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Intersections Of Environmentalism, Chemistry, And Racism: An Experimental Study Of Halobenzene Hydrogenolysis And Critical Communication Studies Of Equitable Learning Practices Rooted In Black Feminism, Lauren O. Babb Aug 2022

Intersections Of Environmentalism, Chemistry, And Racism: An Experimental Study Of Halobenzene Hydrogenolysis And Critical Communication Studies Of Equitable Learning Practices Rooted In Black Feminism, Lauren O. Babb

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Increasing concentrations of fluorinated aromatic compounds in surface water, groundwater, and soil pose threats to the environment. Fundamental studies that elucidate mechanisms of dehalogenation for C-X compounds (where X represents a halide) are required to develop effective remediation strategies. For halogenated benzenes, previously published research has suggested that the strength of the C-X bond is not rate-determining in the overall rate of dehalogenation. Instead, the rate-determining step has been hypothesized to be adsorption of the C-X compound onto the surface of a catalyst. Building on this hypothesis, in this work, we examine the reaction kinetics of fluorobenzene conversion to benzene ...


A Cleave Within The Piney Woods: Nacogdoches, Stephen F. Austin State University And How Racial Integration Divided The Town And Gown, Caitlin Hornback May 2022

A Cleave Within The Piney Woods: Nacogdoches, Stephen F. Austin State University And How Racial Integration Divided The Town And Gown, Caitlin Hornback

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Stephen F. Austin State University was once the pride and joy of the city of Nacogdoches, Texas. When the Texas State Legislature began to look for a location for their new state normal school, the people of the East Texas town fought to have it built there and the Stephen F. Austin Teacher’s College opened its doors in September 1923 to a proud community. Through the trials and tribulations of early twentieth century events, the school managed to stay afloat and grow in numbers. Dr. Ralph W. Steen became the president of the college in 1958 and he oversaw ...


“Damned If Ya Do, Damned If Ya Don’T”: A Critical Narrative Inquiry Exploring The Gendered Racism Experienced By Black Women Housing Professionals In Higher Education, Shaniquè Jazmine Broom Jan 2022

“Damned If Ya Do, Damned If Ya Don’T”: A Critical Narrative Inquiry Exploring The Gendered Racism Experienced By Black Women Housing Professionals In Higher Education, Shaniquè Jazmine Broom

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Between 1999 and 2018, there was an 11% decrease in Black women staff and administrators at post-secondary institutions. This study utilized Black Feminist Thought and Sista Circle Methodology to uncover how Black women reflected on experiences of and coped with gendered racism at PWIs. Participants offered reflections on their relationships with Black women and men, white men and women, and students. Black women shared their reflections with discrimination and a deceptive institutional culture. Black women also discussed utilizing several coping strategies such as hyper-awareness, hypervigilance, enacting personal and professional boundaries, avoiding hypervisibility and engaging in personal and familial connections with ...


Chronic Codeswitching: A Phenomenological Study Examining Multiracial Student Sense Of Belonging In A Predominantly White Institution., Nicholas Lamar Wright Jan 2021

Chronic Codeswitching: A Phenomenological Study Examining Multiracial Student Sense Of Belonging In A Predominantly White Institution., Nicholas Lamar Wright

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Constantly feeling a lack of acceptance and getting the comment “You are too Black” or “You are too White” is a challenging, common occurrence for multiracial students, but especially those in predominantly White institutions. This is just one of the barriers that stand between multiracial students and forming a sense of belonging at a predominantly White institution. The majority of research examining sense of belonging focuses on either Black or White students, but neglect multiracial students and their experiences. This dissertation examines sense of belonging for multiracial (Black/White) students in a predominantly White institution, by interviewing 11 multiracial students ...


Mothering Through Our Pain: Single Black Mothers’ Narratives, Yolanda E. Surrency Jan 2021

Mothering Through Our Pain: Single Black Mothers’ Narratives, Yolanda E. Surrency

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Black women’s voices and historical contributions have been dismissed, and even excluded, making it difficult for their cultural knowledge to be transmitted to future generations. Black women battle with an unsettled consciousness from subscribing to the normalization of what dominant culture defines as good mothering. This study uses Black feminism to examine single Black mothers who navigate the negative images of the welfare queen and the matriarch. This narrative study uses Black feminism to examine the stories of single, Black mothers and their daughters. The purpose is to investigate Black mothers’ lived experiences to understand their struggles and resistance ...


