Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Utah State University

2017

Theses/Dissertations

Discipline
Keyword
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 42

Full-Text Articles in Education

Examining The Read-To-Write Strategy And Its Effects On Second Grader’S Writing Of Sequential Text, John Neal Dec 2017

Examining The Read-To-Write Strategy And Its Effects On Second Grader’S Writing Of Sequential Text, John Neal

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

Writing is so important. It is important in school and in our careers; writing is found to be helpful physiologically and psychologically. Experts wonder, with writing so important, why is writing not being adequately taught in the schools. The answer may be that writing is complex and teaching it is even more complex. The Read-to-Write Strategy is a writing model based on the study of exemplary models of text and children are explicitly taught how to write the way an author writes through a process of the teacher modeling how to write this way; the teacher sharing the writing task …


Exploring The Relationship Between The Use Of A Selected Phonics Curriculum And The Oral Reading Fluency And Nonsense Word Fluency Scores Of First-Grade Students, Bryce B. Day Dec 2017

Exploring The Relationship Between The Use Of A Selected Phonics Curriculum And The Oral Reading Fluency And Nonsense Word Fluency Scores Of First-Grade Students, Bryce B. Day

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the effects, if any, of a supplemental phonics curriculum, Saxon Phonics, on the reading achievement of first-grade students in one mountain-west, semirural, school district. The design was casual-comparative and ex post facto, and answered the questions: (1) Do students taught using a traditional basal program and students taught using both the traditional basal program and a supplemental phonics program (control vs. treatment) differ on selected end-of-year reading achievement scores (i.e., portions of the DIBELS Next assessment—nonsense word fluency [NWF], oral reading fluency [ORF], and accuracy [ACC])? (2) do any possible …


Language Proficiency And Cultural Intelligence In Distance English-Language Learning, Jared Marcum Dec 2017

Language Proficiency And Cultural Intelligence In Distance English-Language Learning, Jared Marcum

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

The purpose of this study is to explore the viability of an international distance English-language program in the development of language and cultural proficiency. Students participated in tests at the beginning and at the end of the course to determine how well they developed both language and cultural proficiencies. The measures included (a) the computer-administered Oral Proficiency Interview (OPIc) from theAmerican Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL), (b) ACTFL-aligned assessments of reading, listening, grammar, and vocabulary skills, and (c) the Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS). In addition, course activities surveys provided additional information about student perceptions of course activities. …


Changing The World Through The Word: Developing Critical Consciousness Through Multicultural Children’S Literature With Critical Literacy In An Elementary Classroom, Hyekyoung Lee Dec 2017

Changing The World Through The Word: Developing Critical Consciousness Through Multicultural Children’S Literature With Critical Literacy In An Elementary Classroom, Hyekyoung Lee

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

The purpose of this study was to explore how fifth graders develop critical consciousness regarding the self and the world through critical literacy approaches using multicultural children’s literature. I employed Lewison, Flint, and Van Sluys’ four dimensions of critical literacy. I used a qualitative case study to design, frame and conduct this study in order to collect data and examine students’ cultural patterns including values, beliefs, behaviors, and language that they enacted in the critical literacy practices. I collected data through classroom observations, semi-structured students and teacher interviews, informal conversation, researcher’s reflective journal entries and field notes, and student-made artifacts. …


Combining Intake And Iep Meetings: Evaluation Of The Effects Of Interagency Collaboration Between Vocational Rehabilitation And Special Educators, Katrina Cummings Aug 2017

Combining Intake And Iep Meetings: Evaluation Of The Effects Of Interagency Collaboration Between Vocational Rehabilitation And Special Educators, Katrina Cummings

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports, Spring 1920 to Spring 2023

Collaboration between agencies has been shown to be an indicator of post-school success for individuals with disabilities. While it is shown to be important, collaboration between Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) and Special Educators (SPED) does not always occur. This project examined the effects of combining Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) and intake interviews on the rate and satisfaction of collaboration and the understanding of the other agencies roles and responsibilities. Participants included four SPED teachers and two VR counselors. All participants worked with individuals with disabilities between the ages 15-22 years who attend public education in a school district in the western …


