, Michael Larkin

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This project was created by a teacher for other teachers. The project provides an in-depth look at how Bloom’s Taxonomy can be used by teachers to support student understanding of systems of equations using the following methods of graphing, substitution, and elimination. The lessons place an emphasis on higher level thinking to promote learning experiences throughout the unit. The lessons are aligned to Common Core State Standards and Next Generation Standards as well. Recommendations for how and when to use each lesson have been provided by the author.


An Exploration Of Scaffolding Strategies In A Remedial High School Mathematics Course, Pauline Ofure Aikhuele Jan 2020

An Exploration Of Scaffolding Strategies In A Remedial High School Mathematics Course, Pauline Ofure Aikhuele

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In a southeastern state school district, the educators understood little about the scaffolding practices of ninth-grade teachers of Foundations of Algebra (FOA), a remedial course. FOA is a mathematics course designed for students who need substantial help to master the required standards. An increasing number of students in 2 high schools failed FOA; hence, they were not prepared for Algebra 1. The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to explore the scaffolding strategies used by FOA teachers. Bruner's constructivist theory and Vygotsky's zone of proximal development (ZPD) theory were used to guide this study. The research ...


Preparing New Jersey Community College Students For The Mathematics Placement Tests, Charles Edward Haas Jan 2020

Preparing New Jersey Community College Students For The Mathematics Placement Tests, Charles Edward Haas

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Although most new college students had to demonstrate algebraic and basic mathematics mastery to earn a high school diploma or the equivalent, the majority of incoming New Jersey community college students are not showing this knowledge on the mathematics placement tests, thus placing into developmental courses, which must be successfully completed before students can attempt any college-level mathematics courses. Guided by Knowles’ theory of andragogy and developmental mathematics as a core concept, the purpose of this study was to determine ways to help incoming New Jersey community college students prepare for the ACCUPLACER mathematics tests. The research questions addressed testing ...


Implementing Digital Tools In Assessments For Algebra, Brandon M. Kapcinski Oct 2019

Implementing Digital Tools In Assessments For Algebra, Brandon M. Kapcinski

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This project will give a brief overview of what purpose formative and summative assessments have in secondary mathematics classrooms. Furthermore, this paper will discuss the importance of digital content as it pertains to assessment. Specifically, this algebra curriculum project provides secondary mathematics educators with necessary information on how to utilize digital tools with assessment to deepen student’s content knowledge. The framework of the SAMR Model guides teachers to the smooth integration of digital technology in assessment.


Exploring The Knowledge Of Algebra For Teaching., Jonathan David Watkins Dec 2018

Exploring The Knowledge Of Algebra For Teaching., Jonathan David Watkins

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

For the past few decades, researchers in mathematics education have been exploring the concept of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK)—or knowledge related to teaching content—and applying it to various areas of mathematics, such as algebra. Research related to teacher knowledge of algebra is critical because researchers (e.g., Hill, Rowan, & Ball, 2005) have found correlations between some types of teacher knowledge and student achievement in mathematics; students from around the world are outperforming U.S. students on international assessments of mathematics, including algebra (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2014, 2016); and algebra plays an integral role in the K-12 mathematics curriculum in the U.S. (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000). Given this ...


Relationship Of Supplemental Instruction And Attitude Of Students Enrolled In College Algebra, Kele Anne Mckaig Jul 2018

Relationship Of Supplemental Instruction And Attitude Of Students Enrolled In College Algebra, Kele Anne Mckaig

OTS Master's Level Projects & Papers

The problem of this study was to determine the relationship of supplemental instruction on the attitudes of college algebra students at a Southeastern university. The population for this study consisted of college algebra students enrolled in M102 and M103 courses in the Summer 2018 semester. While M102 and M103 cover the same material, M103 requires mandatory tutoring in addition to the classroom instruction. A survey of these students provided data on their attitudes toward mathematics at the beginning and end of their college algebra course. The first research question of this study asked to what extent attitudes differ, if at ...


