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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Lived Experiences Of Introverts And Their Extracurricular Involvement In A Four-Year University Environment, Maigan Wipfli May 2022

The Lived Experiences Of Introverts And Their Extracurricular Involvement In A Four-Year University Environment, Maigan Wipfli

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative, phenomenological study explores the lived experiences of introverts who were involved in two or more passive or active extracurricular involvement opportunities during their undergraduate experience at a four-year college or university. Eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted via Zoom video conferencing with self-identified introverts who attended public, four-year universities in the South, West, and Midwest regions of the United States. Participants represented both medium and large institutions. The analysis of the data indicated common themes from the participants including personality traits and common misconceptions of introversion, cultural focus of extraversion, personal and professional development, opportunities granted, and individual preferences ...


Exploration Of Strategies Of Teacher Leaders For Responding To Students Experiencing Trauma Framed In Casel's Social And Emotional Learning Theory, Kimberly Dionne Parrott Dec 2021

Exploration Of Strategies Of Teacher Leaders For Responding To Students Experiencing Trauma Framed In Casel's Social And Emotional Learning Theory, Kimberly Dionne Parrott

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative instrumental case study was to explore strategies for supporting students experiencing trauma as perceived by teacher leaders framed in CASEL’s social and emotional learning theory. A descriptive instrumental case study design utilized data from online interviews and voluntarily submitted artifacts of nine middle school teacher leaders to investigate strategies used to support students experiencing trauma. Data were manually coded to determine themes indicating recommend strategies used to support students who have experienced trauma. The overall findings revealed that teacher leaders require professional development focusing on trauma-informed practices to suitably support students who are experiencing ...


Phenomenological Experiences Of First-Generation Working-Class Students Entering University: Motivational Factors And Teacher Influences, Kayla Franco Oct 2021

Phenomenological Experiences Of First-Generation Working-Class Students Entering University: Motivational Factors And Teacher Influences, Kayla Franco

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Discrimination in education over the last few decades has been apparent in the form of racial, gender, and even intergenerational prejudice. Educational inequities also exist for marginalized students of the first-generation working-class trying to access and successfully navigate post-secondary studies. In addition, they may face several additional challenges that include lack of proper academic foundation, minimal support from family, friends and teachers, and financial hardships (Blackwell & Pinder, 2014). This research is an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) that investigates the lived experiences of first- generation working-class students at a university in southern Ontario by investigating the key factors that influence their ...


The Effect Of Postpartum Depression Screening Education For Postpartum Nurses, Shecarra S. Cook Oct 2021

The Effect Of Postpartum Depression Screening Education For Postpartum Nurses, Shecarra S. Cook

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Depression affects about 13% of pregnant women and about 10% of women after childbirth. Some cases are so severe, the mother may even commit suicide. If left untreated, postpartum depression (PPD) affects both the mother’s and the infant’s health as well as their quality of life. The gap in clinical practice is that currently, patients only complete a postpartum depression screening tool during their 6-week follow-up appointment with their OB/GYN, leaving a gap in PPD detection and care during the immediate postpartum period. Postpartum nurses are not usually given specialized training in postpartum depression. The purpose of ...


Exploring The Impact Of The Achievement Gap On Shame And Resilience In African American College Students, Brittany R. Thomas Aug 2021

Exploring The Impact Of The Achievement Gap On Shame And Resilience In African American College Students, Brittany R. Thomas

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The achievement gap refers to the stark difference that occurs between racial or gender groups, as one group performs significantly higher than the other. An achievement gap has the propensity to produce psychological distress, as well as buffering techniques that are necessary for survival and success. Growing research shows that African American college students experience unique levels of trauma, shame, hardship, macro, and micro-aggressions, suggesting that these students learn to self-preserve as early as 10 years old. This study used a Pearson correlation, Independent T-Test, and a Moderated Multiple Regression to explore the impact of the achievement gap on shame ...