The Effects Of Training On Parent Knowledge And Expectations Of Student Postschool Outcomes, Robert Hunsaker Aug 2017

The Effects Of Training On Parent Knowledge And Expectations Of Student Postschool Outcomes, Robert Hunsaker

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports, Spring 1920 to Spring 2023

Most students with disabilities have poor postschool outcomes related to employment or postsecondary education. Very few of these students gain meaningful jobs or go to college. A key predictor of successful postschool outcomes for students with disabilities is high parental expectations. This project examined the effects of parent training on transition agency services on increasing parents’ knowledge and expectations for postschool outcomes for their young adult with disabilities. Participants included English-speaking parents/guardians of young adults with disabilities from Alpine school district in Utah. Participants’ knowledge was measured by correct answers on identical pretests and posttests. Participants’ expectations were measured on …


From "Struggling" To "Example": How Cross-Age Tutoring Impacts Latina Adolescents' Reader Identities, Dustin H. Drake Aug 2017

From "Struggling" To "Example": How Cross-Age Tutoring Impacts Latina Adolescents' Reader Identities, Dustin H. Drake

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

Educators and policy makers have shown a consistent concern over the achievement gap. In academic assessments, Latino students have demonstrated lower achievement than their peers, particularly in reading scores. Many researchers attribute the existence of the achievement gap to a school system that ignores Latino culture or perpetuates struggles in Latino students’ reading by being culturally insensitive. Multiple theorists suggest that school systems that better understand Latino identities will be better at instructing Latino students. Many programs, including Latinos in Action, have been implemented in attempts to close this gap. The Latinos in Action program utilizes Latino adolescents as peer …


The Anatomy Of Virtual Manipulative Apps: Using Grounded Theory To Conceptualize And Evaluate Educational Apps That Contain Virtual Manipulatives, Jennifer M. Boyer-Thurgood Aug 2017

The Anatomy Of Virtual Manipulative Apps: Using Grounded Theory To Conceptualize And Evaluate Educational Apps That Contain Virtual Manipulatives, Jennifer M. Boyer-Thurgood

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

This exploratory qualitative study used grounded theory to investigate the anatomy of educational apps that contain virtual manipulatives. For this study 100 virtual manipulatives within educational apps designed for the iPad were observed by the researcher in order to expand the explanations of and build theory about virtual manipulatives within apps. Affordance theory was used to frame all six phases of the study in which the researcher identified virtual manipulatives situated within educational apps, conducted observer-as-participant structured and unstructured observations, analyzed component data including field notes and memos using open and axial coding, created a conceptual framework, developed an evaluation …


Writing Attitudes And Practices Of Content Area Teachers After Participating In The Central Utah Writing Project Summer Institute, Joseph P. Anson Aug 2017

Writing Attitudes And Practices Of Content Area Teachers After Participating In The Central Utah Writing Project Summer Institute, Joseph P. Anson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

This study of four case studies looks at how secondary math, music, science, and social studies teachers' attitudes and classroom practices were affected by their participation in the Central Utah Writing Project (CUWP) summer institute. Participant interviews, observations, and artifacts were analyzed by looking at themes for effective professional development: a participant's personal interpretation of the experience (phenomenon), construction of one's own learning, active learning/participation in the professional development, the inclusion of authentic tasks, collaborative support community, inclusion of prior knowledge and/or experience, self-efficacy regarding one's own writing and the teaching of writing, motivation as a teacher, motivation as a …


Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition In Middle School: An Examination Of Three Instructional Conditions, David B. Lee Aug 2017

Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition In Middle School: An Examination Of Three Instructional Conditions, David B. Lee

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

The importance of vocabulary knowledge gained through incidental learning is well documented. The growth of incidental vocabulary knowledge is especially crucial for middle school students due to the complex words encountered in their studies. However, research on incidental vocabulary acquisition for middle school students is lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of three instructional conditions (reading, writing, and reading and writing) on incidental vocabulary acquisition and retention with middle school students in an English as a first language (L1) environment.

