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Full-Text Articles in Education

Activities And Role Of School Counselors In West Virginia: A Comparison To A National Sample, Lijuan He, Barb Brady, John C. Carey May 2021

Activities And Role Of School Counselors In West Virginia: A Comparison To A National Sample, Lijuan He, Barb Brady, John C. Carey

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

A national study of school counselor role and professional activities (Fan et al., 2019) was replicated using a West Virginia (WV) school counselor sample to determine if WV’s unique context and state policies would reflect a difference in how counselors perceive their roles and conduct professional practices. The comparison between WV sample and its national counterparts showed that school counselors grade level is robustly related to professional practice, with high school counselors demonstrating different levels of work focus than middle and elementary counselors. The WV sample did not demonstrate any practically significant differences from the previously collected national U ...


An Interview With Dr. Trish Hatch: An Advocate For School Counseling Policy, Jan L. Gay May 2021

An Interview With Dr. Trish Hatch: An Advocate For School Counseling Policy, Jan L. Gay

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

Dr. Trish Hatch has served as a leader in school counselor policy and advocacy for over 30 years. As a co-author of the ASCA National Model, Dr. Hatch has worked tirelessly to establish school-based policies to promote the profession of school counseling at the district, state, and federal levels. This interview serves to provide readers with insight on the importance of advocacy and understanding how to navigate political systems to affect policies that influence the profession of school counseling.


A Systematic Literature Review Of School-Counsellor-Led Group Counselling Interventions Targeting Academic Achievement: Implications For Research And Practice, Sam Steen, Qi Shi, Jennifer Melfie May 2021

A Systematic Literature Review Of School-Counsellor-Led Group Counselling Interventions Targeting Academic Achievement: Implications For Research And Practice, Sam Steen, Qi Shi, Jennifer Melfie

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This article reviews group counselling interventions conducted by school counsellors that aimed to improve academic achievement. A total of 12 studies met these criteria. The studies that used comprehensive/comparative tests and GPA as academic achievement outcome measures had moderate to large effect sizes. Secondly, this review broadly examined whether a protocol or group manual was used, the number of group sessions, and demographic information of the group leaders and students. Implications and recommendations for future research are provided including exploring more international articles.


A Review Of Program Evaluation In School Counseling: Improving Comprehensive And Developmental Programs, Amanda D. Rumsey May 2021

A Review Of Program Evaluation In School Counseling: Improving Comprehensive And Developmental Programs, Amanda D. Rumsey

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This book review includes a detailed overview and discussion of Michael S. Trevisan and John C. Carey’s book: Program Evaluation in School Counseling: Improving Comprehensive and Developmental Programs, New York, NY: Routledge, 132 pages, $124.00 (hardcover), ISBN 9781138346574. The review includes strengths and potential issues regarding the text’s value and uses in graduate programs and school counseling practice. Overall, the book is a great resource and would be helpful knowledge for anyone working in the context of school counseling.


“All Is Quiet In Arlington”: The Desegregation Of Arlington County Public Schools And How We Remember It, Ella Benbow May 2021

“All Is Quiet In Arlington”: The Desegregation Of Arlington County Public Schools And How We Remember It, Ella Benbow

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Brown v. Board of Education overturned the long-enforced “separate but equal” doctrine forcing school systems to decide exactly how much they would comply with the holding that segregated public schools were no longer constitutional. Several states, Virginia among them, relied on pupil placement boards to deny the transfer of many Black students to primarily white schools. Some localities’ violent resistance to any desegregation is still reflected in the prevalent de facto school segregation 66 years after Brown. My thesis examines the reaction of Arlington County, a small, liberal area just outside Washington, D.C. that boasts about being the first ...