Teacher Graphing Practices For Linear Functions In A Covariation-Based College Algebra Classroom, Konda Jo Luckau Jul 2018

Teacher Graphing Practices For Linear Functions In A Covariation-Based College Algebra Classroom, Konda Jo Luckau

Theses and Dissertations

Graphing is a fundamental topic in algebra that is notoriously difficult for students. Much of the past research has focused on conceptions and misconceptions. This study extends past research by looking at the mathematical practices of a practitioner, specifically one instructor of a function-based covariation-focused algebra class in the linear functions unit. Considering practices in addition to conception adds dramatically to our understanding of mathematical activity because it leads to explicit descriptions of normative purposes that are connected to particular situations or problems and also specifies how tools and symbols are coordinated to achieve these purposes. The results of this ...


Stem Integration: Making Connections In Mathematics And Science By Teaching Logarithms Conceptually, Andrew Smith May 2018

Stem Integration: Making Connections In Mathematics And Science By Teaching Logarithms Conceptually, Andrew Smith

Doctor of Education in Secondary Education Dissertations

The purpose of this research study was to examine both qualitatively and quantitatively the difference in conceptual understanding of logarithms of students participating in a traditional classroom setting in which a correspondence approach (Confrey & Smith, 1995) was used and students participating in an integrated STEM unit of logarithms and pH in which a covariational approach (Ferrari-Escolá, Martínez-Sierra, & Méndez-Guevara, 2016) was used. In addition, the researcher investigated how students make connections among different representations of logarithms and transferring knowledge between mathematics and science.

A quasi-experimental design was used in which qualitative data were collected using an Observation Protocol and quantitative data were collected using the Logarithms and pH Assessment (LPA). The qualitative data showed that students in the treatment group were thinking of logarithms in a mathematics and science context at a deeper level of conceptual understanding according to Weber’s (2002) levels of understanding exponential and logarithmic functions and Park and Choi’s (2012) levels of understanding pH. In addition, the qualitative data showed that students in the integrated STEM classroom were better able to transfer their knowledge of logarithms to pH and make deeper connections among different representations of logarithms (numerical, algebraic, and graphical). However, the quantitative data from the LPA, which defines conceptual understanding as the ability to represent concept in multiple forms: written, numerical, algebraic, and graphical (Panasuk, 2010; Rittle-Johnson, Siegler, & Alibali, 2001), indicated that the traditional classroom developed students’ conceptual understanding more than the integrated STEM classroom.

This study provides mathematics and science educators with relevant information about incorporating integrated STEM lessons and covariational reasoning to teach logarithms conceptually, to improve a student’s conceptual understanding of logarithms and pH, and their ability to apply mathematical knowledge to settings other than the mathematics classroom.


A Program Evaluation Of Double-Period Algebra, Jason Major Dec 2017

A Program Evaluation Of Double-Period Algebra, Jason Major

Dissertations

Students in ninth grade traditionally take algebra courses, but many students come in lacking foundational skills in mathematics. High schools have tried to solve this problem by introducing double-period algebra courses with sporadic results. During this program evaluation, I interviewed an administrator and a teacher from two different high schools about the methods they used to begin and evaluate the program; I found that student-teacher relationships were the most important factor in the effectiveness of the program. Using quantitative data was a good starting point to determine the students who would benefit from the program and who would be successful ...


The Impact Of An Elementary Algebra Course On Student Success In A College-Level Liberal Arts Math Course And Persistence In College, Lori Ann Austin Mar 2017

The Impact Of An Elementary Algebra Course On Student Success In A College-Level Liberal Arts Math Course And Persistence In College, Lori Ann Austin

Theses and Dissertations

Many students enter community college underprepared for college-level math and are placed into developmental elementary algebra without consideration if the algebra will provide a foundation for their needed college-level math course. Large percentages of those students are unable to succeed in the developmental course and, therefore, are unable to graduate (Bahr, 2008; Bailey, Jeong, & Cho, 2010). This quasi-experimental design focused on students who are not in math-intensive majors, needing only a general liberal arts math course. The purpose was to determine the impact of the elementary algebra course on success in college-level math and persistence in college. Student performance data ...