In this within subjects repeated measure study, 263 eighth-grade participants received treatment in three …


Fundamental Features Of Fostering Teacher Collective Efficacy: Principals’ Attitudes, Behaviors, And Practices, Shelley Nordick Aug 2017

Fundamental Features Of Fostering Teacher Collective Efficacy: Principals’ Attitudes, Behaviors, And Practices, Shelley Nordick

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes, practices, and behaviors of principals who foster teacher collective efficacy. The research questions were developed based upon Bandura’s social cognitive theory to include (a) what are the attitudes held by principals that influence TCE; (b) what are the behaviors enacted by principals that influence TCE; (c) what are the practices employed by principals that influence TCE. The study utilized a qualitative approach with a multisite case study design. The Collective Teacher Efficacy Scale developed by Goddard et al. was used to measure TCE of participating schools. The survey results were …


Building Community Using Experiential Education With Elementary Preservice Teachers In A Social Studies Methodology Course, Stephanie L. Speicher Aug 2017

Building Community Using Experiential Education With Elementary Preservice Teachers In A Social Studies Methodology Course, Stephanie L. Speicher

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

There is urgency for teacher educators to instruct preservice teachers in the core tenants of social justice education. This urgency is based upon the ever-growing shift in the American demographic landscape and the responsibility of educators to teach for equity, justice, identity and community within classrooms across the U.S. Preservice teachers report feeling inadequately prepared to educate for social justice when entering the formal classroom setting. Feelings of incompetence in social justice teaching pedagogy expressed among preservice teachers coupled with minimal examination in the literature of the effects of teacher education practices that aid in the readiness to teach for …


Siblings Of Adults With Intellectual Disabilities: Their Perspectives On Guardianship And Its Alternatives, Anna M. Brady Aug 2017

Siblings Of Adults With Intellectual Disabilities: Their Perspectives On Guardianship And Its Alternatives, Anna M. Brady

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

Adult siblings of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are often on the front lines of supporting their brothers and sisters with IDD through caregiving and guardianship roles after their parents pass away. However, these siblings are often uninformed or under informed about ways that they can support their brothers and sisters. This study had the following three purposes: to determine what adult siblings of adults with IDD know about guardianship and its alternatives; to explore how adult siblings view guardianship and its alternatives; and to explore what adult siblings think about their role of being a guardian or …


Effects Of Parent Training On Increased Knowledge And Changes In Perceptions Regarding Transition To Adulthood For Middle School Youth With Disabilities, Lauren E. Wright Aug 2017

Effects Of Parent Training On Increased Knowledge And Changes In Perceptions Regarding Transition To Adulthood For Middle School Youth With Disabilities, Lauren E. Wright

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

Parents of children with severe/moderate disabilities experience uncertainty and a lack of knowledge as their children go through the transition to adulthood. Research has shown parents play a key role in their child's postschool outcome success and that parent training and beginning transition preparation early are key predictors. This study examined the effects of parent training on parents' knowledge, expectations, and action towards their child's transition to adulthood. Participants consisted of parents of middle school youth with severe/moderate disabilities. The study measured parent knowledge, expectations, and actions. Procedures involved (a) a pretest administered to parents on their transition knowledge, (b) …


Analysis Of Graduation, Dropout Rates And Trends For Students With Disabilities In Full-Time Online Schools, John Gutman May 2017

Analysis Of Graduation, Dropout Rates And Trends For Students With Disabilities In Full-Time Online Schools, John Gutman

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports, Spring 1920 to Spring 2023

