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Full-Text Articles in Education

Delivering On A Promise: A Longitudinal Cohort Study Of Emergent Bilinguals' Academic Achievement In A Utah Dual Language Program, J. Eric Campbell May 2022

Delivering On A Promise: A Longitudinal Cohort Study Of Emergent Bilinguals' Academic Achievement In A Utah Dual Language Program, J. Eric Campbell

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Emergent bilingual (EB) students are a growing population in the U.S. school system currently comprising over 10% of the total population. U.S. school districts have educated EB students using a myriad of practices, including dual language immersion (DLI). Many studies have looked at the academic achievement of native-Spanish speaking EB students, yet there is a dearth of research on DLI in medium-sized school districts in rural settings. This study focused on native-Spanish speaking EB students in a DLI program in a rural Utah district. Specifically, the study compared student academic achievement in English acquisition, English language arts, mathematics ...


Children's Mathematical Engagement Based On Their Awareness Of Different Coding Toys' Design Features, Joseph S. Kozlowski May 2022

Children's Mathematical Engagement Based On Their Awareness Of Different Coding Toys' Design Features, Joseph S. Kozlowski

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Tangible coding toys have been promulgated as useful learning tools for young children to learn computer science and mathematics concepts and skills. Although research shows coding toys can support mathematics for early childhood aged children, little is known about the specific design features of coding toys that afford mathematical thinking concepts and skills to young children. The purpose of this study was to examine kindergarten-aged children’s awareness of the design features in coding toys and to understand how those design features afford children’s engagement with mathematics. The dataset used for this study was collected as part of design-based ...


Cache Code Math Mathematics Lesson Plans: Exponents And Repeats, Jody Clarke-Midura, Jessica Shumway, Kimberly Beck, Umar Shehzad, Mimi Recker Jan 2022

Cache Code Math Mathematics Lesson Plans: Exponents And Repeats, Jody Clarke-Midura, Jessica Shumway, Kimberly Beck, Umar Shehzad, Mimi Recker

Instructional resources

This document entails four 5th grade mathematics lesson plans. The lessons are intended to be implemented in conjunction with the computer lab activities found in “Integrated Lesson (CS and Math)”. The mathematics focus of these lessons is exponents as repeated multiplication, which is paired with the computer coding concepts of repeat loop blocks.


Examining The Use Of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy In Undergraduate Mathematics Learning Modules With Students Of Color, Thomas A. Mgonja Aug 2021

Examining The Use Of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy In Undergraduate Mathematics Learning Modules With Students Of Color, Thomas A. Mgonja

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In mathematics, Students of Color have persistently performed lower than their White counterparts, thus creating a need to explore instructional methods that could reduce performance disparities. This study investigated culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) to understand how it might support students’ mathematics learning in undergraduate mathematics learning modules. The overarching research question focused on how CRP in undergraduate mathematics Learning Modules supported students’ mathematics learning. There were also two main questions that focused on participants’ evaluations of the CRP modules and how those evaluations were reported based on subgroups (Students of Color and White). The researcher employed a sequential explanatory mixed-methods ...


Preschool Children's Development In Number, Geometry, And Executive Function: A Cross-Lagged Examination, Brionne G. Neilson May 2021

Preschool Children's Development In Number, Geometry, And Executive Function: A Cross-Lagged Examination, Brionne G. Neilson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Children develop rapidly during early childhood, and this includes their mathematics and executive function (EF) skills. Past research has focused on connections between early mathematics and EF, but more work was needed to fully understand these relations. In particular, past studies have generally used numeracy-based measures to assess early mathematics, although professional guidelines indicate a more comprehensive construct that includes geometry. The research herein addresses some of the gaps of previous work as it examines unique connections between early number, geometry, and EF. One hundred eighteen preschool children from urban and rural communities, being an average age of 53 months ...