Us School Counselor State Licensure Requirements For Program Evaluation, Michael S. Trevisan, John C. Carey, Ian Martin, Narayankripa Sundararajan Nov 2020

Us School Counselor State Licensure Requirements For Program Evaluation, Michael S. Trevisan, John C. Carey, Ian Martin, Narayankripa Sundararajan

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

Using qualitative content analysis (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2007), we examined the expectations of states in the US regarding program evaluation content for school counselor licensure. Results show that 43 states maintain some form of program evaluation expectations for licensure, up from the 19 identified by Trevisan (2000). Twenty-eight states require licensure tests that purportedly align with CACREP, ASCA, or maintain a state developed licensure test that measures program evaluation content. Twenty-one states explicitly mention alignment of their curriculum with CACREP, ASCA, or both. The depth and scope of the program evaluation requirements that could be identified are ambiguous and unconnected ...


Transition Services: Building Successful Collaborations Among School Professionals, Kimberly F. Frazier, Kristi Perryman, Suzanne Kucharczyk Nov 2020

Transition Services: Building Successful Collaborations Among School Professionals, Kimberly F. Frazier, Kristi Perryman, Suzanne Kucharczyk

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

Students who have significant disabilities have the same aspirations as their non-disabled peers: living productive, enriched, and self-determined lives. Adolescent-to-adulthood transition services have the potential to help position students with disabilities to obtain the best possible outcomes, thereby helping them lead full and included adult lives. It is vital that school and community-based support professionals act in concert with students with significant disabilities and their families to develop and implement successful transition services. This article discusses how partnerships across disciplines can help position students with disabilities for the best possible outcomes during the crucial period of their transition from the ...


A Phenomenological Study Of Teachers And Mental Health Paraprofessionals Implementing The Jesse Lewis Choose Love Program, Kristi Perryman, Erin Popejoy, Julia Conroy Nov 2020

A Phenomenological Study Of Teachers And Mental Health Paraprofessionals Implementing The Jesse Lewis Choose Love Program, Kristi Perryman, Erin Popejoy, Julia Conroy

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This study examined the lived experience of teachers and mental health paraprofessionals implementing the Jesse Lewis Choose Love curriculum in an alternative school setting. Social emotional learning curriculum implementation within the unique structure of alternative schools is important to investigate in order to better understand the unique needs of those providing services to students in this setting. This study utilized open-ended written prompts and two focus groups with teachers and mental health paraprofessionals for 10 weeks of implementation of this social emotional learning program. Participants reported changes in students and themselves and an increase in group cohesion. Five identified themes ...


Development Of The Taxonomy Of Policy Levers To Promote High Quality School-Based Counseling: An Initial Test Of Its Utility And Comprehensiveness, Oyaziwo Aluede, Barb Brady, Yuan Ying Jin, Mohammad Mahboob Morshed, John C. Carey Nov 2020

Development Of The Taxonomy Of Policy Levers To Promote High Quality School-Based Counseling: An Initial Test Of Its Utility And Comprehensiveness, Oyaziwo Aluede, Barb Brady, Yuan Ying Jin, Mohammad Mahboob Morshed, John C. Carey

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This article is the second of a two-part series that describes the development of the Taxonomy of Policy Levers to Promote High Quality School-Based Counseling. A previous article (Morshed & Carey, in press) described the development of the Taxonomy using content analysis of existing published descriptions of policy levers used to promote quality school-based counseling. This present article tested the utility and comprehensiveness of the Taxonomy by having experts from South Korea, Nigeria, and West Virginia review policies in their regions.. They analyzed the utility and comprehensiveness of the Taxonomy by using it to describe the school-based counseling policy landscape in ...


Development Of A Taxonomy Of Policy Levers To Promote High Quality School-Based Counseling, Mohammad Mahboob Morshed, John Carey Nov 2020

Development Of A Taxonomy Of Policy Levers To Promote High Quality School-Based Counseling, Mohammad Mahboob Morshed, John Carey

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

There is a lack of an established framework or taxonomy in the academic literature to systematically analyze school counseling policies. This study was conducted to fill in this gap. Specifically, the researchers propose an initial taxonomy developed based on review of relevant school counseling policy documents and research. The proposed taxonomy has 21 policy levers grouped under seven policy foci covering school counselors’ initial competence, continuing competence, effective school counseling practices, planning and evaluation of school counseling, distinct school counselor roles, hiring of school counselors, and the continual improvement of school counseling system. The Taxonomy is still in a developmental ...