Black Finesse Amidst The Political Science Paradigm: A Race-Grounded Phenomenology, Janiece Zalina Mackey Jan 2020

Black Finesse Amidst The Political Science Paradigm: A Race-Grounded Phenomenology, Janiece Zalina Mackey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this research, I develop a methodology that I call Race-Grounded Phenomenology (RGP). The scope of this study investigates how Black undergraduate students navigate the discipline of political science. An eclectic array of critical theories of race unveil the ways in which Black undergraduate students exhibit flair and tenacity, or what I call Black Finesse. The eclectic array of critical theories of race utilized in this study include critical race theory, critical whiteness studies, and identity enactments. However, this study focuses on the Black student experience amidst the socialization of political science or what I call the political science paradigm ...


College, At What Cost? African American/Black Women Undergraduate Students’ Perception Of Institutional Policy Levers, Tamara D. White Jan 2020

College, At What Cost? African American/Black Women Undergraduate Students’ Perception Of Institutional Policy Levers, Tamara D. White

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study is exploring how institutional policy levers impact retention for African American/Black women undergraduate students at a private four-year predominantly white institution in a mid-western state of the United States. Retention of African American/Black women undergraduate students is not a widely researched area. In this exploratory case study, eight African American/Black undergraduate junior and senior women, ten administrators and one focus group of six African American/Black women were interviewed. Artifacts were collected from the administrators. The data collected was analyzed using the culturally engaging campus environment model. The experiences of the African American/Black undergraduate ...


Brokering Access, Belief And Opportunities: A Phenomenology Of Black Principals’ Leadership Through A Racialized Lens, Natalie Denise Lewis Jan 2020

Brokering Access, Belief And Opportunities: A Phenomenology Of Black Principals’ Leadership Through A Racialized Lens, Natalie Denise Lewis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The educational landscape of the twenty-first century currently faces several significant challenges, including widening academic opportunity gaps. These gaps suggest that there is need to examine the perspectives of leaders in the role of principals more deeply. However, as leadership theories continue to develop, there has been limited research conducted on the impact of principals’ racialized experiences and their approach to leadership. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to center race by exploring the essence of Black principals’ understanding of their racialized experiences and its meaning to their leadership and school communities. Findings indicate that Black principals’ (a) understanding ...


Black Minds Matter: A Phenomenological Inquiry Examining The Prevalence Of Racial Trauma Among Black Doctoral Students, Jazmyne Markeeva Peters Jan 2020

Black Minds Matter: A Phenomenological Inquiry Examining The Prevalence Of Racial Trauma Among Black Doctoral Students, Jazmyne Markeeva Peters

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Systemic and institutionalized racism is endemic to life in the United States and contributes to the daily marginalization of Black people. While the negative psychological and physiological effects of racism have been well-documented, the notion that racism can be experienced as a trauma is a newer theory. Racial trauma has been understudied and underappreciated, though it is a theory that clinicians should incorporate when working with Black clients and other clients of color. Exploring the ways in which Black doctoral students attending a predominantly White institution (PWI) have experienced racism is an essential contribution to the existing racial trauma literature ...


Race, Sense Of Belonging, And The African American Student Experience At Predominantly White Institutions, Anthony Kane Dec 2019

Race, Sense Of Belonging, And The African American Student Experience At Predominantly White Institutions, Anthony Kane

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research study utilized a critical race theoretical framework and methodology to explore the lived experiences of African American students at a predominantly White institution. The purpose of this study was to identify how race impacts the sense of belonging of African American students at predominantly White institutions (PWIs). This study highlighted the racialized experiences of African American students at a predominantly White institution and how these experiences impacted their sense of belonging. Additionally, this study sought to understand the type of support African Americans students preferred and needed in order to develop a positive sense of belonging.

Six African ...


