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Brigham Young University

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Full-Text Articles in Education

“I Can Do Things Because I Feel Valuable”: Authentic Project Experiences And How They Matter To Instructional Design Students, Jason K. Mcdonald, Amy A. Rogers Jan 2021

“I Can Do Things Because I Feel Valuable”: Authentic Project Experiences And How They Matter To Instructional Design Students, Jason K. Mcdonald, Amy A. Rogers

Faculty Publications

This paper examines how authentic project experiences matter to instructional design students. We explored this through a single case study of an instructional design student (referred to as Abby) who participated as a member of an educational simulation design team at a university in the western United States. Our data consisted of interviews with Abby that we analyzed to understand how she depicted her participation in this authentic project. In general, Abby found her project involvement to open up both possibilities and constraints. Early in her involvement, when she encountered limitations she did not expect, those constraints showed up as ...


This Is My Vision’: How Students Depict Critiques Along With Themselves During Critiques, Jason K. Mcdonald, Esther Michela Nov 2020

This Is My Vision’: How Students Depict Critiques Along With Themselves During Critiques, Jason K. Mcdonald, Esther Michela

Faculty Publications

In this article we consider critiques within the design studio as how students press forward into possible forms of the self that are opened up through studio participation. We contrast this with a view of critiques as primarily being a pedagogical or socialising technique under the control of instructors and other critics. We carried out our inquiry using interviews with six studio students, studying how they depict critiques and how they depict themselves when being critiqued. Students’ depictions of critiques included their being: a) signal in the noise; b) windows into their critics’ character; c) a type of text to ...


Music As A Management Tool In Elementary Physical Education: A Qualitative Investigation, David C. Barney, Keven A. Prusak Sep 2020

Music As A Management Tool In Elementary Physical Education: A Qualitative Investigation, David C. Barney, Keven A. Prusak

Faculty Publications

Classroom management is an important aspect for a K-12 teacher in any content area. The same applies in physical education (PE). In PE there are large spaces, students are moving, and in many cases, equipment (basketballs, rackets, hula hoops, etc.) is involved. Thus, making PE a unique challenge in regard to classroom management for PE teachers. One tool an elementary PE teacher can use for classroom management is music. For this study, one school administrator, 19 elementary-aged students and one PE teacher were interviewed to better understand their perspectives of music as a management tool in elementary PE. Findings indicate ...


Developing Social-Emotional Learning In Physical Education Through Appropriate Instructional Practices, David C. Barney, Keven A. Prusak, Liana Davis Aug 2020

Developing Social-Emotional Learning In Physical Education Through Appropriate Instructional Practices, David C. Barney, Keven A. Prusak, Liana Davis

Faculty Publications

Social-emotional learning (SEL) has become an important topic in education. SEL is also important in physical education (PE). The nature of PE has students learning in the affective, cognitive, and psychomotor domains, thus providing many opportunities for SEL. And who facilitates SEL? The PE teacher has the opportunity to provide games, activities, and experiences to assist and strengthen their students’ SEL by implementing appropriate instructional practices (AIP) in PE. This article will highlight a number of AIP that PE teachers can implement to develop their students’ SEL.


A Qualitative Exploration Of Successful High School Baseball Coaches Silence During Practice, Patrick Mcgaha, David C. Barney Jul 2020

A Qualitative Exploration Of Successful High School Baseball Coaches Silence During Practice, Patrick Mcgaha, David C. Barney

Faculty Publications

For athletic coaches, there are many methods to coach their athletes. One method that may not be as common or even thought of as coaching, is silence. Silence is basically, when the coach does not speak, but is thinking of specific team, player, and competitor items. The purpose of this study was to interview consistently successful high school baseball coaches with an emphasis on their silence as a coaching behavior. Five successful high school baseball coaches in the southeastern region of the United States were interviewed. Generally, it was found that these baseball coaches were strategizing, thinking of baseball related ...


A Qualitative Investigation Of Middle School Students' Perceptions Of Appropriate Instructional Practices In Physical Education, David C. Barney May 2020

A Qualitative Investigation Of Middle School Students' Perceptions Of Appropriate Instructional Practices In Physical Education, David C. Barney

Faculty Publications

For many middle school (MS) students they have been exposed to many inappropriate instructional practices in physical education (PE). This involvement and exposure to these inappropriate instructional practices become common occurrences, thus in their mind this is what is supposed to happen in their PE class. The purpose of this study was to better understand MS student’s perceptions and attitudes to appropriate instructional practices (AIP) in their PE classes. It was generally found from student interviews that dodge ball is appropriate to play in PE class, wearing prescribed clothing (school shirt) will earn and easy ‘A’ in PE class ...


