Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Massachusetts Amherst

International and Comparative Education

Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 145

Full-Text Articles in Education

Ensuring Culturally Inclusive Online Learning For International Students: A Delphi Study To Identify Requisite Instructor Competencies, Kristen Lina Heaster-Ekholm Aug 2023

Ensuring Culturally Inclusive Online Learning For International Students: A Delphi Study To Identify Requisite Instructor Competencies, Kristen Lina Heaster-Ekholm

Doctoral Dissertations

The dramatic expansion of online learning in U.S. higher education has been accompanied by a notable shift in the demographics of students enrolled in these courses. International students are among those participating in online courses in growing numbers, infusing the virtual space with greater cultural diversity. Many instructors are unprepared for this change. Culture plays an influential role in how we learn, yet instructors rarely consider it in the design and facilitation of their online courses. This can have a negative impact on learners and often affects international students in disproportionate ways. The purpose of this study was to identify …


Accreditation Of Teaching And Research Universities In Afghanistan: A Policy Implementation Analysis, Sayed Javid Mussawy Apr 2023

Accreditation Of Teaching And Research Universities In Afghanistan: A Policy Implementation Analysis, Sayed Javid Mussawy

Doctoral Dissertations

The quest for quality has encouraged many countries to establish quality assurance and accreditation models to sustain and improve quality. While some established their own procedures, a great majority of the countries including those in the developing world have adopted quality assurance policies developed in the Global North to respond to internationalization and to participate in the knowledge economy. However, most universities in developing countries lack adequate infrastructure to implement accreditation standards. Thus, investigating the implementation of accreditation policies in developing nations provides new insight into the opportunities and challenges posed by internationalization of quality assurance and accreditation. This study …


“Sustaining Peace From Campus To Community”, The Role Of Students To Promote Campus-Level Reconciliation: A Case Study Of Maluku, Indonesia, Julia Novrita Sep 2022

“Sustaining Peace From Campus To Community”, The Role Of Students To Promote Campus-Level Reconciliation: A Case Study Of Maluku, Indonesia, Julia Novrita

Doctoral Dissertations

In the context of intractable conflict, a higher education institution, especially a public state university, is not only a learning place for youth aged 18-26 years, but also a symbol of control, power, pride, and identity of dominant regional groups. This condition has made some scholars and practitioners in peacebuilding doubt the capacity of higher education to promote peace and reconciliation in the aftermath of war, arguing that the challenges outweigh the opportunities. Learning from the experience of the alumni of the Non-Violent Study Circles (NVSC) program and their affiliations at the University of Pattimura (UNPATTI), the largest public university …


Measurement Invariance Across Immigrant And Non-Immigrant Populations On Pisa Cognitive And Non-Cognitive Scales, Maritza Casas Oct 2021

Measurement Invariance Across Immigrant And Non-Immigrant Populations On Pisa Cognitive And Non-Cognitive Scales, Maritza Casas

Doctoral Dissertations

International large-scale educational assessments (ILSAs) have played a relevant role in educational policies targeting immigrant students across countries as their results are used by governments as input for decision-making purposes. Given the potential impact that ILSAs can have, the psychometric features of these assessments must be carefully assessed and empirical evidence about the extent to which the inferences made based on test results are valid must be collected. To do so, the first step is to determine if the test results have the same meaning across countries and groups of examinees that is, if the measures are invariant so that …


Using Generalizability And Rasch Measurement Theory To Ensure Rigorous Measurement In An International Development Education Evaluation, Louise Bahry Oct 2021

Using Generalizability And Rasch Measurement Theory To Ensure Rigorous Measurement In An International Development Education Evaluation, Louise Bahry

Doctoral Dissertations

Between the United States and Great Britain, over 30 billion USD was spent in 2018 on international aid, over a billion of which is dedicated to education programs alone. Recently, there has been increased attention on the rigorous evaluation of aid-funded programs, moving beyond counting outputs to the measurement of educational impact. The current study uses two methodological approaches (Generalizability (Brennan, 1992, 2001) and Rasch Measurement Theory (Andrich, 1978; Rasch, 1980; Wright & Masters, 1982) to analyze data from math and literacy assessments, and self-report surveys used in an international evaluation of an educational initiative in the Democratic Republic of …