Developing Conceptual Understanding And Procedural Fluency In Algebra For High School Students With Intellectual Disability, Andrew J. Wojcik Jan 2017

Developing Conceptual Understanding And Procedural Fluency In Algebra For High School Students With Intellectual Disability, Andrew J. Wojcik

Theses and Dissertations

Teaching students with Intellectual Disability (ID) is a relatively new endeavor. Beginning in 2001 with the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act, the general education curriculum integrated algebra across the K-12 curriculum (Kendall, 2011; National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010), and expansion of the curriculum included five intertwined skills (productive disposition, procedural fluency, strategic competence, adaptive reasoning, and conceptual understanding) (Kilpatrick, Swafford, & Findell, 2001). Researchers are just beginning to explore the potential of students with ID with algebra (Browder, Spooner, Ahlgrim-Delzell, Harris & Wakeman, 2008; Creech-Galloway, Collins, Knight, & Bausch, 2013; Courtade, Spooner, Browder, & Jimenez, 2012; Göransson, Hellblom-Thibblin, & Axdorph, 2016). Most of the research examines the development of procedural fluency (Göransson et al., 2016) and few researchers have explored high school level skills. Using a single-case multiple-baseline across participants design, the study proposes to teach two algebra skills to six high school students with ID, creating an equation (y=mx+b) from a graph of a line and creating a graph from an equation. The six high school students with ID will be recruited from a school district in central Virginia. The intervention package modeled after Jimenez, Browder, and Courtade (2008), included modeling, templates, time delay prompting, and a task analysis. Results showed that all six individuals improved performance during intervention for the target skills over baseline; results also indicated that in three out of the six cases some generalization to the inverse skill occurred without supplemental intervention. The ability of individuals with ID to generalize the learning without intervention provides some evidence that individuals with ID are developing conceptual understanding while learning procedural fluency.


A Matter Of Time: The Relationship Of Class Length And Demographics On The South Carolina Algebra I End-Of-Course Test In South Carolina Middle Schools, Jennifer Addie Ramsey Dec 2016

A Matter Of Time: The Relationship Of Class Length And Demographics On The South Carolina Algebra I End-Of-Course Test In South Carolina Middle Schools, Jennifer Addie Ramsey

Education Dissertations and Projects

For middle school students taking Algebra 1 as a high school credit, having sufficient instructional time to understand and explore the course content is crucial. While the focus of the literature review helps lend understanding to the study, there has been limited information concerning assessment scores in middle school math classes and the length of class time. This study investigated the differences in the End-of-Course Examination Program (EOCEP) test scores of middle school students in Algebra 1 as influenced by schedules used in South Carolina public middle schools for each individual year in a 5-year span of the 2010-2015 academic ...


Rearranging Algebraic Equations Using Electrical Circuit Applications: A Unit Plan Aligned To The New York State Common Core Learning Standards, Susan L. Sommers Jun 2016

Rearranging Algebraic Equations Using Electrical Circuit Applications: A Unit Plan Aligned To The New York State Common Core Learning Standards, Susan L. Sommers

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

As a response to both the implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and a recent approval of a change by the New York State Board of Regents to allow multiple pathways for graduation, this curriculum project, which will be referred to as a unit plan throughout the paper, was designed to meet the need for more units of study that apply mathematical modeling in algebra to real world situations that allow students to explore applications of mathematics in careers. The unit plan on rearranging algebraic equations using electrical circuit applications is aligned to the New York State Common ...