Physical Education Teacher Education (Pete) Majors' Perceptions And Opinions Of Appropriate Instructional Practices: A Qualitative Approach, David C. Barney, Liana Davis Apr 2019

Physical Education Teacher Education (Pete) Majors' Perceptions And Opinions Of Appropriate Instructional Practices: A Qualitative Approach, David C. Barney, Liana Davis

Faculty Publications

Physical education (PE) teachers are responsible for helping students learn in their classes. Unfortunately, many students have been exposed to games and activities that were inappropriate, thus negatively affecting their learning in PE class. Inappropriate instructional practices have been a common occurrence for many students. One group that can help curb the inclusion of inappropriate instructional practices are Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) majors. This study investigated PETE majors’ beliefs of certain instructional practices that have been implemented in PE games and activities. Many of the instructional practices were inappropriate. The PETE majors’ felt that dodge ball, relay games, and ...


Make Summer Great Again -- Do The Research Experience For Teachers (Ret) Program, Dan Broadbent Jan 2019

Make Summer Great Again -- Do The Research Experience For Teachers (Ret) Program, Dan Broadbent

Faculty Publications

What is the RET Program?

  • “Research Experience for Teachers”
  • It is a National Science Foundation (NSF) program that…
  • “supports the active involvement of K-12 teachers and community college faculty in research in order to bring knowledge and innovation into their classrooms.”
  • So, research universities apply for a grant from the NSF and then set it up.
  • Usually paired with REU


A Decade Of Disability Depictions In Newbery Award Books, H. Grow, Sharon Black, K. Egan, Tina Taylor, K. Moss, Rachel L. Wadham, Mary Anne Prater Jan 2019

A Decade Of Disability Depictions In Newbery Award Books, H. Grow, Sharon Black, K. Egan, Tina Taylor, K. Moss, Rachel L. Wadham, Mary Anne Prater

Faculty Publications

Newbery awards are conferred annually on books recognized as having made the most distinguished contribution to children’s literature; these books reach a wide audience, and their depictions of characters with disabilities can influence children's perceptions and attitudes toward individuals with disabilities. Eight Newbery Medal and Honor books chosen from 2010 to 2019 were identified as portraying 11 main or supporting characters with a disability. Six disabilities were represented: emotional disturbance, deafness, specific learning disability, speech/language impairment, orthopedic impairment, and traumatic brain injury. Applying the Rating Scale for Quality Characterizations of Individuals with Disabilities in Children’s Literature ...


Same But Different: Characters With Developmental Disabilities In Current Juvenile Literature, Tina Taylor, Kellie Egan, Kimberly T. Moss, Hannah P. Grow, Sharon Black, Mary Anne Prater Dec 2018

Same But Different: Characters With Developmental Disabilities In Current Juvenile Literature, Tina Taylor, Kellie Egan, Kimberly T. Moss, Hannah P. Grow, Sharon Black, Mary Anne Prater

Faculty Publications

As many children first encounter individuals with developmental disabilities (DD) through characters in children’s literature, these individuals must be depicted authentically. Using descriptive analyses, we evaluated 38 books written for children and adolescents (11 picture books, 17 chapter books) for their portrayals of characters with developmental disabilities, comparing the portrayals against those published in three previous studies. All books considered were eligible for the 2018 Dolly Gray Children’s Literature Award. Data were analyzed regarding personal portrayal, social interactions, and exemplary practices. Results indicated that most characters portrayed have ASD (80%) and the majority are male (65%). Generally, characters ...


Social Interactions In College Physical Activity Classes: “Something Else Is Taking Place Here”, David C. Barney Nov 2018

Social Interactions In College Physical Activity Classes: “Something Else Is Taking Place Here”, David C. Barney

Faculty Publications

Physical activity has been found to benefit a person in many ways. One of the benefits of being physically active is the social component. This deals with interacting with someone before, during or after the activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate social interactions effects on college-aged students during their physical activity class. For this study 408 college-aged students (272 males & 136 females) participated in this study. College-aged students were surveyed regarding their interactions during their physical activity class. The survey contained Likert scale questions and open-ended questions, requiring the students to respond with written answers. Briefly, it ...