The Role Of Gender On The Associations Among Children’S Attitudes, Mathematics Knowledge, Digital Game Use, Perceptions Of Affordances, And Achievement, Kristy Litster, Christina W. Lommatsch, Josh R. Novak, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham, Jill Ashby, Allison L. Roxburgh, Emma P. Bullock Aug 2020

The Role Of Gender On The Associations Among Children’S Attitudes, Mathematics Knowledge, Digital Game Use, Perceptions Of Affordances, And Achievement, Kristy Litster, Christina W. Lommatsch, Josh R. Novak, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham, Jill Ashby, Allison L. Roxburgh, Emma P. Bullock

Teacher Education and Leadership Faculty Publications

This study explored associations among children’s prior attitudes, prior mathematics knowledge, and frequency of digital game use, with children’s perceptions of game affordances, and transfer to out-of-game performance when interacting with digital math games, with respect to gender. Participants were 187 children (ages 8–12). An SEM mediation path analysis using MPLUS software showed significant direct effects for all pathways for all children, and significant indirect effects on all pathways for male children and five of six pathways for female children. More favorable attitudes, prior math knowledge, and perception of the helping affordances were associated with increased posttest ...


Experiencing Active Mathematics Learning: Meeting The Expectations For Teaching And Learning In Mathematics Classrooms, Kristy Litster, Beth L. Macdonald, Jessica F. Shumway Jun 2020

Experiencing Active Mathematics Learning: Meeting The Expectations For Teaching And Learning In Mathematics Classrooms, Kristy Litster, Beth L. Macdonald, Jessica F. Shumway

Teacher Education and Leadership Faculty Publications

Active learning mathematics classrooms incorporate meaningful activities that emphasize reasoning, thinking and active interaction with mathematics. Current mathematics standards and curricula recommend that Mathematics Teacher Educators (MTEs) use elements of active learning in their mathematics content courses specifically designed for Prospective Teachers (PTs) as they prepare PTs to learn and teach mathematics. However, it can be very difficult for PTs to shift their pedagogical dispositions towards instruction associated with active learning because they typically have not experienced mathematics taught in this way. This article focuses on two instructional practices for MTEs to use with PTs. First, selecting tasks that promote ...


Exploring The Phenomenon Of Distance In Children's Interactions With Touchscreen Digital Mathematics Games, Stephen I. Tucker, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham May 2020

Exploring The Phenomenon Of Distance In Children's Interactions With Touchscreen Digital Mathematics Games, Stephen I. Tucker, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham

Teacher Education and Leadership Faculty Publications

This study examines the construct of distance – the degree of difficulty of interacting with something – as part of activity involving children using touchscreen digital games to learn mathematics. Ten fifth-grade children engaged in video-recorded semi-structured task-based interviews in which they used two touchscreen digital mathematics games on a touchscreen tablet and responded to semi-structured follow-up questions. Qualitative data analysis was iterative, featuring analytic memoing and eclectic coding techniques to identify themes related to distance. In advanced coding stages, magnitude coding was used to characterize the degree of distance present. Findings provide evidence of the presence of distance, changes in distance ...


The Relationship Between Small-Group Discourse And Student-Enacted Levels Of Cognitive Demand When Engaging With Mathematics Tasks At Different Depth Of Knowledge Levels, Kristy Litster Dec 2019

The Relationship Between Small-Group Discourse And Student-Enacted Levels Of Cognitive Demand When Engaging With Mathematics Tasks At Different Depth Of Knowledge Levels, Kristy Litster

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

High cognitive demand (HCD) tasks can help students develop a deeper understanding of mathematics. Teachers need interventions that encourage students to engage in HCD activities. Small-group discourse provides HCD opportunities for students while solving mathematics problems. Discourse can take place after students solve problems individually (reflective) or in groups as students solve problems (exploratory). This study looks at the relationship between these two types of small-group discourse and student-enacted cognitive demand.

This study looks at how students engage with tasks that were designed at four different cognitive demand levels using Webb’s depth of knowledge (DOK) framework. Ninety-seven grade 5 ...