Financing Public Higher Education In Afghanistan: Alternative Sources And Options, Hassan Aslami Oct 2021

Financing Public Higher Education In Afghanistan: Alternative Sources And Options, Hassan Aslami

Doctoral Dissertations

Adequate financing is key to achieving the priority goals of higher education – access, quality, and relevance. In Afghanistan, the demand for higher education has increased remarkably while public higher education institutions still rely heavily on inadequate government funding. In addition, the constitutional provision guaranteeing free higher education up to the bachelor’s level in public institutions, the overall weak economy of the country, and the lack of institutional autonomy, contribute to financial austerity in public higher education institutions. This study explored alternative funding sources and options for financing public universities in Afghanistan. An integrated theoretical framework guided this study as …


The Voices And Lived Academic Experiences Of International Doctoral Student Mothers, Mishka Murad Oct 2021

The Voices And Lived Academic Experiences Of International Doctoral Student Mothers, Mishka Murad

Doctoral Dissertations

Given that there is no research that focuses exclusively on the experiences of international doctoral student mothers, this study chose to explore the challenges and supports that ten of these women experienced at one U.S. university. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with open ended questions, it explored the triumphs and trials of these students in their academic journeys in regard to their performances in the classroom, and their relationships with faculty and peers. It also brainstormed the ways in which faculty, advisors and peers, might consider changing their practices and behaviors in classrooms and on campus, to allow these participants to …


Prefigurative Politics And Revolutionary Practices Within International Service-Learning: A Case Study Of The Ciee Thailand Program On Development And Globalization, Koni Denham Jun 2021

Prefigurative Politics And Revolutionary Practices Within International Service-Learning: A Case Study Of The Ciee Thailand Program On Development And Globalization, Koni Denham

Doctoral Dissertations

Today's colleges and universities are prioritizing the preparation of students for global citizenship. To meet this need, institutions are focusing their study abroad and international service-learning programs to provide students with international experiences (Bringle & Hatcher, 2011). Government support for such programs is driven by advancing globalization, promoting economic competitiveness, and ensuring national security (Hantzopoulos & Shirazi, 2014). The problem, however, is that participation in service-learning does not guarantee that students will engage in further social action activities upon their return (Hartman & Kiely, 2014). A contributing factor to this lack of engagement is because participants are not gaining transferable …


Defining Inclusion: Surveying Educator Perceptions And Practices In Chile, Christina A. Bosch Jun 2021

Defining Inclusion: Surveying Educator Perceptions And Practices In Chile, Christina A. Bosch

Doctoral Dissertations

Despite earlier attempts to arrive at unified theories or conceptualizations, the international literature on inclusive education has increasingly documented the proliferation of operationalizations of inclusion in and even within single instances of policy, research, and practice, and called for further scholarly attention to such subjectivity. Specifically, there is a dearth of international research linking definitions to perceptions to practices within special and/or inclusive education, and findings on the efficacy of interventions to promote inclusive education practices in Spanish-speaking contexts or literature are similarly sparse. This study investigates how Latinx educators in K-12 schools conceptualize and practice inclusion with respect to …


The Power Of Perception: Social Cohesion, Child Protection And Access To Education In Conflict-Affected Communities In South Sudan, Wendy L. Wheaton May 2021

The Power Of Perception: Social Cohesion, Child Protection And Access To Education In Conflict-Affected Communities In South Sudan, Wendy L. Wheaton

Doctoral Dissertations

This study investigates perceived risks as a component of social cohesion at the community level and access to education through a mixed methods investigation of local dynamics in conflict-affected South Sudanese communities. In a series of papers, I examine the nature of social cohesion and how perceptions of risk from diverse community members’ show a link to enrollment rates. Next, I discuss complex local perceptions by informant groups that include traditional and religious leaders, youth and women’s groups representatives, education personnel and NGO workers to illustrate convergent and divergent opinions of children’s access to education, childprotection and other social services. …


Dalit Academic Experiences: Stigma, Social Reproduction And Systemic Exclusion In Indian Higher Education, Bharat Rathod Apr 2021

Dalit Academic Experiences: Stigma, Social Reproduction And Systemic Exclusion In Indian Higher Education, Bharat Rathod