A Virtual Internship To Prepare High School Students For Civic And Political Action, Jason A. Chen, Jeremy D. Stoddard Oct 2020

A Virtual Internship To Prepare High School Students For Civic And Political Action, Jason A. Chen, Jeremy D. Stoddard

School of Education Articles

We explored the impact of participating in a Virtual Internship (VI) computer-supported collaborative learning simulation, on high school students’ (n = 43) development of knowledge and skills for critiquing the political media with which they engage. Second, we evaluated the effect of this intervention on students’ self-efficacy for using specific media strategies to take political action. Finally, we explored the epistemic (knowledge-seeking) and non-epistemic aims that students set for themselves while participating within our VI, which was designed specifically to address students’ epistemic cognition. Analyses of both the quantitative and qualitative data revealed that students: (1) evinced gains in knowledge about ...


Managing Stress In A Time Of Increased Pressure: Perspectives From University Presidents, Russell S. Thacker, Sydney Freeman, Jr. Jun 2020

Managing Stress In A Time Of Increased Pressure: Perspectives From University Presidents, Russell S. Thacker, Sydney Freeman, Jr.

The William & Mary Educational Review

The modern university presidency continues to become more complex, resulting in numerous personal and professional stresses placed on a president. This study explores the sources, impacts, and successful prevention and management of stress in the position. Data for the study comes from qualitative phenomenological interviews with five sitting presidents of public and private universities in the United States. Using a theoretical lens derived from executive stress theory, the authors examine the degree to which a need for personal control and stability play a role in producing stress and motivating certain stress responses. Meaningful relationships, positive mindsets, and repeatable practices of ...


Kenyan Professional Counsellors’ Role Perceptions And Responsibilities, Chika Eucharia Eze, Alice Nzangi, Francis Obaweiki May 2020

Kenyan Professional Counsellors’ Role Perceptions And Responsibilities, Chika Eucharia Eze, Alice Nzangi, Francis Obaweiki

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This article presents the results of survey research on Kenyan professional school-based counsellor’s perceptions of roles and appropriate activities. Data were collected from 47 Kenyan counsellors using the International Survey of School-Based Counselling Activities. Mean subscale scores and standard deviations were employed to analyse data across five dimensions of the school-based counsellor role practice: Counselling Services; Advocacy and Systemic Improvement; Prevention Programs; Administrator Role; and Educational Career Planning. Results indicated that Kenyan counsellors’ highest scale of preference for role/responsibility they perform was Counselling Services (one-to-one counselling service and group counselling aimed at improving children and adolescences’ mental health ...


Structural Validity Of The International Survey Of School Counselor’S Activities (Issca) When Applied With Counseling And Guidance Personnel In Primary Schools In Hong Kong, Shui Wai Wong, Mantak Yuen May 2020

Structural Validity Of The International Survey Of School Counselor’S Activities (Issca) When Applied With Counseling And Guidance Personnel In Primary Schools In Hong Kong, Shui Wai Wong, Mantak Yuen

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This paper reports results of a recent exploratory study using the International Survey of School Counselor’s Activities with two separate but equivalent samples of guidance professionals from primary schools in Hong Kong. An exploratory factor analysis using data from one sample (n = 76) identified 7 factors representing guidance and counseling roles: counseling services; practice improvement; services to parents; prevention programs; advocacy and systemic improvement; educational and career planning; and, discipline and administration. Confirmatory factor analysis using data from the second sample (n = 76) supported this 7-factor solution. A previous international study involving school-based counselors from 10 countries had identified ...


Practices And Priorities Of School-Based Counselors In Venezuela And Costa Rica, Ian Martin, George Vera May 2020

Practices And Priorities Of School-Based Counselors In Venezuela And Costa Rica, Ian Martin, George Vera

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This article reports findings from surveys collected from practicing school-based counselors in Venezuela (N = 30) and Costa Rica (N = 107) using the International Survey of School-Based Counseling Activities (ISSCA). Analyses identified striking similarities between these two countries and major differences when compared to the other 10 countries within this special issue. The discussion is focused on explaining how school-based counseling policies and educational policies in Venezuela and Costa Rica influenced the development of counseling practices over time.