An Examination Of The Role Of First-Year College-Level Mathematics In Stem Field Major Persistence At A Hispanic-Serving Institution, Jaimi Paschal, Amanda Taggart May 2019

An Examination Of The Role Of First-Year College-Level Mathematics In Stem Field Major Persistence At A Hispanic-Serving Institution, Jaimi Paschal, Amanda Taggart

Teacher Education and Leadership Faculty Publications

This study examined the influence of mathematics course-taking on Latina/o science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major persistence utilizing data from first-year STEM majors at a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI). Findings indicated that students who passed a first-term college-level mathematics course had significantly greater odds of persisting in STEM majors than those who did not, demonstrating the importance of early mathematics support to increased STEM major persistence.


Relationships Between Teachers' Past Experiences Learning Mathematics And Their Pedagogical Practices And Beliefs, Caci M. Jensen Dec 2018

Relationships Between Teachers' Past Experiences Learning Mathematics And Their Pedagogical Practices And Beliefs, Caci M. Jensen

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

This creative project centered around the cyclical pattern of mathematics anxiety currently prevalent in our schools. A high percentage of elementary teachers carry mathematics anxiety and beliefs around mathematics that effect their pedagogical practices day-to-day. This anxiety transfers to their students effecting their future choices in mathematics. This project was conducted in case studies with six teachers from a rural charter school. Journey maps, semi-structured interviews, surveys, and observations were used to collect the data.


A Case Study On How Meeting The Academic Needs Of Students Substantially Below Grade Level In Mathematics Affects Their Self-Efficacy Beliefs And Engagement, Lauren K. M. Burton Dec 2018

A Case Study On How Meeting The Academic Needs Of Students Substantially Below Grade Level In Mathematics Affects Their Self-Efficacy Beliefs And Engagement, Lauren K. M. Burton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This researcher examined an alternative classroom structure for ninth-grade students substantially below grade level (SBGL) in mathematics. This researcher considered whether targeting the academic and social needs of students SBGL in mathematics in a ninth-grade class would increase their self-efficacy and engagement with the mathematics by studying four teaching effects: teacher, teacher-curriculum, peer-curriculum, and peer.

The researcher used interviews, observations, and surveys to collect qualitative and quantitative data. The case study (n = 19) employed a QUAL + quan convergent parallel mixed methods case study. Meta-inferences from the analyses of qualitative and quantitative data indicate that the structure of the observed class ...


Identifying Factors Common Among Students Who Do Not Fit The Typical Mathematics Self-Efficacy And Achievement Correlation, Jodi H. Mantilla May 2015

Identifying Factors Common Among Students Who Do Not Fit The Typical Mathematics Self-Efficacy And Achievement Correlation, Jodi H. Mantilla

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has shown that mathematical self-efficacy is positively correlated with mathematical performance level. However, in elementary classroom settings, teachers noticed that students with high mathematical self-efficacy had low mathematical performance level. On the other end of the spectrum, there are students who have low mathematical self-efficacy yet excel in mathematics. Discovering what factors are common among these two types of students can aid teachers in helping these students improve their self-efficacy and mathematics performance.

This explanatory mixed-methods design was conducted in a K-6 elementary school with the research participants consisting of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students. The first of ...


An Exploratory Study Of Attributes, Affordances, Abilities, And Distance In Children's Use Of Mathematics Virtual Manipulative Ipad Apps, Stephen I. Tucker May 2015

An Exploratory Study Of Attributes, Affordances, Abilities, And Distance In Children's Use Of Mathematics Virtual Manipulative Ipad Apps, Stephen I. Tucker

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This exploratory qualitative study investigated the presence of and relationships among constructs that contribute to children's interactions with educational technology, leading to the development of the modification of attributes, affordances, abilities, and distance (MAAAD) for Learning framework. For this study, each of 10 fifth-grade children participated in one individual video-recorded semistructured interview session, during which they interacted with two mathematics virtual manipulative iPad apps and responded to follow-up questions. Video recordings and observation field notes were analyzed for evidence of attributes, affordance-ability relationships, distance, and relationships among these constructs.

Constant comparative data analysis using memoing and eclectic coding provided ...