Perceptions Of Restorative Practices Among Black Girls: Talking Circles In An Urban Alternative Middle School., Vanessa Marie Mcphail Dec 2019

Perceptions Of Restorative Practices Among Black Girls: Talking Circles In An Urban Alternative Middle School., Vanessa Marie Mcphail

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Research suggests that Restorative Justice approaches have shown promise in terms of their impact on school climate, student behavior, and relationships. The purpose of this study is to explore Black female students’ perceptions of Restorative Practice (RP) talking circles at an alternative school. The study examined literature on Zero Tolerance, School Discipline Disparities, African American Female students, Intersectionality, Restorative Justice, and Alternative Schools. A qualitative case study method was used for this study, drawing from two sources: (a) face-to-face interviews and (b) observations of the Black female students who attend the alternative school and participate in the talking circles. Analyses ...


Queering Black Greek-Lettered Fraternities, Masculinity And Manhood : A Queer Of Color Critique Of Institutionality In Higher Education., Antron Demel Mahoney Aug 2019

Queering Black Greek-Lettered Fraternities, Masculinity And Manhood : A Queer Of Color Critique Of Institutionality In Higher Education., Antron Demel Mahoney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Drawing heavily on Roderick Ferguson’s (2012) theory of institutionality, this dissertation constructs a counter-historical genealogy of racialized gender in higher education and U.S. society through the formation of black Greek-lettered fraternities. Ferguson argues that with the insurgence of minority resistance globally and domestically during the mid-twentieth century, hegemonic power took a new form. Instead of rejecting minority difference, power’s new network attempted to work through and with minority difference in an effort to absorb and restrict these radical formations within state, capital and academy frameworks—producing narrow or one-dimensional minority subjectivities. Established at the turn of the ...


A View From Within: University Honors Programs And African American Women At A Predominantly White Institution, Janell Lindsey Jan 2019

A View From Within: University Honors Programs And African American Women At A Predominantly White Institution, Janell Lindsey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

American higher education undergraduate honors programs are respected for the work they do to encourage college students to push themselves towards achievement in learning during their time earning an undergraduate degree. The social movements of the mid-20th century forced open the doors of predominantly white institutions (PWIs) to African American students. Since that time, the number of African American students attending PWIs has increased; however, the research that focused on African American women in higher education, and more specifically honors programs, has not been a significant topic of study. The findings indicate that being the only female person of color ...


The Multicultural Center's Role In Black Male Success At A Predominantly White Institution, Stephan Tramaine Moore Jan 2019

The Multicultural Center's Role In Black Male Success At A Predominantly White Institution, Stephan Tramaine Moore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many scholarly works have focused on the problems that Black males face in higher education at predominantly White institutions (PWI). However, few have explored specific factors that lead to the success of Black males. This study focuses on the Multicultural Center’s role in Black male success a PWI. There are a myriad of issues that Black men face when pursuing higher education ranging from a lack of financial resources to “invisibility” in the collegial environment. These challenges are further exacerbated for Black men who are enrolled at a PWI. The Multicultural Center (MC) is among the essential modalities that ...


"Triggers": Systematic And Social Cues For Black College Student Racial Self-Consciousness And Rejection Sensitivity, Race-Based., Leanna T. Luney May 2018

"Triggers": Systematic And Social Cues For Black College Student Racial Self-Consciousness And Rejection Sensitivity, Race-Based., Leanna T. Luney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Scholars have examined black student well-being in varying ways including through the framing of race-based rejection sensitivity (Downey & Feldman, 1996; Mendoza-Denton, Downey, Purdie, Davis, & Pietrzak, 2002) and racial self-consciousness (Clark & Clark, 1939). Research shows that black students perform worse academically when they display high levels of race-based rejection sensitivity and racial self-conscious levels (Brannon & Taylor, 2015; Clark & Clark, 1939; Koehler & Skvoretz, 2010), and feelings of racial self-consciousness or rejection sensitivity stem from discriminatory and prejudicial experiences. However, research has not fully connected the broader context surrounding black students in college to their high levels of anxiousness and their academic performance. The current study addresses how the college environment can influence black students’ racial self-conscious levels by examining four campus climate-related processes of race-based rejection sensitivity: perceptions of racial discrimination, perceptions of institutional commitments to racial diversity ...