Graduation rates of students with disabilities (SWD) have significantly lagged behind those of students without disabilities in public schools. Dropout rates of SWD are higher than those of students who do not have disabilities. Rates of both graduation and dropouts in full-time k-12 online schools are significantly lower and higher, respectively, than those of traditional schools, and even lower and higher for SWD in those programs. The purpose of this study was to review data of three full-time k-12 online schools in Utah, compare graduation and dropout rates of SWD with those of SWD in all Utah public schools, and …


Effective Strategies For Foreign Language Teaching: A Focus On Russian, Marina Krutikova May 2017

Effective Strategies For Foreign Language Teaching: A Focus On Russian, Marina Krutikova

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports, Spring 1920 to Spring 2023

This portfolio presents the collection of writings that reflect the author’s beliefs about effective foreign language instruction. Throughout much of the portfolio, focus is made on teaching communicatively, providing instruction on the target language culture, and enhancing students’ motivation to learn foreign languages. The first section of the portfolio is centered around the author’s teaching philosophy that was informed by her experience as a teacher of Russian as a foreign language, observations of other language instructors, and studies in the Master of Second Language Teaching (MSLT) program. The following section consists of the language, literacy, and culture papers in which …


Interview And Focus Groups Analysis Of Decreased Composite Benchmark Scores On Dynamic Indicators Of Basic Early Literacy Skills Dibels From Kindergarten To First Grade Students, Loreen Flanary May 2017

Interview And Focus Groups Analysis Of Decreased Composite Benchmark Scores On Dynamic Indicators Of Basic Early Literacy Skills Dibels From Kindergarten To First Grade Students, Loreen Flanary

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports, Spring 1920 to Spring 2023

School districts in the state of Utah are required to use Dynamic Indicators of Basic Literacy Skills (DIBELS) as an assessment of reading ability for students in kindergarten through fifth grade. The Logan City School District (LCSD) kindergarten end of year (EOY) Composite DIBELS data have been strong over the past 5 years with over 90% of students scoring at benchmark. In comparison, in each of those 5 years, first grade beginning of year (BOY) data drops considerably. LCSD is concerned with this trend because it is larger than the state trend of 13-14%, the trend is increasing, and this …


What Does It Take To Learn A Language? Strategies For Teaching Esl And Japanese, Andrew Mikesell May 2017

What Does It Take To Learn A Language? Strategies For Teaching Esl And Japanese, Andrew Mikesell

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports, Spring 1920 to Spring 2023

ABSTRACT

This portfolio reflects what the author believes to be effective tools and methods for teaching a second or foreign language. The first section includes the author’s teaching philosophy which addresses teacher and student roles, communicative and meaningful tasks, learning environments, and the importance of literacy development. Following the teaching philosophy are three research perspective papers which discuss the use of digital storytelling as a tool for developing language proficiency, how blogs can be used to help students develop writing skills in their second language, and alternative approaches to teaching and learning kanji, which are one of three sets …


Parent Perspectives On Transition Services And Expectations For Transition-Age Students With Disabilities In A Virtual School Setting, Heather Raithel May 2017

Parent Perspectives On Transition Services And Expectations For Transition-Age Students With Disabilities In A Virtual School Setting, Heather Raithel

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports, Spring 1920 to Spring 2023

Students with disabilities often experience difficulties as they transition from school to adult life. This project examined the perspectives of parents of transition-age students with disabilities enrolled in a full-time virtual school setting. The first dependent variable was parent satisfaction with transition services for students in the virtual school including relevancy and quality of student and parent trainings and information on transition, inter-agency collaboration, community-based learning experiences, staff knowledge and communication, transition specific courses, and appropriateness of the IEP transition plan. The second dependent variable was parent expectations for students as they exit school in regards to independent living, post-secondary …


Effectively Teaching A Second Language: Principles And Practices, Alexander Gatica May 2017

Effectively Teaching A Second Language: Principles And Practices, Alexander Gatica

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports, Spring 1920 to Spring 2023