The Impact Of Computer-Adaptive Benchmark Data And Assessment Literacy On Student Achievement And Motivation In Mathematics, Sheryl J. Rushton May 2014

The Impact Of Computer-Adaptive Benchmark Data And Assessment Literacy On Student Achievement And Motivation In Mathematics, Sheryl J. Rushton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Over the past several decades there has been an emphasis in educational research on student assessment and achievement in mathematics. Formative assessments are designed to inform the instructional decision making process and require assessment literacy to interpret and use data provided by these assessments. Many teachers and students were lacking assessment literacy; therefore, they were unable to adjust their instruction and study habits to increase student performance on summative assessments. This study investigated the impact Scholastic Math Inventory (SMI) benchmarks and assessment literacy training had on summative assessments and student motivation in mathematics. The researcher analyzed unit posttest scores and ...


The Academic Preparation And Background Of Public Secondary Mathematics Teachers In Utah 1966-1967, Charles Martin Crittenden May 2014

The Academic Preparation And Background Of Public Secondary Mathematics Teachers In Utah 1966-1967, Charles Martin Crittenden

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A random survey was conducted to determine the academic preparation and background of the public secondary mathematics teachers in the state of Utah.

The survey indicated that there is a wide variance in the teacher mathematics preparation between the three types of public secondary schools. The class B high schools have a smaller percentage of well prepared mathematics teachers than either the class A high schools or the junior high schools.

The following facts were discovered: (1) 22.03 percent of all the surveyed mathematics teachers had between 1 and 15 quarter hours of college mathematics preparation, (2) 5.22 ...


Common Themes Associated With Teacher-Identified Obstacles To Implementing Change In Mathematics Instruction Attributable To Participation In Mathematics Professional Development, Ronald A. Twitchell May 2014

Common Themes Associated With Teacher-Identified Obstacles To Implementing Change In Mathematics Instruction Attributable To Participation In Mathematics Professional Development, Ronald A. Twitchell

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study had three purposes: first, explore any common phenomenon of secondary mathematics teachers’ experience in secondary mathematics professional development (MPD); second, determine if there were positive changes in teacher attitudes after completing secondary MPD; and finally, if a positive change in teacher attitude was identified, describe the shared experiences in secondary MPD to in a way that cannot be revealed through ordinary observations. It was the intent of this study to identify positive changes in teacher attitudes not to measure their magnitude. This study implemented a mixed methods design using descriptive statistics and categorical analysis on data from pre- ...


Perceptions By High School Teachers Of Mathematical Readiness Of Students With Disabilities Transitioning To College, Adam Dwight King May 2013

Perceptions By High School Teachers Of Mathematical Readiness Of Students With Disabilities Transitioning To College, Adam Dwight King

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Students with mild/moderate disabilities frequently experience difficulty in mathematics in high school, and thus are often unprepared for math in college. The student researcher conducted a survey examining the perceptions regarding mathematical readiness of such students by professionals who work with them in high school. Participants included 47 high school special education teachers who completed an online questionnaire about the preparedness of students with disabilities in various mathematical constructs (i.e., algebra, geometry, number sense, calculator skills, and study skills) and the importance of those constructs using Likert-type rankings, as well as perceptions of barriers for transitioning to college ...


Processes And Pathways: How Do Mathematics And Science Partnerships Measure And Promote Growth In Teacher Content Knowledge?, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham, A. Westenskow Jan 2012

Processes And Pathways: How Do Mathematics And Science Partnerships Measure And Promote Growth In Teacher Content Knowledge?, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham, A. Westenskow

Teacher Education and Leadership Faculty Publications

Intense focus on student achievement results in mathematics and science has brought about claims that K-12 teachers should be better prepared to teach basic concepts in these disciplines. The focus on teachers' mathematics and science content knowledge has been met by efforts to increase teacher knowledge through funded national initiatives focusing on mathematics and science. The purpose of the present study was to look across projects in the National Science Foundation's Math and Science Partnership Program to determine how partnerships developed processes for measuring growth in teacher content knowledge. Pre- and post-testing was the most common process for measuring ...


Critical Issues In Middle And Secondary Mathematics Placement: A Case Study, Morgan E. Summers May 2011

Critical Issues In Middle And Secondary Mathematics Placement: A Case Study, Morgan E. Summers

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

This qualitative research project focuses on the issues facing middle and secondary mathematics placement through an extensive literature review as well as a case study of a local school district. As students move from elementary school to middle and secondary schools, they are placed into classes that appear to be based on ability. One of the driving questions of this project is how is this ability level determined? Through an in-­‐depth look at one school district, it is found that a primary source of information is both norm-­‐referenced and criterion-­‐referenced assessments given to students in fifth and ...