School-Based Counseling In The United States: Mode Of Practice And International Comparisons Related To Five Dimensions Of Practice, John C. Carey May 2020

School-Based Counseling In The United States: Mode Of Practice And International Comparisons Related To Five Dimensions Of Practice, John C. Carey

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This study used the five dimensions of practice identified by Carey, Fan, He, and Jin (2020) to describe the preferred mode of practice of US school-based counselors and compare this mode of practice with nine other countries. A total of 380 US school counselors completed the International Survey of School Counselor Activities-United States. Mean item ratings and mean BART scores were used for both descriptions and comparisons. US counselors indicated that Counseling Services; Advocacy and Systemic Improvement; Prevention Programs; and, Educational and Career Planning were all important aspects of their role. In comparison to international counterparts, US counselors placed greater ...


School-Based Counsellors' Role As Perceived By Nigerian Counsellors, Oyaziwo Aluede, Andrew A. Adubale May 2020

School-Based Counsellors' Role As Perceived By Nigerian Counsellors, Oyaziwo Aluede, Andrew A. Adubale

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This study assessed the perceptions of Nigerian counsellors regarding the appropriateness of a range of school counsellors’ activities and determined how Nigerian school counsellors viewed the appropriateness of the five dimensions of counselling practice. School counsellors from the Association of Professional Counsellors in Nigeria (n = 176) completed the International Survey of School-based Counselor Activities. Results were compared to those of counsellors from nine other nations. Findings revealed some commonalities and some potentially important differences. Nigerian counsellors considered the Educational and Career Planning dimension the most important dimension. In contrast to all the other national groups, Nigerian counsellors considered Administrative Activities ...


Comparing Maltese School-Based Counselling With Nine Other Countries, Ruth Falzon, Silvia Galea, Maud Muscat May 2020

Comparing Maltese School-Based Counselling With Nine Other Countries, Ruth Falzon, Silvia Galea, Maud Muscat

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This research identifies activities that Maltese School-based Counsellors (MSC) engage in and perceived as appropriate for their role. The article also compared Maltese schoolbased counselling with counselling in other countries. The results reflect both (a) the influence of the American and British models of counselling and (b) the unique cultural context. MSCs evidenced congruence with regard to perceptions of appropriateness and actual activities carried out. However some activities, which they considered as appropriate, were not being carrying out. This may mean either that counsellors’ workloads were untenable, or that the job descriptions, remits and boundaries of the psychosocial team in ...


Role Of School Counselors And The Factors That Affect Their Practice In India, Elizabeth Thomas, Anjali M. Dey May 2020

Role Of School Counselors And The Factors That Affect Their Practice In India, Elizabeth Thomas, Anjali M. Dey

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This article summarizes the responses of the sample of Indian school-based counselors who contributed data to the international factor analysis that identified five dimensions of practice. Forty-five complete surveys (i.e., the International Survey of School Counselor’s Activities) were obtained from Indian school-based counselors most of whom had a Master’s degree in counseling psychology. Counseling Services, Advocacy and Systemic Improvement, Preventive Programs, and Educational and Career Planning were all considered important components of role. Activities related to the Administrative Role were considered as inappropriate. Compared to the other countries, the scores from India suggest that the school-based counselors ...


Five Dimensions Of School-Based Counseling Practice: Factor Analysis Identification Using The International Survey Of School Counselors’ Activities, John C. Carey, Kuiyuan Y. Fan, Lijuan He, Yuan Ying Jin May 2020

Five Dimensions Of School-Based Counseling Practice: Factor Analysis Identification Using The International Survey Of School Counselors’ Activities, John C. Carey, Kuiyuan Y. Fan, Lijuan He, Yuan Ying Jin

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This article describes a factor analytic study designed to identify the underlying dimensions of school-based counseling practice that will be useful in describing cross-national differences in school-based counseling practice and in enabling comparative research on school-based counseling policy and effectiveness. Practicing school-based counselors (N = 2913) from 10 countries (China, Costa Rica, India, Kenya, South Korea, Malta, Nigeria, Turkey, the United States, and Venezuela) used the International Survey of School-Based Counseling Activities (ISSCA) to rate the centrality of 40 activities to the role of a school-based counselor. Factor analysis determined that five dimensions adequately described the school-based counselor role: Counseling Services ...