Favoritism In The Physical Education Classroom: Selected Reflective Experiences, David C. Barney, Francis Pleban Dr., Amelia Dodd Nov 2018

Favoritism In The Physical Education Classroom: Selected Reflective Experiences, David C. Barney, Francis Pleban Dr., Amelia Dodd

Faculty Publications

Having a teacher show interest or concern may greatly influence, and encourage student learning; as well as fostering life-long positive behaviors, attitudes, and self-esteem. However, it is noted teachers have a tendency to select ‘favorites’ among their students (Cooper & Good, 1983; Tal & Babad, 1990; Aydogen, 2008); with physical education not immune to this practice. Thus, the purpose of this study was to better understand individual’s (i.e., former students in k-12 physical education) perspectives regarding their reflective experiences of teacher favoritism in physical education during their time in school physical education. Participants were 318 college-aged students from a private university located in the ...


Inappropriate Practices In Physical Education: The Top Eight Repeat Offenders, David C. Barney, Keven A. Prusak, Brad Strand, Robert Christenson Nov 2018

Inappropriate Practices In Physical Education: The Top Eight Repeat Offenders, David C. Barney, Keven A. Prusak, Brad Strand, Robert Christenson

Faculty Publications

The National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) have created three documents (elementary, middle school and high school) to guide physical educators in appropriate instructional practices (AIP) in physical education. The purpose of these documents is to aid physical educators in exposing their students to lessons and activities that will enable them to be successful in physical education classes and physical activity. Unfortunately, many students have been exposed to such activities as dodge ball, having captains picking teams in front of the whole class, and many others. This paper is a review of research dealing with appropriate instructional practices ...


The Effects Of Music On Student Step Counts And Time In Activity In College Basketball Activity Classes, David C. Barney, Keven A. Prusak, Lindsey Brewer Oct 2018

The Effects Of Music On Student Step Counts And Time In Activity In College Basketball Activity Classes, David C. Barney, Keven A. Prusak, Lindsey Brewer

Faculty Publications

Music is a powerful influence in life. We hear music at work, in the car, at the mall, and in our homes. Music has also been found to have an affect during physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music on physical activity rates, via pedometers, of college-aged students in basketball class. For this study 106 college-aged students participated in this study. Two classes played basketball with no music playing during game play. Two other classes played basketball with music playing during game play. It was found that the two classes that played basketball ...


Conversational Forms Of Instruction And Message Layer Design, Andrew S. Gibbons Iii, Elizabeth Boling Oct 2018

Conversational Forms Of Instruction And Message Layer Design, Andrew S. Gibbons Iii, Elizabeth Boling

Faculty Publications

This research provides a second point of validation for an architectural theory of instructional design (Gibbons, 2014) by demonstrating a robust theory-layer relationship for the Message layer. Previous research validated the theory-layer correspondence for the Control layer, a companion channel used for conversational exchange between learner and instructional system. This research identifies specific theoretical contributions to message layer design from fields as diverse as dialogic systems, recommender systems, social network software, intelligent tutoring systems, conversation theory, learning sciences, interface design, user experience design, computer software design, and education. An unexpected finding is that analysis at the message level, about which ...


High School Physical Education And Its Effects On Fitness Center Participation After Graduation: A Case Study, David C. Barney, Nathan Kahaialii Aug 2018

High School Physical Education And Its Effects On Fitness Center Participation After Graduation: A Case Study, David C. Barney, Nathan Kahaialii

Faculty Publications

For those that send off their child into the world, it is hoped they will recall what was taught to them. This applies to high school (HS) physical education (PE) teachers and their students that graduate from HS. The purpose of this case study was to assess current HS PE teachers, fitness club personnel, those that frequent fitness clubs and current HS students regarding HS PE preparing HS students for real world application regarding fitness. Participants from these four groups were interviewed to help better understand the preparation of graduated HS students participating in health clubs. From this case study ...


Unfinished Business: The Missing Skills, Andrew S. Gibbons Iii Jul 2018

Unfinished Business: The Missing Skills, Andrew S. Gibbons Iii

Faculty Publications

Two taxonomies of instructional goals (Bloom, Gagné) are revisited, asking why the design community at large treats them as “received wisdom”, while their authors and colleagues treat(ed) them as unfinished business and continued to modify them. The question is raised as to the possibility of finding a resolution of their differences. The thesis is advanced that both consist of lower-level performances subordinate to and leading to skilled performance, which may supply a unifying principle. The proposition is advanced that we should look for ways of reconciling and integrating their differences. Using skilled performance as the superclass of both is ...


Virtual Reality: A Survey Of Use At An Academic Library, Megan Frost, Michael C. Goates, Sarah Cheng Jun 2018

Virtual Reality: A Survey Of Use At An Academic Library, Megan Frost, Michael C. Goates, Sarah Cheng

Faculty Publications

We conducted a survey to inform the expansion of our current Virtual Reality (VR) service in the library. We were primarily interested in user experience, demographics, academic interests in VR, and methods of discovery.