Doctoral Dissertations

Over the last two decades, public universities in India have witnessed a demographic change and an increase in the numbers of Dalit and marginalized students on college campuses. However, there is scarcely any research on the impact of the changed demographic and its implications for the Dalit students, campus life and the campus climate. This study focused on experiences of Dalit students and their narratives of resilience in the university life. I conducted interviews and interlocutor observations to understand the experiences and perspectives of Dalit students in a public university in Gujarat. The research drew from scholarship on racial minorities …


Traditional Values And Local Community In The Formal Educational System In Senegal: A Year As A High School Teacher In Thies, Maguette Diame Jul 2020

Traditional Values And Local Community In The Formal Educational System In Senegal: A Year As A High School Teacher In Thies, Maguette Diame

Doctoral Dissertations

The dissertation explores the discourses of traditional values, local practices, and community engagement within a selected community in Thies, Senegal and its high school environment. The study investigates the ways in which these cultural elements are present in the daily life of the community as well as how they are or could be integrated in formal teaching. In particular, I studied the concepts of Jom (hard work, pride, dignity), Kersa (decency), Suturë (discretion), Muñ (endurance), Teranga (hospitality), Maslaa (negotiation), Kal (kinship), and Suture (Protection) in particular. My own experience as a language teacher who has lived and studied in the …


The Institutional Pillars Of China's National College Entrance Exam: A Case Study Of Gaozhong High School And Ncee Reforms, Mei Lan Frame Jul 2020

The Institutional Pillars Of China's National College Entrance Exam: A Case Study Of Gaozhong High School And Ncee Reforms, Mei Lan Frame

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation is based on a case study of a Beijing high school (referred to as “Gaozhong”) during the initial wave of reforms to the National College Entrance Exam (NCEE). Using the conceptual framework of Richard Scott’s “three pillars” of institutions (2008) to analyze stake holder perception toward the NCEE (administrators, teachers, parents, and students), this study identifies and examines the regulatory, normative, and cultural-cognitive elements that comprise the NCEE. Congruent with Scott’s theory that these the combined strength and interdependency between institutional elements prevent institutional change, this study also analyzes the three pillars as barriers to the implementation of …


Experiences Of Uzbek Immigrant Parents With Public Schools In New York City: Parental Engagement, Mekhribon Abdullaeva May 2020

Experiences Of Uzbek Immigrant Parents With Public Schools In New York City: Parental Engagement, Mekhribon Abdullaeva

Doctoral Dissertations

This study examined a Brooklyn, New York Community of Uzbek parents’ engagement with their children’s education, focusing in particular on parental involvement with the school system. It addressed the important, yet difficult-to-measure factors that influence why and how parents engage. It determined that parents are agents who attempt to advance their child’s progress through strategies shaped by a perspective consisting of their goals, resources, parenting style, and expectations. A Q-sort methodology generated parents’ perspectives through their rankings of certain value judgement. Due to variations in parental education, income levels, and other elements, the study generated three parent perspectives that were …


Are Some Horizons Broader Than Others? Study Abroad, Inequality, And The Influence On Careers And Education., Suzan Kommers Mar 2020

Are Some Horizons Broader Than Others? Study Abroad, Inequality, And The Influence On Careers And Education., Suzan Kommers

Doctoral Dissertations

Study abroad is one of the main ways in which higher education institutions provide students with the opportunity to gain international experiences. While study abroad is mostly discussed in terms of the beneficial effects on students’ learning and development, the results in this dissertation indicate that study abroad works for some but disadvantages other students. Based on nationally representative U.S. data, I examined 1) disparities in students’ opportunities to study abroad as well as the effect of study abroad on the socioeconomic outcomes 2) early career income and 3) graduate school enrollment. The combined studies in this dissertation provided insight …


Understanding China’S Discourse On South-South Cooperation And China-Africa Higher Education Exchange: A Field Research Study At Zhejiang Normal University’S China-Africa International Business School, Yi Sun Oct 2019

Understanding China’S Discourse On South-South Cooperation And China-Africa Higher Education Exchange: A Field Research Study At Zhejiang Normal University’S China-Africa International Business School, Yi Sun