Using Peer Supports To Improve Positive-To-Negative Teacher/Student Interaction Ratios By Novice Teachers, Karen Robbie Aug 2021

Using Peer Supports To Improve Positive-To-Negative Teacher/Student Interaction Ratios By Novice Teachers, Karen Robbie

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A critical teacher shortage continues to exist throughout the United States. Challenges with student behavior and classroom management are identified as a top reason for teacher attrition. Educational research has demonstrated that PreK-12 students who receive social-emotional-behavioral support through evidence-based classroom management (EBCM) practices are more likely to achieve academic success. When teachers deliver high ratios of positive interactions to their students, positive student outcomes are likely to occur. However, researchers have consistently found that, like other EBCM practices, this low-intensity, high-impact practice is typically implemented at significantly lower levels than necessary to promote positive student outcomes. This implementation gap ...


Perceptions Of Resilience-Informed Education In Postsecondary Instructors, Chelsea L. Robertson Aug 2021

Perceptions Of Resilience-Informed Education In Postsecondary Instructors, Chelsea L. Robertson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many studies have noted the detrimental impact adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can have on individuals’ developmental trajectories and, as a result, the utilization of trauma-informed practices has been of increasing interest within the field of education. Most research on trauma-informed pedagogy is derived from samples of children in grades K-12, whereas research on trauma-informed teaching practices within higher education is comparatively scarce. The specific aims of the current investigation are two-fold. The first aim is to explore the effect of postsecondary instructors’ disciplinary specialization (i.e., person-thing orientation) on their receptivity to compassionate teaching practices. The second aim is to ...


Clinician’S Perceptions Of Neurofeedback Application And Effectiveness, Heidi Newman Jul 2021

Clinician’S Perceptions Of Neurofeedback Application And Effectiveness, Heidi Newman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects children and adults alike. Finding an intervention that works for every individual is not an easy task. There is not a one size fits all strategy when considering interventions. Having multiple treatment options available to individuals is important for those diagnosed and affected by the disorder. Many parents are not aware of the attentive interventions available to their children, especially when that intervention is not medication. Dispersing valuable ADHD treatment information to educators and parents is a challenge that would benefit from further research and clinician engagement. In this study, clinicians that provide ...


A Phenomenological Inquiry Exploring Parental Involvement At Alternative Schools In Eastern North Carolina, Irv Glenn Ii May 2021

A Phenomenological Inquiry Exploring Parental Involvement At Alternative Schools In Eastern North Carolina, Irv Glenn Ii

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to discover the perceptions of caregivers and teachers regarding parental involvement at alternative schools in Eastern North Carolina. The lack of parental involvement at some schools is a systemic issue that involves continued efforts by school staff to include caregivers in promoting student success. The difficulties of engaging parents of alternative students result in little interaction between caregivers and educators. It is essential to understand how caregivers and educators perceive parental involvement and assess the quality of parental participation in an alternative educational setting. A qualitative research method was chosen to comprehensively examine ...


K-12 Economically Disadvantaged Students, Poverty, And Education: Ecological Narratives Of Successful Raised-In-Poverty, Texas Educators, Rebecca N. Morris May 2021

K-12 Economically Disadvantaged Students, Poverty, And Education: Ecological Narratives Of Successful Raised-In-Poverty, Texas Educators, Rebecca N. Morris

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research study aimed to understand how successful Texas educators who grew up in poverty understood and improved the educational experience of economically disadvantaged students. This study utilized a structural ecological theory and three theories of social relationships (Social Identity, Standpoint, and Cultural Capital). This phenomenological and qualitative study used a cross-sectional, descriptive, online case study design rooted in narrative nonfiction. Virtual interviews with six successful Texas educators that grew up in poverty were conducted. A narrative method of analysis was utilized to generate codes then organize them into themes, and to construct and compare the narrative findings. The results ...


Utilization Of Disability Services By Students With Nonvisible Disabilities, Cristina A. Figueroa May 2021

Utilization Of Disability Services By Students With Nonvisible Disabilities, Cristina A. Figueroa

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A qualitative case study was conducted to examine ways to increase the use of disability services at 4-year universities. Individual interviews were conducted to see how students and staff members felt the use of disability services could be improved. Five students with nonvisible disabilities and four disability and student services staff members participated in the study. Interviews focused on transition, use of campus services, self-advocacy, and knowledge of disability services. A thematic analysis was conducted on the data, and a total of 20 themes were derived from the interviews. Themes focused on the following topics: self-identification is personal, faculty attitude ...