Introduction To This Special Issue On Cross-National Differences In School-Based Counseling Practice, John C. Carey May 2020

Introduction To This Special Issue On Cross-National Differences In School-Based Counseling Practice, John C. Carey

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This special issue of the Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation presents the outcomes of the research of a team of international scholars seeking to better understand the nature of the variability of school-based counseling practice across countries and the contextual determinants of this variability. A lead article describes a large, ten-nation, factor analytic study of school-based counselors’ ratings on the International Survey of School-Based Counseling Activities (ISSCA) that identified five dimensions that describe cross-national variability. Five articles use this five-dimensional framework to describe the mode of practice for school-based counseling within a single country (India, Kenya, Malta, Nigeria ...


Bilingualism And Emotion: How Do Spanish-English Bilinguals Experience The Two Languages Differently?, Caitlyn Whitesell May 2020

Bilingualism And Emotion: How Do Spanish-English Bilinguals Experience The Two Languages Differently?, Caitlyn Whitesell

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Previous literature has suggested that bilingual people react to emotional statements with varying degrees of intensity due to their personal experience with each language. Potential factors affecting emotional differences between languages included fluency, culture, age of acquisition, amount of exposure, language learning environment, and motivation. Isolating the impact of these factors on emotional experience challenges research because the factors cannot be easily controlled or separated. The current study investigated how the factors of age of acquisition, length of language exposure, and language-learning environment played a role in emotional reactions to similar stimuli by manipulating the language of the emotional stimuli ...


What Europe Learns About Itself: Political Differences And Their Effects On Citizenship Education About The European Union In England, Scotland And Nordrhein-Westfalen, William Moore May 2020

What Europe Learns About Itself: Political Differences And Their Effects On Citizenship Education About The European Union In England, Scotland And Nordrhein-Westfalen, William Moore

Undergraduate Honors Theses

How government opinion can influence the creation of citizenship education content has long been a significant question in the field of political socialization. In recent years, the European Union has become a particularly relevant institution and target in this process, as the EU has grown in its political salience. But have governments attempted to influence the attitudes of citizenship education content about the EU for potential political benefits? In this study, I use a combination of spatial content analysis and textual analysis on party manifestos and citizenship education textbooks from England, Scotland, and Nordrhein-Westfalen to highlight whether political opinions on ...


Learning About Learning With Deep Learning: Satellite Estimates Of School Test Scores, Heather M. Baier May 2020

Learning About Learning With Deep Learning: Satellite Estimates Of School Test Scores, Heather M. Baier

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Convolutional neural networks are deep-learning models commonly applied when analyzing imagery. Convolutional neural networks and satellite imagery have shown potential for the global estimation of key factors driving socioeconomic ability to adapt to global change. Unlike more traditional approaches to data collection, such as surveys, approaches based on satellite data are low cost, timely, and allow replication by a wide range of parties. We illustrate the potential of this approach with a case study estimating school test scores based solely on publicly available imagery in both the Philippines (2010, 2014) and Brazil (2016), with predictive accuracy across years and regions ...


Task Force On Textbook Affordability Final Report, Marian Taliaferro, Paul D. Heideman, Asia Randolph Feb 2020

Task Force On Textbook Affordability Final Report, Marian Taliaferro, Paul D. Heideman, Asia Randolph

W&M Libraries Publications

Costs of textbooks and course materials for undergraduates are estimated nationally at up to $1200 per student per year. With that estimate, the aggregate costs for William & Mary’s 6250 undergraduates may approach $7.5 million per year; graduate students may add $1-2 million to that total. Course books and materials increase costs of college attendance, and for some students are barriers to success. The Textbook Affordability Taskforce (TATF) composed of W&M faculty, staff, and students was formed in August 2019. The TATF was charged with examining the issue of textbook affordability and with developing and delivering near-term and long-term recommendations for making textbooks more affordable for W&M students ...