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation research attempts to distinguish China’s model from that of the traditional North-South relationship, with a focus on how China’s philosophy articulates its foreign policy and the nation’s higher education engagement with African countries. It examines the China-Africa higher education partnership in response to China’s discourse on South-South Cooperation (SSC), Africa’s human resource flows, and the benefits and constraints of current China-Africa cooperation. In order to achieve these goals, the dissertation uses one of the China-Africa partnership universities in China, Zhejiang Normal University (ZJNU) as a site for its field research. The fieldwork looks at both a student level …


Kc 4.4 Building Multi-Cultural Understanding Through Translation And Dialogue: Languages And Terminologies For Icomos Ifla Isccl Rural Landscapes Principles, Raffaella Laviscio, Hossam Mahdy, Haeedeh Laleh Oct 2019

Kc 4.4 Building Multi-Cultural Understanding Through Translation And Dialogue: Languages And Terminologies For Icomos Ifla Isccl Rural Landscapes Principles, Raffaella Laviscio, Hossam Mahdy, Haeedeh Laleh

ISCCL Scientific Symposia and Annual General Meetings // Symposiums scientifiques et assemblées générales annuelles de l'ISCCL // Simposios científicos yy las Asambleas Generales Anuales

The spread and put in action of the Principles’ text in the national context require, first of all, the translation of the original English version. It is not automatic and requires different considerations and challenges (as linguistic and cultural). For instance, some English terms have no known equivalent Arabic terms (such as landscape, vernacular and integrity), other terms have different equivalents used by different individuals or institutions, others (as bio-cultural diversity, conservation, heritage, sustainable development) require some specifications due to differences in worldview and value systems in the different national contexts (and according to different disciplinary sectors in the same …


Chilean Teachers Responses To And Understanding Of Student Interaction With Diverse Peers In The Classroom, Javier Martín Campos-Martínez Jul 2019

Chilean Teachers Responses To And Understanding Of Student Interaction With Diverse Peers In The Classroom, Javier Martín Campos-Martínez

Doctoral Dissertations

Chile’s educational inequality has sparked intense debates in recent years (Cabalin & Bellei, 2013; Stromquist & Sanyal, 2013). While there is a wide consensus concerning the crucial role that teachers play in fostering inclusion in the classroom, research suggests that Chilean teachers, often without intent or awareness, reinforce exclusionary student interactions marked by social class and gender hierarchies (Carrasco, Zamora, & Castillo, 2015; SERNAM, 2009; Tijoux, 2013). Although teachers’ motivation and concern for questions related to exclusion and inclusion in education are spreading, navigating exclusionary dynamics can be particularly challenging especially since teachers’ initial and continuing professional education seldom addresses …


Interfaith Education And The Quest For Peacebuilding In Northern Nigeria, Ezekiel Abdullahi Babagario Jul 2019

Interfaith Education And The Quest For Peacebuilding In Northern Nigeria, Ezekiel Abdullahi Babagario

Doctoral Dissertations

INTERFAITH EDUCATION AND THE QUEST FOR PEACEBUILDING IN NORTHERN NIGERIA Over the past thirty years, relationships between ethnic and religious groups in the northern regions of Nigeria have deteriorated. Conflict occurs on an almost daily basis between Christians and Muslims. Most Nigerians consider themselves very religious which often leads followers of the major religions to fight to protect the teachings of their faith. The high level of illiteracy and lack of interreligious understanding between the faith groups contributes to the propensity for violent clashes in the region. The literature review discusses the concept of religious education, interfaith dialogue and interfaith …


Interweaving Personal And Community Transformation In A Capability Approach: An Education For Development Case Study In Colombia, Stephanie M. Pirroni Mar 2019

Interweaving Personal And Community Transformation In A Capability Approach: An Education For Development Case Study In Colombia, Stephanie M. Pirroni

Doctoral Dissertations

Due to the rise of unemployment and underemployment among growing youth populations in conflict-affected areas in the Global South, education systems that prepare young people for the worlds of work in both the formal and informal economies are gaining prominence in international development agendas. The rationale that underlies many agencies that make of use of education for work programs is rooted in a belief that work opportunities will deter people from violence. Research points out, however, that such programs often framed in outdated modes of development, narrowly focused on economic growth, are not conducive to dignified working opportunities for young …


Applying Stakeholder Analysis To Lay The Groundwork For Conflict-Sensitive Education In The Somali Education Sector, Nina Aristea Papadopoulos Oct 2018