Motivation For Mathematics: The Development And Initial Validation Of An Abbreviated Instrument, Kenneth Lee Butler Apr 2016

Motivation For Mathematics: The Development And Initial Validation Of An Abbreviated Instrument, Kenneth Lee Butler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study outlines the development and initial validation of an abbreviated instrument intended to measure motivation for mathematics of university students in developmental algebra courses. I look across many of the predominant theories on motivation with the aim of representing several of these theories as latent constructs in a single instrument that is short enough to be administered in a reasonable amount of time, but inclusive enough that it could incorporate subscales representing multiple distinct latent factors. This study answers a call by researchers expressing a need to investigate relationships between disparate theories on motivation and is a response to ...


Calculators In High School Classrooms, Adam P. Rohrabaugh, Clay M. Cooper Jan 2016

Calculators In High School Classrooms, Adam P. Rohrabaugh, Clay M. Cooper

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

In today’s mathematics classrooms, calculators are becoming incredibly well known and used almost daily. However, there has been a common question about the use of these calculators: Is too much exposure to calculators causing students to become dependent on them and consequently start to forget basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, leading into confusion on other mathematics topics because the most basic foundation of mathematics is not there? The purpose of this paper is to discuss both sides of this question by looking at different studies as well as provide our own experiences with this subject while working in ...


Algebraic Content And Pedagogical Knowledge Of Sixth Grade Mathematics Teachers, Mariyam Shahuneeza Naseer Jan 2016

Algebraic Content And Pedagogical Knowledge Of Sixth Grade Mathematics Teachers, Mariyam Shahuneeza Naseer

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Algebra test scores of the Maldivian students from grade 6 through 12 are the lowest compared to any other area of mathematics. Algebra is a fundamental topic in mathematics and lays the foundation for mathematical reasoning and complex problem-solving. Research shows that strengthening algebra instruction could improve student achievement. This concurrent mixed methods study examined the algebraic content and pedagogical knowledge of 5 sixth grade mathematics teachers who teach in 5 different schools across the Maldives. Shulman's major categories of teacher knowledge and Ball, Thames, and Phelps' domains of mathematical knowledge for teaching guided this study. The research questions ...


The Influence Of Types Of Homework On Opportunity To Learn And Students' Mathematics Achievement: Examples From The University Of Chicago School Mathematics Project, Yiting Yu Sep 2015

The Influence Of Types Of Homework On Opportunity To Learn And Students' Mathematics Achievement: Examples From The University Of Chicago School Mathematics Project, Yiting Yu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Public views on assigning students mathematics homework have been controversial. Although homework is designed for students to complete during non-school hours (Cooper, 1989), many see homework as excessive pressure on students. Most research placed their focus on the influence of the time spent on homework or the amount of homework on student achievement. Few studies have addressed the impact of types of mathematics homework. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of homework types in influencing opportunity to learn (OTL) on student achievement.

This quantitative study used subsets of a large existing dataset collected by University ...


Algebra 1 Students’ Ability To Relate The Definition Of A Function To Its Representations, Sarah A. Thomson Jun 2015

Algebra 1 Students’ Ability To Relate The Definition Of A Function To Its Representations, Sarah A. Thomson

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

One hundred high school Algebra students from a southern California school participated in this study to provide information on students’ ability to relate the definition of function to its representations. The goals of the study were (1) to explore the extent to which students are able to distinguish between representations of functions/non-functions; (2) to compare students’ ability to distinguish between familiar/unfamiliar representations of functions/non-functions; (3) to explore the extent to which students are able to apply the definition of function to verify function representations; and (4) to explore the extent to which students are able to provide ...