The Effect Of Direct Instruction In Teaching Addition And Subtraction Of Decimals And Decimal Word Problems On Students At Risk For Academic Failure, Heather Hoopes Small May 2011

The Effect Of Direct Instruction In Teaching Addition And Subtraction Of Decimals And Decimal Word Problems On Students At Risk For Academic Failure, Heather Hoopes Small

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the effects of a direct instruction program on the ability of elementary school students identified as at risk for math failure to add and subtract numbers with decimals, and complete addition and subtraction word problems with decimals. Direct instruction has previously been shown to increase the math skills of special education and general education students. This study examined the extent to which these students could master these skills in six hours of instruction, with carefully designed sequences of examples and strategy instruction in word problems. The study took place in two elementary schools. The participants were fifth ...


Negotiating The "Relevant" In Culturally Relevant Mathematics, N. Enyedy, J. Danish, Deborah A. Fields Jan 2011

Negotiating The "Relevant" In Culturally Relevant Mathematics, N. Enyedy, J. Danish, Deborah A. Fields

Deborah A. Fields

No abstract provided.


Negotiating The "Relevant" In Culturally Relevant Mathematics, N. Enyedy, J. Danish, Deborah A. Fields Jan 2011

Negotiating The "Relevant" In Culturally Relevant Mathematics, N. Enyedy, J. Danish, Deborah A. Fields

Instructional Technology and Learning Sciences Faculty Publications

One approach to promoting successful engagement of underrepresented groups in mathematics classrooms is Culturally Relevant Pedagogy (CRP). However, it has been argued that CRP risks essentializing students or watering down academic content. We report our analysis of a case study of a group of three 6th grade students who took part in a 6-week mathematics curriculum. This curriculum used Geographical Information System (GIS) maps to engage students in designing personally meaningful research projects while learning about measures of central tendency (i.e., learning statistics). The case study was chosen as representative of how students in this urban classroom (47 total ...


Learning Mathematics With Technology: The Influence Of Virtual Manipulatives On Different Achievement Groups, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham, J. M. Suh Jan 2011

Learning Mathematics With Technology: The Influence Of Virtual Manipulatives On Different Achievement Groups, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham, J. M. Suh

Teacher Education and Leadership Faculty Publications

This study examined the influence of virtual manipulatives on different achievement groups during a teaching experiment in four fifth-grade classrooms. During a two-week unit focusing on two rational number concepts (fraction equivalence and fraction addition with unlike denominators) one low achieving, two average achieving, and one high achieving group participated in two instructional treatments (three groups used virtual manipulatives and one group used physical manipulatives). Data sources included pre- and post-tests of students’ mathematical content knowledge and videotapes of classroom sessions. Results of paired samples t-tests examining the three groups using virtual manipulatives indicated a statistically significant overall gain following ...


Common Features Of Professional Development Activities For Mathematics And Science Teachers, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham, J. J. Bolyard, J. Oh, N. I. Cerar Jan 2011

Common Features Of Professional Development Activities For Mathematics And Science Teachers, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham, J. J. Bolyard, J. Oh, N. I. Cerar

Teacher Education and Leadership Faculty Publications

This study examines professional development activities provided for mathematics and science teachers in the National Science Foundation’s Math and Science Partnership Program by analyzing a cross-sectional sample of over 2000 professional development (PD) activities in the program. Data were gathered from secondary source documents and surveys to examine core and structural features of professional development offerings (i.e. form, collective participation, content, duration and outcomes). The results from this sample of PD activities for mathematics and science teachers were mixed. There was evidence of researchbased practices, including the collective participation by teachers at the same grade levels, a focus ...