Applying Stakeholder Analysis To Lay The Groundwork For Conflict-Sensitive Education In The Somali Education Sector, Nina Aristea Papadopoulos

Doctoral Dissertations

ABSTRACT

APPLYING STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS TO LAY THE GROUNDWORK FOR CONFLICT-SENSITIVE EDUCATION IN THE SOMALI EDUCATION SECTOR SEPTEMBER 2018 NINA ARISTEA PAPADOPOULOS B.A., University of South Carolina, Columbia M.A., American University, Washington, D.C. Ph.D., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS, AMHERST Directed by Ash Hartwell, College of Education This research represents the growing convergence of two previously discrete fields: education in conflict and crisis, and stakeholder analysis. Momentum for an improved and more sophisticated approach to education in conflict and crisis is gaining speed. We are now engaged in a crucial analysis of the interaction between the conflict or crisis and the education system, …


Parenting, Identity And Culture In An Era Of Migration And Globalization: How Bangladeshi Parents Navigate And Negotiate Child-Rearing Practices In The Usa, Mohammad Mahboob Morshed Oct 2018

Parenting, Identity And Culture In An Era Of Migration And Globalization: How Bangladeshi Parents Navigate And Negotiate Child-Rearing Practices In The Usa, Mohammad Mahboob Morshed

Doctoral Dissertations

Globalization puts into challenge the singular notion of identity and culture. Immigrant parents must navigate multiple cultural systems and constantly redefine their identities in order to cope with a new way of being. This dissertation is aimed at learning about this cultural encounter faced by Bangladeshi immigrant parents living in Western Massachusetts region of the USA. More specifically, I studied immigrant Bangladeshi parents’ identity negotiations, their navigation of transnational spaces, and cultural negotiation in relation to their children’s schooling. My research is informed by cultural theories of immigration and globalization. Guattari’s concept of ‘existential territory’ (Guattari, 1995, 2000), Appadurai’s ideas …


Teacher Education And Professional Development On Classroom Assessment In Bangladesh: Exploring Policy And Practice Through A Vertical Case Study, Sumera Ahsan Oct 2018

Teacher Education And Professional Development On Classroom Assessment In Bangladesh: Exploring Policy And Practice Through A Vertical Case Study, Sumera Ahsan

Doctoral Dissertations

Formative Classroom Assessment (FCA) can be the single most powerful activity to promote students’ learning (Hattie, 2009). In Bangladesh FCA is not in practice (Ahsan, 2009). Policies and teacher preparation on FCA are the two factors that influence the practice of formative assessment in classrooms (Stiggins, 1999; Plake, 1993). In my research I aimed to learn how different actors, discourses, and materials come together to produce policies on FCA in policy network and translate the policies in a Teachers’ Training College (TTC), and in classrooms in an urban school. I used ‘critical socio-cultural approach to policy as practice’ (Levinson, Sutton …


Exploring Experiences, Perspectives, And Identity (Re) Formation Processes Of African High School Students In U.S. Public Schools, Brenda M. Muzeta Jul 2018

Exploring Experiences, Perspectives, And Identity (Re) Formation Processes Of African High School Students In U.S. Public Schools, Brenda M. Muzeta

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation examines the experiences of African high school students in U.S. public schools. Specifically, the study explores how African students negotiate their identities in a new education environment. Drawing on Asante’s (1980) Afrocentric theoretical framework, Erikson’s (1968) theory of identity and Tajfel and Turner’s (1979) social identity theories, this interview-based qualitative study seeks to describe and interpret how African high school students make sense of their new schooling experiences. One of my major goals of the study is to honor, recognize and bring to life the voices of African high school students. Their experiences are often minimized, their voices …


Apprenticeship And Literacy Model For Women In Afghanistan: A Grounded Narrative, Mohammad Iqbal Halimi Jan 2018

Apprenticeship And Literacy Model For Women In Afghanistan: A Grounded Narrative, Mohammad Iqbal Halimi

Master's Capstone Projects

This study reviewed the Learning for Community Empowerment Project (LCEP-2), a five-year project designed by UN-Habitat and funded by the United States International Agency for Development (USAID). The project’s major goal was to empower marginalized communities in Afghanistan through activities in integrated literacy, community saving and investment groups, apprenticeships, and business development training.