New Teachers Are Your Friends: A Multiple Case Study Examining School Psychologists’ Experiences Consulting With Beginning Teachers, Sayani Das Chaudhuri Jan 2021

New Teachers Are Your Friends: A Multiple Case Study Examining School Psychologists’ Experiences Consulting With Beginning Teachers, Sayani Das Chaudhuri

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

School psychologists’ training, knowledge, and skillsets in school-based consultation can play a key role in supporting beginning teachers, but the consultation research base provides limited information about how beginning teachers’ concerns and characteristics relate to consultative practice (Babinski & Rogers 1998; DeForest & Hughes, 1992; Robertson & Briedenstein, 2007). This qualitative multiple case study investigated the perceptions and experiences of four expert school psychologists who engaged in consultation and provided support to beginning teachers. Factors related to the school psychologists' and beginning teachers' cognitions, behaviors, and school environment emerged in the data. Participants perceived beginning teachers as being enthusiastic and eager to learn, unrealistically optimistic, and overwhelmed ...


Moving Past ‘One Size Fits All’: Developing A Trajectory Deviance Index For Dynamic Measurement Modeling, Yixiao Dong Jan 2021

Moving Past ‘One Size Fits All’: Developing A Trajectory Deviance Index For Dynamic Measurement Modeling, Yixiao Dong

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dynamic Measurement Modeling (DMM) is a recently developed measurement framework for gauging developing constructs (e.g., learning capacity) that conventional single-timepoint tests cannot assess. Like most measurement models, overall model fit indices of DMM do not indicate the measurement appropriateness for each included student. For this reason, other measurement modeling paradigms (e.g., Item-Response Theory; IRT) utilize person-fit or model appropriateness statistics to indicate whether a measurement model appropriately describes the data from each individual student. However, within the extant DMM framework, no statistical index has yet been developed for this purpose. Thus, the current project advanced a person-specific DMM ...


Black Men Wanted: An Instrumental Case Study Exploring The Situational Factors Related To The Retention Of African American Male High School Teachers., Christopher Kevin Flores Jan 2021

Black Men Wanted: An Instrumental Case Study Exploring The Situational Factors Related To The Retention Of African American Male High School Teachers., Christopher Kevin Flores

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As the nation’s high school student population becomes increasingly diverse, the declining number of minority teachers, particularly African American male teachers is becoming an area of concern. This instrumental case study of African American male high school teachers in the Fayette County Public School system in Lexington, Kentucky sought to identify the motivations for teaching, the barriers prior to and during teaching, as well as the roles these individuals are asked to fulfill in their schools. Using purposeful sampling, 10 individuals participated in semi-structured interviews aimed at providing insight to the three research questions related to motivations, barriers, and ...


The Motivations Toward Decisions In Delaying To Apply For College: High School Seniors Of Single Parent Households, John R. Leach Jr. Jul 2020

The Motivations Toward Decisions In Delaying To Apply For College: High School Seniors Of Single Parent Households, John R. Leach Jr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

It has been said that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. The National Center for Education Statistics reports that 30% of students who graduated from high school do not enroll in college (NCES, 2018). This phenomenological study integrates several instruments to identify the motivational elements of amotivation, autonomy, extrinsic, and intrinsic motivational stimuli. The research data reveal that intrinsic motivational factors play a more significant role in the decision-making process. The participants in this study revealed their extrinsic and intrinsic motivation for postsecondary endeavors by articulating how they perceive decision-making for their actions. Participants of dual- ...