Virtual Manipulatives In The Classroom And Resulting Articles And Lesson Plans, Cheryl Juliana Aug 2010

Virtual Manipulatives In The Classroom And Resulting Articles And Lesson Plans, Cheryl Juliana

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Upon coming across mathematical manipulatives generated and produced by Utah State University, as a math teacher, I conducted a classroom teaching experiment in three pre-algebra classes with students of various achievement levels. After teaching the entire year using no manipulatives in the classroom, I tested my students with a general, end-of-year, core criterion, or cumulative test. Their scores were noted. The students in the study group were then given opportunities to try several manipulatives offered on the "National Library of Virtual Manipulatives," both as a class, and alone, and then retested. The following paper gives the parameters of the study ...


The Assessment Of Mathematics And Science Teacher Quality, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham, Johnna J. Bolyard, Anastasia Kitsantas, Hana Oh Jan 2008

The Assessment Of Mathematics And Science Teacher Quality, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham, Johnna J. Bolyard, Anastasia Kitsantas, Hana Oh

Teacher Education and Leadership Faculty Publications

The purpose of this study was to examine the types of instruments being used to document mathematics and science teacher quality characteristics in 48 nationally funded mathematics and science education awards. Each of the 48 projects operationalized teacher quality and determined how to assess it. The main research questions examined the instruments awardees used to gather data on mathematics and science teacher quality, and the main characteristics of teachers examined by awardees. Results showed that awardees most frequently used surveys or questionnaires to assess characteristics of mathematics and science teacher quality. The most common teacher characteristics examined by awardees' included ...


A Review Of The Literature On Mathematics And Science Teacher Quality, Johnna J. Bolyard, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham Jan 2008

A Review Of The Literature On Mathematics And Science Teacher Quality, Johnna J. Bolyard, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham

Teacher Education and Leadership Faculty Publications

A large body of literature exists that examines teacher quality characteristics and the relationship of indicators of those characteristics to teacher effectiveness. This existing research literature broadly views teacher quality research without illuminating specific areas of teacher quality, such as mathematics and science. In an effort to focus the literature base for researchers and policymakers more narrowly, this review specifically examines teacher quality as it relates to mathematics and science teaching and learning. The review highlights key policy and practitioner perspectives, provides a focused synthesis on current research findings on mathematics and science teacher quality, and suggests areas of research ...


Virtual Manipulatives Used By K-8 Teachers For Mathematics Instruction: Considering Mathematical, Cognitive, And Pedagogical Fidelity, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham, Gwenanne Salkind, Johnna J. Bolyard Jan 2008

Virtual Manipulatives Used By K-8 Teachers For Mathematics Instruction: Considering Mathematical, Cognitive, And Pedagogical Fidelity, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham, Gwenanne Salkind, Johnna J. Bolyard

Teacher Education and Leadership Faculty Publications

This study examined teachers’ uses of virtual manipulatives across grades K-8 after participating in a professional development institute in which manipulatives and technology were the major resources used throughout all of the activities. Researchers analyzed 95 lesson summaries in which classroom teachers described their uses of virtual manipulatives during school mathematics instruction. The findings indicated that the content in a majority of the lessons focused on two National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000a) standards: Number & Operations and Geometry. Virtual geoboards, pattern blocks, base-10 blocks, and tangrams were the applets used most often by teachers. The ways teachers used the ...


Code Red (Remediation And Enrichment Days): The Complex Journey Of A School And University Partnership's Process To Increase Mathematics Achievement, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham, K. Dockery, S. Jamieson, J. Ross Jan 2006

Code Red (Remediation And Enrichment Days): The Complex Journey Of A School And University Partnership's Process To Increase Mathematics Achievement, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham, K. Dockery, S. Jamieson, J. Ross

Teacher Education and Leadership Faculty Publications

This study examined a focused remediation and enrichment effort among school and university faculty to affect the mathematics achievement of a group of third-grade students in a Title 1 elementary school. A total of 87 students participated in the Code RED (Remediation and Enrichment Days) Project. During the Code RED Project, student assessment data were used to identify high-need areas for mathematics instruction. The Code RED Project sessions occurred in small groups over a 10-week period. Pre-and posttest assessments, as well as state-standardized tests, were used for data gathering during the project. Pre-and posttest data indicate that students made significant ...