The study examined the empowerment model of this project. It first investigated the work the social organizers did with the men and women residents of the project implementation locations in transforming patriarchal norms in conservative areas to improve women’s access to public space. It then looked at …


Aid Fragmentation, Commitments And Progress: A Textbook Provision Case Study From Afghanistan, Zia Andar Jan 2018

Aid Fragmentation, Commitments And Progress: A Textbook Provision Case Study From Afghanistan, Zia Andar

Master's Capstone Projects

This study reviews aid fragmentation and implementation effectiveness using a textbook production and distribution project in Afghanistan as a case study. The aid effectiveness debate has been part of the development discussion for both academics and practitioners since the beginning of modern aid. An overall consensus exists that development aid programs are not as effective as they should be. The debate over aid effectiveness has intensified in the last two decades and a series of international forums on aid effectiveness convened in this period, the most prominent of which are the High Level Forums on Aid Effectiveness, hosted by the …


Coloniality, And Subalterns In The Colombian English Language Teaching Policy: De-Silencing Teachers As Policy Actors, Rosa A. Medina Riveros, Theresa Y. Austin Jan 2018

Coloniality, And Subalterns In The Colombian English Language Teaching Policy: De-Silencing Teachers As Policy Actors, Rosa A. Medina Riveros, Theresa Y. Austin

College of Education Working Papers and Reports Series

The Colombian government has designed language policies to increase the level of English- Spanish bilingualism in the last decades. In 2014, the Colombian government launched 'Colombia: Very Well', the National Plan of English (NPE) that was created in consultancy with a private firm This study explores the English Language policy in Colombia through postcolonial sociology analyzing coloniality, imperialisms and subalternities and the connections across transnational agencies (macro- level), national actors (meso-level), and classroom teachers' enactments of the policy (micro level). It calls for de-silencing teachers and recognizing them as knowledgeable policy actors.


“Going The Extra Mile”: Perspectives And Experiences Of Coaches Supporting Primary School Teachers In Sierra Leone, Ashley Clayton Hertz Nov 2017

“Going The Extra Mile”: Perspectives And Experiences Of Coaches Supporting Primary School Teachers In Sierra Leone, Ashley Clayton Hertz

Doctoral Dissertations

Limited research exists that explores instructional coaching as a component of teacher professional development in low-income, developing countries. In response to this gap in the literature, I used an intrinsic case study design to explore the experiences and learning of a cohort of coaches supporting primary school teachers in a whole school development/ early grade reading initiative in Sierra Leone. Using an adaptation of Valsiner’s (1997) Zone Theory as a conceptual framework and analytical lens, I explored coaches’ perspectives of their knowledge and beliefs; coaching actions and experiences; constraints within their context; and professional learning and support needs. By examining …


Seguimos Luchando: Women Educators’ Trajectories In Social Movement Based Popular Education Projects In Buenos Aires, Argentina, Jennifer Lee O'Donnell Mar 2017

Seguimos Luchando: Women Educators’ Trajectories In Social Movement Based Popular Education Projects In Buenos Aires, Argentina, Jennifer Lee O'Donnell

Doctoral Dissertations

Through a multisite ethnographic investigation, I provide a look at the vision and practices of women teaching in the popular education sector, particularly those who impact social, economic, and political public spaces in Buenos Aires, Argentina. As an alternative to Freirean based education theory, which may overshadow the collective work of women in popular projects, this work highlights women’s commitments to education that contests neoliberal reform, transforming not only curriculum and pedagogies, social practices, and discourses inside classrooms, but the communities where they live as well.


Transformation Of Kabul Based Universities From Using Classic Content Management System To Web Content Management System: Key Issues And Challenges, Siddiqullah Barikzai Jan 2017

Transformation Of Kabul Based Universities From Using Classic Content Management System To Web Content Management System: Key Issues And Challenges, Siddiqullah Barikzai

Conference Proceedings & Collected Papers

The aim of this research is to find problems and challenges resulted from using classic content management system and replacing it with Web Content Management System in Kabul based universities. The study will find answer to the following questions:

Do stated universities have necessary facilities such as electricity, computers, projectors, LCD, and the Internet? Are deans of faculties, chairs of departments, directors of student affairs, and students of these universities ready to use WCMS? What are the main problems and challenges that classic content management system has resulted yet? Finally, which of these two stated systems are most cost-effective, quick, …