Group Size In Physical Education: A Teachers' Perspective, David C. Barney, Robert Christenson Dr. Mar 2018

Group Size In Physical Education: A Teachers' Perspective, David C. Barney, Robert Christenson Dr.

Faculty Publications

The physical education context is fun, yet challenging. There is the potential to offer a multitude of activities and games for students. Thus, PE teachers should put the students in the best position to learn the content. One method PE teachers can use is putting students in small-sided groups during game and activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate K-12 physical education teachers’ perceptions of small-sided games/activities in their PE lessons. For this study 31 K-12 physical educators from five states participated in the study. The PE teachers were emailed a survey for them to fill out ...


Comparison Of Workload For University Core Courses Taught In Regular Semester And Time-Compressed Term Formats, Lyndell Lutes, Randall Davies Mar 2018

Comparison Of Workload For University Core Courses Taught In Regular Semester And Time-Compressed Term Formats, Lyndell Lutes, Randall Davies

Faculty Publications

This study compared student workload and perceived value of coursework assigned for a matching set of semester and term general education courses at Brigham Young University. Statistically significant differences in workloads were found between most semester and term courses. While term workloads were slightly lighter in general, both could be called “university lite,” in that students did not spend the expected two hours outside of class per hour in class. Math and physics courses came closest to meeting the expected workloads, which tended to remain constant between semesters and terms. Differences in the value students reported for homework varied significantly ...


Preparing The Next Generation Of Instructional Designers: A Cross-Institution Faculty Collaboration, Patricia J. Slagter Van Tryon, Jason K. Mcdonald, Atsusi Hirumi Jan 2018

Preparing The Next Generation Of Instructional Designers: A Cross-Institution Faculty Collaboration, Patricia J. Slagter Van Tryon, Jason K. Mcdonald, Atsusi Hirumi

Faculty Publications

The ability of novice instructional designers to become skilled problem-solvers, who select and apply appropriate instructional design (ID) models in their work environments, are key competencies generally sought after in introductory ID courses. Yet, the proliferation of ID models, coupled with varied philosophies and practices about how ID is taught may pose challenges for ID educators seeking to prepare the next generation of leaders in the field. With little empirical research or documented best practices, ID educators are left to their own judgment about to how to navigate the practical challenges that can arise in the pursuit of their teaching ...


An Exploration Of The Role Of Religion And Spirituality In The Treatment And Recovery Of Patients With Eating Disorders, P. Scott Richards, Michael E. Berrett, Carrie L. Caoili, Sabree A. Crowton, Randy K. Hardman, Russell N. Jackson, Peter W. Sanders Jan 2018

An Exploration Of The Role Of Religion And Spirituality In The Treatment And Recovery Of Patients With Eating Disorders, P. Scott Richards, Michael E. Berrett, Carrie L. Caoili, Sabree A. Crowton, Randy K. Hardman, Russell N. Jackson, Peter W. Sanders

Faculty Publications

This article reports two qualitative studies that explored how religion and spirituality (R/S) influenced the treatment and recovery process of patients with eating disorder. In Study 1 and Study 2, a total of 83 women who had successfully completed treatment at an inpatient eating disorder treatment center responded to open-ended survey questions about the role of R/S in their recovery. Twelve of the women in Study 2 participated in follow-up phone interviews. Qualitative analysis of survey responses and interview transcripts indicated that although many women believed R/S contributed to the development and maintenance of their eating disorder ...


Effects Of Parent-Implemented Interventions On Outcomes For Children With Developmental Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis, Tina Taylor, Timothy B. Smith, Byran B. Korth, Barbara Mandleco Jan 2018

Effects Of Parent-Implemented Interventions On Outcomes For Children With Developmental Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis, Tina Taylor, Timothy B. Smith, Byran B. Korth, Barbara Mandleco

Faculty Publications

A large body of literature exists related to parent-implemented interventions for children with disabilities, so it is helpful to synthesize the results of outcome-based interventions for children with developmental disabilities. Specifically, what are the effects of parent-implemented interventions intended to improve children’s (1) social behaviors, (2) life skills/adaptive behavior, and (3) communication skills? Using meta-analytic aggregation of effect sizes across 30 studies with a total of 1,356 participants, this review examined the association between parent-implemented interventions and intended outcomes for young children with developmental disabilities. Across all 30 studies comparing children’s outcomes to control groups, the ...