The Relationship Between Exclusionary Discipline, Race, Socioeconomic Status, And Graduation Rates At 4a, 5a, And 6a High Schools, Ryan M. Cavazos Jul 2020

The Relationship Between Exclusionary Discipline, Race, Socioeconomic Status, And Graduation Rates At 4a, 5a, And 6a High Schools, Ryan M. Cavazos

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

High school graduation is a significant predictor of future success. In most cases, a high school graduate will earn more money and live a healthier lifestyle than those who do not graduate from high school. The graduation rate in the United States is lower than the graduation rate of many other industrialized countries. Three known predictors of graduation rate are the number of exclusionary discipline assignments a student incurs, the race of the student, and the socioeconomic status of the student. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between graduation rate, exclusionary discipline, race (nonwhite), and low ...


The Impact Of Texas Aim On Academic Performance In Detx, Nicoli Morgan Jun 2020

The Impact Of Texas Aim On Academic Performance In Detx, Nicoli Morgan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

School- and community-based after-school programs have evolved within the last 10 to 14 years, to accommodate and reinforce primary education (Mahoney, Larson, Eccles, & Lord, 2005). Students who are enrolled in after-school programs (e.g., Boys and Girls Club, Solid Foundation) have made higher grades in the classroom than their same age/grade peers who are not enrolled in after-school programs (Fredricks, Hackett, & Bregman, 2010). Additionally, after-school programs increase students’ self-esteem and confidence (Fredricks et al., 2010). The Boys and Girls Club organization has a strong devotion to their members’ academic success in the school setting (“Boys and Girls Clubs of ...


Evaluating An Evidenced Based Program: Ruling Our Experiences (Rox) For 9/10-Year-Old Girls In The Yough School District, Lisa Mumau May 2020

Evaluating An Evidenced Based Program: Ruling Our Experiences (Rox) For 9/10-Year-Old Girls In The Yough School District, Lisa Mumau

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

During elementary school years, girls experience social, emotional, and physical changes that affect their abilities to manage relationships and establish positive images of themselves. Given the aforementioned issues, girls need effective elementary school programming to support positive self-esteem and the development of girls’ Social Emotional Learning (SEL) Competencies. The purpose of this mixed-method study focused on evaluating the Ruling Our Experiences (ROX) program for 9/10-year-old girls. The methods used were designed to address the three research questions: Based on the implementation of the ROX program in Yough elementary schools, to what extent do participants exhibit a greater level of ...


An Instrumental Case Study: Growth Mindset Instructional Best Practices For Learning Disabled Students, Brenda L. Cornell May 2020

An Instrumental Case Study: Growth Mindset Instructional Best Practices For Learning Disabled Students, Brenda L. Cornell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The problem that drove this study was that students who struggle in school, especially those with a non-intelligence-based learning disability, suffer from a fixed mindset after years of feelings of failure in school. This mindset causes them to develop maladaptive approaches to learning that inhibit success. The purpose of this study was to describe the best practices of reading teachers who have a reputation for high student achievement and who adhere to a growth mindset in an effort to build a growth mindset culture with their students. This qualitative instrumental case study was conducted through interviews of eleven reading teachers ...


Creating An Inclusive Climate For Students On The Autism Spectrum, Stephanie Christine Holmes Apr 2020

Creating An Inclusive Climate For Students On The Autism Spectrum, Stephanie Christine Holmes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The problem that drove this study was the increasing number of students with autism entering the school system, and the barriers often encountered for both academic and social inclusion for students on the autism spectrum. Autism Spectrum Disorder, as defined by diagnostic criteria, includes deficits in social-relational communication; social-communication deficits can lead to educational impacts and limit opportunities upon transitioning from the public-school system. The purpose of this study was to examine the barriers to inclusion, which often includes the Individualized Education Plan (IEP) eligibility process itself, from the perspectives of key stakeholders to include Local Education Agency (LEA) representatives ...