Now You See Me: A Black Feminist Autoethnographic Poetic Polemic Of Radical Reflexivity And Critical Arts-Based Inquiry, Myntha Anthym Jan 2018

Now You See Me: A Black Feminist Autoethnographic Poetic Polemic Of Radical Reflexivity And Critical Arts-Based Inquiry, Myntha Anthym

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is an autoethnographic poetic illness narrative based on the author's year-long ordeal with unrelenting undertreated chronic pain. The project is grounded in the epistemological tradition of Black Feminist Thought and presented in alignment with the emergent methodological paradigm of critical arts-based inquiry. The purpose of the project is for the author to develop and articulate a radical reflexive praxis within the paradigm of critical arts-based inquiry while demonstrating the value of lived experience as a source of knowledge and poetry as a method of inquiry in revealing subjugated truths about the experiences of marginalized people. The dissertation ...


The Implications Of A University Of Louisville First Year Experience Course On Student Success Outcomes Based On Race And Gender., Nadine C. Petty May 2017

The Implications Of A University Of Louisville First Year Experience Course On Student Success Outcomes Based On Race And Gender., Nadine C. Petty

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Extant research has shown that across U.S. institutions, the first and second years of college are the most precarious because of high attrition rates. To address this, many colleges and universities implement First Year Experience (FYE) interventions with hopes of increasing first year GPA, retention rates, and overall college success. Over 90% of colleges and universities either offer or make these FYE interventions mandatory for their first-year/first-time freshmen. There is a large body of research regarding the association of FYE interventions and student outcomes, but the findings are mixed. Extant literature also does little to focus on FYE ...


The Spaces Between Us: A Queer<=>Intersectional Analysis Of The Narratives Of Black Gay International Students, Bryan S. Hubain Jan 2017

The Spaces Between Us: A QueerIntersectional Analysis Of The Narratives Of Black Gay International Students, Bryan S. Hubain

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The experiences of international students along the lines of race and ethnicity, sexuality, gender, and nationality are virtually unknown. This study utilizes experience-centered narrative inquiry to explore the experiences of Black gay international students, and how they are racialized and sexualized in American higher education. Using a Queer and Intersectional framework, this study highlighted power structures and processes that continue to marginalize Black gay international students in the U.S. and in their home countries. Their narratives reflected significant moments or events that were important to them and how they understand their identities and realities. This study provides a strong ...


Teacher Bias In Elementary School And The Factors That Aid It., Camara Uras Douglas Aug 2016

Teacher Bias In Elementary School And The Factors That Aid It., Camara Uras Douglas

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines teacher bias in elementary school through a thorough investigation of prior research focused on this topic, along with historical accounts of African American education. The basic question of the thesis is: To what extent does teacher bias affect the educational experiences of African American students and lead to a persistent educational gap between African Americans and whites? The study found that teacher bias of African American students does exist particularly those from low-income neighborhoods. Moreover, the biases are based on certain assumptions that can be traced to the historical discrimination of African American in education, as well ...


How Does Your Garden Grow: How Planting Seeds Of Hope Inspire A Community Of Gifted African-American Learners To Flourish In An Early Childhood Setting, Danielle Elaine Macneal-Harris May 2014

How Does Your Garden Grow: How Planting Seeds Of Hope Inspire A Community Of Gifted African-American Learners To Flourish In An Early Childhood Setting, Danielle Elaine Macneal-Harris

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

"Knowledge is like a garden: if it is not cultivated, it cannot be harvested"

-African Proverb

Each day, African-American children are rarely given the opportunity to reach their full potential and flourish in American school systems. There continues to be a disparity in the number of African-Americans in the gifted population. When identified early, and with appropriate educational opportunities, young, culturally diverse gifted learners will be more likely to have long-term educational success. By utilizing an educational criticism methodology, this study discusses the importance of gifted education for African-American, early childhood students, by answering the question, how does The Hope ...