Examining Implementations Of Blended Learning In A K-12 Mathematics Classroom, Kelsey Waynick May 2015

Examining Implementations Of Blended Learning In A K-12 Mathematics Classroom, Kelsey Waynick

Honors Projects

In this research project, I investigated the effects on eighth grade students’ performances and perceptions throughout a blended learning experience by implementing a combination of face-to-face and online instructional strategies in an Algebra classroom. This blended experience was segmented into two units – a face-to-face unit and a blended unit – to allow for comparison within the participant group of high-achieving mathematics students. Edmodo, an online educational platform, was utilized to provide students with access to online resources at home during the blended unit. Students completed a series of three identical tests to quantitatively measure learning growth at designated checkpoints throughout the ...


Teaching Algebra: A Comparison Of Scottish And American Perspectives, Brittany Munro May 2015

Teaching Algebra: A Comparison Of Scottish And American Perspectives, Brittany Munro

Undergraduate Honors Theses

A variety of factors influence what teaching strategies an educator uses. I analyze survey responses from algebra teachers in Scotland and Appalachia America to discover how a teacher's perception of these factors, particularly their view of mathematics itself, determines the pedagogical strategies employed in the classroom.


Relationships Between The Algebraic Performance Of Students In Subject-Specific And Integrated Course Pathways, Derrick Saddler Apr 2015

Relationships Between The Algebraic Performance Of Students In Subject-Specific And Integrated Course Pathways, Derrick Saddler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to compare the algebraic performance gains of high school students who enroll in an integrated mathematics course pathway (i.e., Integrated Mathematics I-II-III) to the algebraic performance gains of high school students who enroll in a subject-specific course pathway (i.e., Algebra I-Geometry-Algebra II). Several studies have been performed in which researchers examined relationships between mathematics outcomes and the course-taking patterns of high school students enrolled in subject-specific course pathways. However, there is little extant research in which researchers have investigated effects of content organization on students' learning and achievement. Therefore, this study addresses ...


Success After Failure: An Examination Of Credit Recovery Options And Their Effect On College- And Career-Readiness, Kathryn B. Johnson Jan 2015

Success After Failure: An Examination Of Credit Recovery Options And Their Effect On College- And Career-Readiness, Kathryn B. Johnson

Theses and Dissertations--Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

More than ever before, educators and researchers are keeping a keen eye on student college- and career-readiness. The widely adopted Common Core State Standards were written with the explicit goal of helping students to be college- or career-ready by the time they graduate from high school. However, many students experience setbacks, such as course failure, within their educational career placing them at risk for not reaching this goal. Because the ACT can predict student success in college, states often use benchmark scores from the exam to measure student college- and career-readiness. A student who fails to learn fundamental concepts in ...


The Effects Of A Varied Method Of Instruction On Student Achievement, Transfer, Situational Interest, And Course Retention Rates In Community College Developmental Mathematics, Kevin L. Mccandless Jan 2015

The Effects Of A Varied Method Of Instruction On Student Achievement, Transfer, Situational Interest, And Course Retention Rates In Community College Developmental Mathematics, Kevin L. Mccandless

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the effects of a varied method of instruction on student achievement, knowledge transfer, situational interest, and course retention rates, relative to a non-varied method of instruction, in community college developmental mathematics. The varied method of instruction consisted of active learning teaching practices with foundations in social constructivism, whereas the non-varied method of instruction was founded in Cognitive Load Theory and consisted primarily of explicit instruction and individual practice.

An initial sample of 139 students who enrolled in six sections of Beginning Algebra at an urban community college in Northern California participated ...


The Influences Of Mathematics Self-Efficacy, Identity, Interest, And Parental Involvement On Stem Achievement In Algebra For Female High School Students, Nicol R. Howard Jan 2015

The Influences Of Mathematics Self-Efficacy, Identity, Interest, And Parental Involvement On Stem Achievement In Algebra For Female High School Students, Nicol R. Howard

Educational Studies Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the predictability of STEM achievement in Algebra for female high school students utilizing mathematics self-efficacy, mathematics interest, mathematics identity, and parental involvement. This study employed data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09/12) which consisted of 3,938 female eleventh-grade participants randomly selected from 944 public and private high schools during the fall 2009 academic year. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression indicated that mathematics identity was the strongest predictor of STEM achievement for female high school students, regardless of race. In spite of this significant relationship ...