Reconsidering Design And Evaluation, Andrew S. Gibbons Iii, David D. Williams Jan 2018

Reconsidering Design And Evaluation, Andrew S. Gibbons Iii, David D. Williams

Faculty Publications

In this paper we have put design and evaluation as it were under a microscope with multiple lenses. We use four different snapshots of design, each at a different level of resolution, to reveal new perspectives on the design-evaluation relationship. We believe that the disparate views of designers and evaluators can be resolved by resorting to the middle ground described by Klir. We believe also that the disparate views of educational technologists and learning scientists can be similarly resolved by appealing to the similar principle of Edelson.


Relationship Between Physical Activity And Stress Among Junior High School Students In The Physical Education Environment, David C. Barney, Frank Pleban, Terrance Lewis Dec 2017

Relationship Between Physical Activity And Stress Among Junior High School Students In The Physical Education Environment, David C. Barney, Frank Pleban, Terrance Lewis

Faculty Publications

The study purpose was to explore grade level differences (7th, 8th, and 9th) among junior high school students’ perception of participation in physical education class on individual environmental stress. Physical activity’s role as a stress reduction tool has been well documented. However, physical activity as a stressful event in the school and physical education environment has been less established; particularly in junior high school students. Study participants were comprised of 872 junior high school students, 585 males (67%) and 287 females (33%), enrolled in four junior high schools. Stratified by grade, 315 7th grade students ...


Do Seniors (50+) Know What Practices Are Appropriate In Physical Education, David C. Barney, Keven A. Prusak, Carol Wilkinson Nov 2017

Do Seniors (50+) Know What Practices Are Appropriate In Physical Education, David C. Barney, Keven A. Prusak, Carol Wilkinson

Faculty Publications

The purpose of this study was to investigate senior (50+) adult’s knowledge of appropriate instructional practices (AIP) in physical education. This study is a continued line of studies assessing certain populations knowledge of AIP. Previous research has been conducted among Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) majors, parents, school administrators, elementary, middle school and high school students. For this study 372 senior adults were surveyed regarding their knowledge of AIP in PE. Surveys were distributed to the participants at the Huntsman Senior World Games. It was found that senior adults misidentified nine instructional practices from the survey. It was found ...


Does Any Good Come From A Coach That Yells? Reflective Experiences From Former Athletes, David C. Barney, Alema Tauiliili Nov 2017

Does Any Good Come From A Coach That Yells? Reflective Experiences From Former Athletes, David C. Barney, Alema Tauiliili

Faculty Publications

Yelling in society is a common occurrence. Parents yell at their children, bosses yell at their employees and coaches yell at their athletes. Yet, in many cases the yelling coach exhibits unkind, loud in nature, and very personal statements. The purpose of this study was to better understand former athlete’s perspectives regarding their thoughts and experiences of their coaches yelling at them. For this study yelling will imply saying loud, unkind, personal comments towards the athlete. For this study 124 former athletes were surveyed regarding their experiences with a yelling coach. Generally, it was found that the former athletes ...


Free, Online, And Tailor-Made: Creating An Open Textbook As A Model Document, Andy Spackman Oct 2017

Free, Online, And Tailor-Made: Creating An Open Textbook As A Model Document, Andy Spackman

Faculty Publications

The high cost of textbooks contributes to the financial burden of today’s college students. Open textbooks are one solution, but in the absence of an administrative directive or institutional policy, faculty have little incentive to adopt open textbooks beyond an appreciation of their students’ financial distress. Working from the grassroots and partnering with the library, the faculty of Brigham Young University’s Management Communication program has created their own open textbook. Free, online, and tailor-made, this textbook can evolve in parallel with curriculum and models the writing and design principles taught in the course. The rationale and implementation of ...


Student Voices For Why College Students Take Physical Activity Classes When It Is Not Required For Graduation, David C. Barney, Kelsey Higginson Jan 2017

Student Voices For Why College Students Take Physical Activity Classes When It Is Not Required For Graduation, David C. Barney, Kelsey Higginson

Faculty Publications

The time in college is a time to prepare to go out into the world and be a contributing member of society. Typically, a college education should take four years to complete. Many colleges are eliminating the physical activity requirement for graduation, hoping that it will aid the student in graduating in a timely manner. Yet, students still take physical activity classes while working towards graduation. For this study, 420 college students (235 males & 185 females) participated in this study. Students in physical activity classes at a private university of the western United States completed a survey in regards to ...


The Application Of Layer Theory To Design: The Control Layer, Andrew S. Gibbons Iii, Matt Langton Jan 2016

The Application Of Layer Theory To Design: The Control Layer, Andrew S. Gibbons Iii, Matt Langton

Faculty Publications

Validation of an architectural theory of instructional design layering is accomplished for one of the proposed layers by verifying the theory’s claim that for every layer there exists a body of design theory from outside the field of instructional design that is capable of informing design within that layer.