A Bridge Over Troubled Waters: Testimonies Of Black Women's Experience Of Desegregation In The South, Marketa Bullard Jan 2013

A Bridge Over Troubled Waters: Testimonies Of Black Women's Experience Of Desegregation In The South, Marketa Bullard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This is an inquiry into school desegregation, Black Women, and spirituality with the focus on three young Black Women who desegregated a small rural high school in the South. Theoretically drawing upon the works of Alice Walker (1983, 1997, 2006), Audre Lorde (2007), Emilie Townes (1995, 1996, 1997), Toni Morrison (1988, 1993, 1998), James Anderson (1988), and William Watkins (1993, 2003, 2001, 2005, 2006), I gather testimonies of key events that help understand desegregation in Queensburg, Alabama, a fictional town that represents many rural Southern towns during the era of school desegregation. Methodologically drawing upon oral history (Brown, 1988; Haley ...


Casting Minority Gifted Students: The Pedagogical Impact Of Cinema On The Culture Of Schooling, Deborah F. Burnette Jan 2013

Casting Minority Gifted Students: The Pedagogical Impact Of Cinema On The Culture Of Schooling, Deborah F. Burnette

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

African American students are significantly underrepresented in gifted education programs. This dissertation creates a space where gifted education, African American students, media literacy, and teacher perceptions intersect in the field of curriculum studies. Media literacy will be utilized to critique popular films by gifted endorsement teacher-students and myself. Due to the low number of states that require pre-service teachers to study gifted characteristics of children it is left up to gifted teacher endorsement programs to train teachers. By using media literacy to examine films in gifted teacher endorsement programs, I assert that the under-representation of African American students in the ...


Through Smoke And Mirrors: Constructing Identity Between The Myths Of Black Inferiority And A Post-Racial America, Gwyneira Yvette Dixon Ledford Oct 2012

Through Smoke And Mirrors: Constructing Identity Between The Myths Of Black Inferiority And A Post-Racial America, Gwyneira Yvette Dixon Ledford

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is an inquiry into my life. It is an exploration of my lived experience as an African American female negotiating through traditions in Southern culture and societal pressures to create a positive identity. Using autobiographical narrative (Connelly, He, & Phillion, 2008, Pinar, 2008) as a methodology and Black Feminist Thought (Collins, 2000), double consciousness (DuBois, 1903), and the Nigrescence Theory of black identity development (Cross, 1991) as the theoretical framework, I examine my experiences from childhood to adulthood. Through these narrations, I note paradigm shifts in my thinking that identify the psychological struggles between feeling racially inferior and comfortable ...


Disrupting The Deficit Discourse On Historically Black Colleges And Universities: An Organizational Identity Case Study Of Philander Smith College, Shametrice Ledora Davis Jan 2012

Disrupting The Deficit Discourse On Historically Black Colleges And Universities: An Organizational Identity Case Study Of Philander Smith College, Shametrice Ledora Davis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The federal Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, defines a historically Black institution of higher education as "any historically Black college or university that was established prior to 1964, whose principle mission was, and is, the education of Black Americans." Today, there are approximately 105 HBCUs, more than half private, the rest public, and a few two-year institutions (Allen, Jewell, Griffin, & Wolf, 2007). While currently only 14 percent of Black college students attend HBCUs, 70 percent of all Black doctors and dentists, 50 percent of all Black engineers and public school teachers, and 35 percent of all Black attorneys received their bachelor's degrees at an HBCU (Avery, 2009). Despite these notable statistics, leaders associated with HBCUs have felt insecure about their future since the 1950s for a variety of issues; namely low enrollments, low endowments, loss of accreditation, and severe decreases in fiscal resources (Avery, 2009).

However, missing from the discourse is a discussion of which HBCUs are currently staying ahead of the national and higher education economic ...


Walking On The Red Brick Path: A Portrait Of African-American Women's Experiences With The Built Environment Of A Predominantly White Institution, Stephanie L. Krusemark Aug 2010

Walking On The Red Brick Path: A Portrait Of African-American Women's Experiences With The Built Environment Of A Predominantly White Institution, Stephanie L. Krusemark

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

“Space, like language, is socially constructed; and like the syntax of language, the spatial arrangements of our buildings and communities reflect and reinforce the nature of gender, race, and class relations in society” (Weisman, 1992, p. 2). While institutions of higher education have granted physical access to African-American women over the last 150 years, their presence on American campuses has not been readily reflected in the physical design of the walls within which they learn. In examining the historical foundations of institutions of higher education, we cannot deny institutions consciously embed their values and basic assumptions within their physical manifestation ...