This portfolio is the amalgamation of the author’s research and experience during his time in the Master of Second Language Teaching program. The first section contains the Teaching Philosophy, which centers on applying effective teaching methods, increasing learner motivation, and incorporating technology into the classroom. The next section consists of three artifacts in which the author further investigates specific aspects of language teaching. The language paper focuses on the effect that identity has on motivation to learn a language. The literacy paper discusses how to increase vocabulary acquisition via a mobile-assisted language learning application called Duolingo. The culture paper addresses …


The Effect Of Video Training To Improve The Accuracy Of University Supervisors In-Class Observations, Julia Lyman May 2017

The Effect Of Video Training To Improve The Accuracy Of University Supervisors In-Class Observations, Julia Lyman

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports, Spring 1920 to Spring 2023

University supervisors of student teachers are often undertrained as to how to complete in-class observations. This project examined the effects of video training to improve the accuracy of university supervisors’ in-class observations. Participants were student teacher supervisors from various locations across the state who provide supervision for a local university in the Western U.S., and the university student teachers they supervised. Target behaviors included data collection on praise rate, percentage of specific praise, and opportunities for students to respond. The findings suggest that following training the participants collected data with varying results with some areas of high accuracy and others …


Improving Comprehension For Students With Learning Disabilities Using The Comprehension Improvement Strategy, Ryun Payne May 2017

Improving Comprehension For Students With Learning Disabilities Using The Comprehension Improvement Strategy, Ryun Payne

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports, Spring 1920 to Spring 2023

Students with learning disabilities generally have a difficult time meeting all of the course deadlines and gaining necessary skills in each of their rigorous high school courses. There are students who have difficulty showing what they learn and completing all the requirements for each class. For many years, there have been teachers that have looked for the best ways to instruct students and give them the tools they need to find success. There have been some strategies that have worked through the years and proved to be a great benefit for the students. There are other strategies that must be …


A Dynamic Measure Of Morphological Awareness In Young Children, Frances Elizabeth Gibson May 2017

A Dynamic Measure Of Morphological Awareness In Young Children, Frances Elizabeth Gibson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

Although sound awareness has been proven critical for skilled literacy development, further investigation is needed to examine additional factors that could also be critical. Awareness of meaning or morphological awareness is an additional factor that could impact literacy development. Although morphological awareness is mastered early in spoken language, little is known in regard to this skill in other language and literacy contexts. This study investigated the validity of a dynamic measure of morphological awareness (DMMA) in young children. Seventy-eight first-grade children completed a language and literacy battery. Morphological awareness was assessed using both a standardized and an experimental measure comprised …


Eportfolio Adoption's Mediating Influence On Faculty Perspectives: An Activity Theory View, Jonathan M. Thomas May 2017

Eportfolio Adoption's Mediating Influence On Faculty Perspectives: An Activity Theory View, Jonathan M. Thomas

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

A case-comparative mixed methods approach was used to discover how faculty members’ teaching perspectives changed as they adopted an eportfolio tool (Pathbrite). Ten faculty members took the Teaching Perspectives Inventory (TPI) before and after using the tool during Fall semester 2015. Also, systems logs were collected and interviews were conducted after the post survey was completed. Interview data found that faculty members developed a broader view of the potential of eportfolios. Participants also appreciated the long-term benefits that eportfolios would have on their students. However, when use was associated with accreditation standards, gains in student-centered perspectives were minimal. The study …


Participation In Dual Language Immersion Programs: Using Theory Of Planned Behavior To Predict Enrollment, Andrea Call May 2017

Participation In Dual Language Immersion Programs: Using Theory Of Planned Behavior To Predict Enrollment, Andrea Call

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

Many theories have been developed to help explain and predict human behavior. Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) holds that behavior is based on behavioral intention, as well as attitudes, subjective (or social) norms, and perceived behavioral control. According to the TPB mode, perceived behavioral control moderates (or influences) the effect of behavioral intentions on behavior. Previous research has focused on the application of TPB to health behaviors, although some research has been done in educational situations. In addition, dual language immersion (DLI) programs are increasing in popularity, particularly in Utah. The Utah model begins in first grade, and follows …