W&M Student Textbook Survey Executive Summary, Marian Taliaferro, Asia Randolph, Jessica Ramey Feb 2020

W&M Student Textbook Survey Executive Summary, Marian Taliaferro, Asia Randolph, Jessica Ramey

W&M Libraries Publications

Presents key findings from the textbook survey. The main objectives for issuing the textbook survey in fall 2019 were to understand the textbook spending practices as well as related preferences of W&M students so that the campus administrators would have information useful for programs designed to increase course materials affordability. Specifically, survey objectives were to:

• Understand current costs of textbooks and course materials for W&M students

• Understand methods W&M students take to lower textbook costs

• Understand the viability of implementing an “inclusive access” textbook pilot

• Identify student suggestions for reducing textbook costs


Person-Context Influences On Educational Involvement In Rural Cambodian Schools, Arpana G. Inman, Asmita C. Pendse, Linh P. Luu Dec 2019

Person-Context Influences On Educational Involvement In Rural Cambodian Schools, Arpana G. Inman, Asmita C. Pendse, Linh P. Luu

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

Based on Bronfenbrenner’s Process-Person-Context-Time model, this study explored the attitudes and potential factors affecting children’s educational participation in two non-governmental organization-sponsored rural schools in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with students (female and male), teachers, principals, and parents. A discovery-oriented qualitative analytical approach revealed that at the individual level, truancy and student respect for school regulations impacted school participation. At the family level, parental support and family difficulties influenced school participation. At the school level, teacher ability, teacher-parent interactions, and adequate resources either facilitated or hindered student success. At the socio-cultural level, socioeconomic ...


School Counseling Toward A Mission Of “Ib For All”, Nancy Chae, Susanne P. Gray-Rice Dec 2019

School Counseling Toward A Mission Of “Ib For All”, Nancy Chae, Susanne P. Gray-Rice

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

Although the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) recognizes the importance of school counselors, there is limited guidance about the expectations and roles of school counselors in serving the diverse needs of students in IB schools. With the IBO’s movement toward a mission of “IB for All” to address equitable access to academic rigor, this also aligns with school counselors’ ethical responsibilities as advocates, collaborators, and leaders to promote access and equity for all students. The authors (a) highlight the work of one school counseling program that developed and implemented initiatives, using the U.S.-based ASCA National Model (ASCA, 2019a ...


Humanity Education As A School-Based Intervention For Healing, Daniel Gutierrez, Stephanie Dorais, James M. Smith, Freddy Mutanguha Dec 2019

Humanity Education As A School-Based Intervention For Healing, Daniel Gutierrez, Stephanie Dorais, James M. Smith, Freddy Mutanguha

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

Violence is a large-scale public health concern that impacts the mental health of people all over the world. There is a critical need for early intervention strategies that prevent violence and foster humanity and well-being. Traditional approaches to violence prevention focus on inhibiting antisocial behavior, overlooking the benefits of promoting positive values, humanity, and prosocial behavior. Aegis Trust is an international organization dedicated to the prevention of future genocides and promotion of humanity globally through education. It developed an educational methodology that has shown evidence of effectiveness in recovering from trauma, promoting humanity, and preventing violence in post-genocide Rwanda and ...


Who Took “Counseling” Out Of The Role Of Professional School Counselors In The United States?, Glenn W. Lambie, Jaimie Stickl Haugen, Jon R. Borland, Laurie O. Campbell Dec 2019

Who Took “Counseling” Out Of The Role Of Professional School Counselors In The United States?, Glenn W. Lambie, Jaimie Stickl Haugen, Jon R. Borland, Laurie O. Campbell

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

The rates of mental health concerns among school-aged youth are increasing and the growing rates of students considering or planning for suicide is alarming. Although school counselors are often the only professionals with the training to support students’ mental health needs in schools, they are often inaccessible to students to receive long-term mental health counseling services. The American School Counselor Association (ASCA) advocates for school counselors to focus on prevention, short-term intervention, and crisis work rather than long-term counseling given their primary role in other activities such as student planning and systems support (ASCA, 2019). However, the role of school ...