Perceptions Of Factors Associated With Academic Success Among African American Students On Four Predominantly White Campuses In Northeast Tennessee, Jean M. Harper Aug 1999

Perceptions Of Factors Associated With Academic Success Among African American Students On Four Predominantly White Campuses In Northeast Tennessee, Jean M. Harper

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the perceptions of successful African American sophomore students and their adjustment to academic success at predominantly White colleges and universities. Twenty African American sophomore females and twenty African American sophomore males from two predominantly White community colleges and two predominantly White universities participated in the study. Each subject completed a demographic survey and participated in an interview. Results indicated that both the attitudes of African American students toward education and their perceptions of the attitudes of those in the educational system towards African American students played an integral role ...


Perceptions Of African-American Seniors Regarding Factors Of Institutional Support At Three Predominantly White Tennessee State-Supported Institutions Of Higher Education, Delmar L. Mack May 1999

Perceptions Of African-American Seniors Regarding Factors Of Institutional Support At Three Predominantly White Tennessee State-Supported Institutions Of Higher Education, Delmar L. Mack

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study of African-American seniors at East Tennessee State University, Middle Tennessee State University, and the University of Tennessee at Knoxville was conducted to solicit student responses about the perceptions of their schools, university services, and experiences at those institutions. The study employed quantitative data and descriptive analysis was performed. Data collected in this study described the demographic characteristics of the students and their perceptions, attitudes, experiences and level of involvement in the campus environment for African-American seniors. Data in this study indicated perceptions that Tennessee must be committed to increasing financial support to the universities. Universities must be committed ...


A Portrayal Of The Work Life Of Tenured African-American Female Faculty Working Within Historically White, Public Institutions Of Higher Education In Virginia, Carol A. Wilson Dec 1998

A Portrayal Of The Work Life Of Tenured African-American Female Faculty Working Within Historically White, Public Institutions Of Higher Education In Virginia, Carol A. Wilson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to portray the experiences of African-American tenured female faculty employed within Historically White, public institutions of higher education in Virginia. This study is a portrait of the career paths, teaching experiences, institutional experiences, community and personal activities, work life, and the future of African-Americans. The study focused on personal experiences and provided a grounded recording for other African-American female faculty members employed within comparable institutions of higher education. The interviews also addressed educational preparation, mentoring, expectations, frustrations, difficulties, cultural and collegial experiences. Participants' audio taped responses were transcribed. Similarities that evolved from the discussions ...


A Case Study Of The Effects Of Integration On Two Black High Schools In East Tennessee, Sheila R. Knaff May 1998

A Case Study Of The Effects Of Integration On Two Black High Schools In East Tennessee, Sheila R. Knaff

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the effects of integration on two black high schools and their communities in East Tennessee. The purpose of the study was to show how integration impacted these two communities both negatively and positively. The research method was qualitative and used the case study approach. Interviews of former students, teachers, and administrators of these two schools was a primary source of data collection. Further analysis of the data used the qualitative software package QSR NUD*IST 4.0. Data gained from the interviews, coupled with historical and current literature, as well as other published documents in relation to ...


Perceptions Of African-American Males Regarding Factors Supporting Doctoral Completion In Colleges Of Education, William Respress May 1997

Perceptions Of African-American Males Regarding Factors Supporting Doctoral Completion In Colleges Of Education, William Respress

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The primary purpose of the study was to examine what institutional factors most influenced the decision of African-American male doctoral scholars to persist unto graduation. The literature review showed mentoring, institutional climate, race relations, and social adjustment as key factors in persistence of minorities in graduate studies. An objective specific to the study was to explore the cumulative outcomes that mentoring, social adjustment, institutional climate, and race relations have upon persistence. The population included scholars at both Predominantly White Colleges (PWIs) and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) throughout the United States in Colleges of Education. One hundred sixty-four scholars ...