Living The Dream: Building Self-Determination To Improve Postsecondary Outcomes, Pete Gladstone Jan 2020

Living The Dream: Building Self-Determination To Improve Postsecondary Outcomes, Pete Gladstone

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Despite recent federal legislation outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) reauthorization of 2004 that mandates effective postsecondary transition planning for all students with Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), students with intellectual disability (ID) continue to experience inequitable postsecondary outcomes, particularly in the areas of postsecondary education (PSE), employment, and independent living (Lipscomb et al., 2017). It has been established that one effective method for improving those outcomes is to develop students’ self-determination abilities, and there is near unanimous agreement within the education community that doing so should be a primary objective during the transition process (Izzo & Lamb, 2002). Students with ID are educated in a variety of settings, from inclusive general education to self-contained classrooms, and as such, self-determination interventions should be provided everywhere that students with ID are found (Izzo & Lamb, 2002). However, educators report a lack of confidence in their ability to provide these interventions because it is rarely emphasized in their professional development (Hagiwara, Shogren, & Leko, 2017). Manuscript One provides an overview of the currently available evidence-based practices in self-determination development, proposes methodology for implementing self-determination intervention across classroom settings, and provides a structure for school psychologists to assist in effective implementation. Manuscript Two reports upon results of a survey distributed to practicing school psychologists regarding the current use of self-determination interventions and the professional development they receive that allows them to be competent consultants for implementation of self-determination interventions.

In combination, these manuscripts examine the importance of self-determination intervention, options for evidence-based self-determination interventions in each classroom setting, and potential school-psychologist-initiated solutions. The findings outlined in this dissertation will help administrators, school psychologists, and interventionists to engage in the systematic implementation of self-determination interventions that can be expected to improve academic outcomes (Lee et al., 2008; Shogren, Palmer ...


Racially Diverse Adolescent Friendship Groups: A Phenomenological Research Study, Arielle Brooke Mottes Jan 2020

Racially Diverse Adolescent Friendship Groups: A Phenomenological Research Study, Arielle Brooke Mottes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

School psychologists and other school personnel are trained to engage in selfreflective and culturally humble practices to better serve an increasingly racially diverse student population. While most literature on cultural humility (CH) focuses on its development in professionals, this research study looks at its development in students experiencing the phenomenon of racially diverse friendship. Previous research has found there to be a significant relationship between Theory of Mind (ToM) and social competence. The intended purpose of this study was to explore the possible relationship between ToM and CH amongst high school students who are part of racially diverse friendship groups ...


Impacted Youth: Why School Psychologists Need To Consider Diverse Approaches Of Support, L. Morgan Beidleman Jan 2020

Impacted Youth: Why School Psychologists Need To Consider Diverse Approaches Of Support, L. Morgan Beidleman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This paper examines trends among youth who are highly impacted by multiple adverse experiences. It outlines potential patterns of risk and protective factors often experienced by this population and encourages school psychologists to recognize, consider, and advocate for the needs of these youth. It goes on to describe and interpret the cultural practices of Leadership Coffeehouse, a Denver-based social enterprise that seeks to support disconnected youth through professional development and hands-on learning. Finally, because of the unique training school psychologists receive, considerations for expanding the role into non-traditional educational settings are proposed.


Pivotal Perceptions: A Phenomenological Exploration Of Trauma-Informed Practices In An Urban School, Marni Choice-Hermosillo Jan 2020

Pivotal Perceptions: A Phenomenological Exploration Of Trauma-Informed Practices In An Urban School, Marni Choice-Hermosillo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This phenomenological study sought to examine the experiences of teachers in an urban K-8 school after a system-wide whole school implementation of trauma-informed practices. The practices teachers implemented in their classrooms that aligned with their personal perceptions of trauma-informed practices and its efficacy were explored. Additionally, the personal and professional barriers to implementation were also investigated. Identified practical strategies at both the elementary and middle school levels included establishing and maintaining relational trust and classroom community, actively teaching emotional regulation skills, and teaching and reinforcing rituals, routines and expectations throughout the school year. Lack of confidence and previous personal assumptions ...


Educational Achievement, Engagement, And Persistence In Choctaw Nation: A Study Of The Success Through Academic Recognition Program, Suzanne Delap Jan 2020

Educational Achievement, Engagement, And Persistence In Choctaw Nation: A Study Of The Success Through Academic Recognition Program, Suzanne Delap

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma has developed a unique initiative to support academic achievement within their tribal territory. The Success Through Academic Recognition (STAR) program is an example of an Indigenously-developed approach to supporting students from grades 2-12, with the hope of promoting achievement, persistence, and engagement. To study the STAR program, a mixed-methods approach was employed to first analyze quantitative demographic and performance data collected from a cohort of high school students from 2014 to 2018. Next, phenomenological interviews were conducted within the same cohort, to describe the lived experiences of STAR students within the Choctaw community. The database ...