Effects Of Embedded Study-Skills Instruction On High School Students' Attitudes Toward Mathematics, Alberta Diahann Banks Jan 2015

Effects Of Embedded Study-Skills Instruction On High School Students' Attitudes Toward Mathematics, Alberta Diahann Banks

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The target school used embedded study skills in Algebra I classes to improve attitudes toward mathematics. The purpose of this sequential, explanatory mixed-methods study was to examine the effect of embedded study-skills instruction on students' attitudes toward mathematics. Metacognitive theory was used for this study's framework. Participants were 28 Grade 9 and 10 students who repeated Algebra I. Quantitative data from the Attitudes Toward Mathematics Inventory assessed students' pre- and post-instruction attitudes toward mathematics in 4 domains. Data were analyzed using 4 independent samples t tests for students who did and did not receive embedded instruction. Qualitative data were ...


An Investigation Of Factors Affecting Student Performance In Algebraic Word Problem Solutions, Jerry Eugene Wright Jan 2014

An Investigation Of Factors Affecting Student Performance In Algebraic Word Problem Solutions, Jerry Eugene Wright

Education Dissertations and Projects

This dissertation was designed to investigate the potential significance of several student algebraic word problem solving skills. The solution of an algebra word problem (AWP) requires the creation and solution of an equation based on the problem context. Common Core State Standards in both English Language Arts and Mathematics emphasize student learning and proficiency in algebra word problem contexts. Eight factors of student mathematical ability were proposed, and three of those eight factors were studied in depth to determine their significance. Similar research supported the theory that the translation phase of the solution process presented the student with the most ...


Teaching Algebra Through Functional Programming:An Analysis Of The Bootstrap Curriculum, Robert Lee Mar 2013

Teaching Algebra Through Functional Programming:An Analysis Of The Bootstrap Curriculum, Robert Lee

Theses and Dissertations

Bootstrap is a computer-programming curriculum that teaches students to program video games using Racket, a functional programming language based on algebraic syntax. This study investigated the relationship between learning to program video games from a Bootstrap course and the resulting effect on students' understanding of algebra. Courses in three different schools, lasting about six weeks each, were studied. Control and treatment groups were given a pre and post algebra assessment. A qualitative component consisting of observations and interviews was also used to further triangulate findings. Statistical analysis revealed that students who completed the Bootstrap course gained a significantly better understanding ...


Investigating The Impact Of Interactive Applets On Students’ Understanding Of Parameter Changes To Parent Functions: An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study, Robin R. Mcclaran Jan 2013

Investigating The Impact Of Interactive Applets On Students’ Understanding Of Parameter Changes To Parent Functions: An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study, Robin R. Mcclaran

Theses and Dissertations--Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

The technology principle in the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000) states that technology plays an important role in how teachers teach mathematics and in how students learn mathematics. The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed-methods study was to examine the impact of interactive applets on students’ understanding of parameter changes to parent functions. Students in the treatment classes were found to have statistically significantly higher posttest scores than students in the control classes. Although the data analysis showed a statistically significant difference between classes on procedural understanding, no statistically significant difference was found with regard to conceptual ...


Attitudes, Beliefs, And Perceptions Of College Level Students, Lindsay C. Weise Dec 2012

Attitudes, Beliefs, And Perceptions Of College Level Students, Lindsay C. Weise

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of this research is to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of college level students enrolled in an algebra course at the community college level. A survey was given to measure mathematical attitudes, beliefs, and math anxiety. Significant findings were found when looking at the difference in prior mathematics courses, repeating college algebra, enrollment status, gender, and age. By identifying the preconceived notions and beliefs that students have about mathematics and their academic ability, a teacher can use this knowledge to better meet the needs of students.