Teacher Perceptions Of Factors Influencing Technology Integration In K-12 Schools, Clarence W. M. Ames May 2017

Teacher Perceptions Of Factors Influencing Technology Integration In K-12 Schools, Clarence W. M. Ames

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

Advancements in technology often make life easier, make processes easier, and increase efficiency. While this is true as much in the public school system as it is in other aspects of life, technology integration initiatives often struggle in K-12 schools. In its first year of implementation, one statewide technology initiative targeting personalized learning for mathematics resulted in significantly improved proficiency in mathematics for students with high technology usage, but over 90% of students had low usage. This year, which is year two of the initiative, I went into some of the classrooms in the Junior High with the highest technology …


The Development Of English Learners As Writers Of Opinion Pieces, Auri Ann Squire May 2017

The Development Of English Learners As Writers Of Opinion Pieces, Auri Ann Squire

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

The population of English learners (ELs) is growing rapidly across the U.S. Concurrently, elementary students throughout the country are being required to produce more sophisticated writing products than ever before as a result of the heavy emphasis on writing instruction in the recently adopted Common Core State Standards. This qualitative study examined how to best support ELs as they develop as writers. It also addressed the strong need to investigate the impact of students discussing ideas with a partner throughout the writing process.

In order to determine how ELs develop as writers, a multiple case study was conducted in a …


Enhancing Students’ Higher Order Thinking Skills Through Computer-Based Scaffolding In Problem-Based Learning, Nam Ju Kim May 2017

Enhancing Students’ Higher Order Thinking Skills Through Computer-Based Scaffolding In Problem-Based Learning, Nam Ju Kim

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

The purpose of this multiple-paper dissertation is to identify students' several difficulties in Problem-based learning and to address these issues by suggesting the design of computer-based scaffolding. In addition, the effectiveness of suggested design was confirmed through meta-analysis and the empirical research. Learner-centered Scaffolding Systems (LSS) is presented to improve students' perception of optimal challenge by addressing students' learning issues in PBL. LSS enhances students' experience in autonomy and competence by providing multiple types, modalities, and customization of scaffolding in accordance with student' different needs and difficulties in PBL. Bayesian meta-analysis for identifying the effects of suggested LSS indicated that …


Intentional Mentoring Through 4-H: The Role Of 4-H In A Successful Mentoring Program Between Youth And Adults, Emily Ann Shepperd May 2017

Intentional Mentoring Through 4-H: The Role Of 4-H In A Successful Mentoring Program Between Youth And Adults, Emily Ann Shepperd

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

4-H Youth and Families with Promise (4-H YFP) is a one to one youth mentoring program that aims to help youth obtain skills that will help them to be successful. The purpose of this research was to determine if any positive outcomes were shown of youth participating in 4-H YFP. Positive outcomes were identified as peer social competence, greater ability to make positive choices, the development of effective communication skills, building connections, and contributing to the community. Results show that these outcomes positively increased among youth participants in the 4-H YFP program- but the changes were too small to be …


An Exploratory Study Of Fifth-Grade Students’ Reasoning About The Relationship Between Fractions And Decimals When Using Number Line-Based Virtual Manipulatives, Scott Smith May 2017

An Exploratory Study Of Fifth-Grade Students’ Reasoning About The Relationship Between Fractions And Decimals When Using Number Line-Based Virtual Manipulatives, Scott Smith

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

Understanding the relationship between fractions and decimals is an important step in developing an overall understanding of rational numbers. Research has demonstrated the feasibility of technology in the form of virtual manipulatives for facilitating students’ meaningful understanding of rational number concepts. This exploratory dissertation study was conducted for the two closely related purposes: first, to investigate a sample of fifth-grade students’ reasoning regarding the relationship between fractions and decimals for fractions with terminating decimal representations while using virtual manipulative incorporating parallel number lines; second, to investigate the affordances of the virtual manipulatives for supporting the students’ reasoning about the decimal-fraction …