How Parents, Teachers, Psychologists, And Educational Environments Influence Developmental Transitions Of Preadolescent Twice-Exceptional Students, Karen B. Arnstein Jan 2020

How Parents, Teachers, Psychologists, And Educational Environments Influence Developmental Transitions Of Preadolescent Twice-Exceptional Students, Karen B. Arnstein

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this collective case study was to examine the perceived developmental transitions of preadolescent, twice-exceptional students to understand both the supports and barriers from the perspective of parents, teachers, and psychologists. The case for this study, located in a western U.S. state, was a private school educating twice-exceptional students. The research questions guiding the study included the following: How do parents perceive growth in both academic and psychosocial development? How do educators perceive growth in both academic and psychosocial development? What are the supports that promote successful developmental transitions? What are the barriers that inhibit successful developmental ...


We've Got The 'Hots' For Changing Teacher Misconceptions Of Learning Styles: A Mixed-Methods Approach., Allison Paige Fowler Jan 2020

We've Got The 'Hots' For Changing Teacher Misconceptions Of Learning Styles: A Mixed-Methods Approach., Allison Paige Fowler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation I added to the literature surrounding the myth that teachers should cater to students’ learning styles to improve learning outcomes. I operated from the “hot” paradigm for conceptual change, through the use of the Cognitive Reconstruction of Knowledge Model (CRKM) as the theoretical framework to examine teachers’ conceptual change about learning styles. More specifically, I considered teachers’ existing conceptions as related to their essentialist beliefs, as well as how their motivation and the content of the message contribute to conceptual change. I also responded to the literature on teacher perceptions of researchers by examining the use of ...


Development And Validation Of The Measure Of Perceived Safety In The College Classroom: A Mixed Methods Phenomenological Research Study., Jennifer Ballard-Kang Jan 2020

Development And Validation Of The Measure Of Perceived Safety In The College Classroom: A Mixed Methods Phenomenological Research Study., Jennifer Ballard-Kang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, safety has become a focus of discussion in the field of higher education as research indicates that college students’ perceptions of safety are related to several indicators of student engagement. Despite increased recognition of the importance of safety, there remains a lack of consensus with regard to its definition and conceptualization in the higher education context. This lack of a conceptualization of safety that reflects the complexity of the construct within the postsecondary context has acted as a barrier to the development of quality measurement instruments that can be utilized by researchers and practitioners to understand and ...


Student's Perceptions Of Smartphone Use At Home And At A High School Regarding A New Smartphone Policy: A Case Study, Ana Zurita Jan 2020

Student's Perceptions Of Smartphone Use At Home And At A High School Regarding A New Smartphone Policy: A Case Study, Ana Zurita

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The new generation raised in the digital era continues to present unresolved challenges for both parents and teachers. The purpose of this case study is to analyze students' usage of their smartphones in their lives, and understand the success of a new school policy on smartphone use at an arts school in the U.S. For this qualitative research, I interviewed ten participants from the high school. The literary review informs us that smartphones are potentially addictive, with negative effects for healthy mental, emotional and social child development, as well as a source of misleading information. As a consequence, smartphones ...


Examining The Influence Of Early Childhood Experiences On Current Expressions Of Verbal Aggression And Assertiveness, Juliet Aura Bs/P Aug 2019

Examining The Influence Of Early Childhood Experiences On Current Expressions Of Verbal Aggression And Assertiveness, Juliet Aura Bs/P

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to find out if there is a relationship between verbal aggression and assertiveness. Specifically, the aim was to establish the extent to which demographic factors, family of origin variables and early life exposure to trauma affects the occurrence of verbal aggression and assertiveness in day to day interactions. Data was collected using an online survey and results from 321 participants were analyzed. Results from the study indicated that age, gender and exposure to verbal aggression have a significant effect on the occurrence of verbal aggression. None of the variables were found to have an ...