Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Old Dominion University

2020

Discipline
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 183

Full-Text Articles in Education

Sociopolitical Crisis And The Rise Of A Social Justice Superintendent In Charlottesville, Sara Lourdes Epperly Dec 2020

Sociopolitical Crisis And The Rise Of A Social Justice Superintendent In Charlottesville, Sara Lourdes Epperly

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

This qualitative case study examined one school superintendent’s handling of a sociopolitical crisis event over the course of its phased unfolding. A review of literature in the fields of both crisis management and social justice educational leadership supplied a conceptual lens for viewing the case. Key concepts from the crisis management literature included staged intervention, organizational learning, and transformative leadership. Key concepts from the literature of social justice educational leadership included criticality, inclusion, relationshipbuilding, and capacity-building. The study methodology involved the conduct of 17 interviews and collection of more than 100 related documents. Analysis of the data supported a series …


Concept Maps As Sites Of Rhetorical Invention: Teaching The Creative Act Of Synthesis As A Cognitive Process, Amy Lee Marie Locklear Dec 2020

Concept Maps As Sites Of Rhetorical Invention: Teaching The Creative Act Of Synthesis As A Cognitive Process, Amy Lee Marie Locklear

English Theses & Dissertations

Synthesis is one of the most cognitively demanding practices novice writers must undertake, and research demonstrates that first-year students’ synthesis writing practices result in more knowledge telling rather than knowledge creation and transforming. Pedagogies used to teach synthesis often focus on developing text-building strategies but lack explicit instruction on the more cognitively demanding conceptualizing behavior. To explore alternative pedagogies and heuristics, this study looks beyond composition scholarship to incorporate studies in neuroeducation and rhetoric to define synthesis as an ongoing, generative act of cognitive invention, effectively shifting pedagogical focus from text-centered product to student-centered cognitive processes that inform development of …


Exploring Student Perceptions Of Flipgrid In Online Courses, Patrick R. Lowenthal, Robert L. Moore Dec 2020

Exploring Student Perceptions Of Flipgrid In Online Courses, Patrick R. Lowenthal, Robert L. Moore

STEMPS Faculty Publications

Asynchronous video-based discussions have affordances that can address some of the constraints of asynchronous text-based discussions. However, little research has been conducted on the use of asynchronous video-based discussions in online courses. As a result, the purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate students’ perceptions of using Flipgrid for asynchronous video-based discussions in fully online courses. We used a cross-sectional survey design to survey 79 students who used Flipgrid in a fully online course. Students overall reported that they liked using Flipgrid, it was easy to use, and that it helped improve social presence. In this paper, we will …


I Told You That To Tell You This: Metagaming And Metacognition In The Hybrid Classroom, Marc A. Ouellette Dec 2020

I Told You That To Tell You This: Metagaming And Metacognition In The Hybrid Classroom, Marc A. Ouellette

English Faculty Publications

This paper theorizes the use of play and gamified methods to foster metacognition, or strategies for learning and learning about learning, in online graduate instruction. In the process, it calls into question the determinism of “serious” games as being the only means of facilitating metacognition. Ultimately, by adopting metagame approaches—that is, approaches based on0 goals and achievements that are external to the game and/or are developed by the players themselves—metacognition can and does occur because students participate in the development of the rewards. Moreover, any metagame feature ultimately becomes a commentary so that an approach based on metagaming offers its …


Internationalization: A Phenomenological Analysis Of The Experiences Of Faculty Who Have Led A Short-Term Educational Abroad Program, Rodin M. Ndandula Dec 2020

Internationalization: A Phenomenological Analysis Of The Experiences Of Faculty Who Have Led A Short-Term Educational Abroad Program, Rodin M. Ndandula

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Over the years, internationalization efforts in higher education institutions have been driven predominantly by the growing demands of the globalized world. Short-term education abroad programs have emerged as a popular strategy for attaining internationalization. Faculty at many institutions are instrumental to this process as they often are the leaders of these education abroad experiences. While considerable research exists on student experiences in education abroad, few studies have focused on the experiences of other members of these programs—faculty (Goode, 2008; Loebick, 2017; Savishinsky, 2012). The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study is to understand the lived experiences of faculty who have …


The Effects Of Self-Regulated Learning Training On Teachers’ Self-Regulated Learning, Self-Efficacy For Teaching, And Perceived Instructional Effectiveness In Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environments, Melissa Quackenbush Dec 2020

The Effects Of Self-Regulated Learning Training On Teachers’ Self-Regulated Learning, Self-Efficacy For Teaching, And Perceived Instructional Effectiveness In Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environments, Melissa Quackenbush

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The effects of training on teachers’ self-regulated learning (SRL), self-efficacy for teaching, and perceived instructional effectiveness in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments were investigated. Participants were 80 K-12 teachers who had recently transitioned to teaching in a CSCL environment when schools closed in response to the COVID- 19 pandemic. The researcher also explored how teachers use SRL skills in their learning and instruction. Training consisted of weekly collaborative meetings addressing pedagogy and technology connections. Participants in the treatment group received explicit training in SRL and practice applying concepts to their learning and instruction. Participants in both group conditions engaged in …


District Promotion Policies For Students With Disabilities: Examining Principal Interpretation And Implementation, Latoya Exum Floyd Dec 2020

District Promotion Policies For Students With Disabilities: Examining Principal Interpretation And Implementation, Latoya Exum Floyd

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The number of students receiving special education services have steadily increased in the United States over the past decade. Students with disabilities (SWD) historically score lower on high stakes tests, and they require considerations beyond academic achievement for promotion. The growing number of SWD and accountability measures included in district promotion policies has resulted in a wide range of principal interpretation of district promotion policies. A principal’s interpretation of district promotion policies affects the district’s high school graduation and dropout rates. Therefore, unclear promotion policies can lead to inconsistent interpretation; which can lead to greater retentions and dropouts for SWD …


Communities Of Practice And Legitimate Peripheral Participation: Teacher Learning In Social And Situated Contexts, Ryan Patrick O’Meara Dec 2020

Communities Of Practice And Legitimate Peripheral Participation: Teacher Learning In Social And Situated Contexts, Ryan Patrick O’Meara

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Learning through social interactions in situated contexts represents a significant means by which teachers in schools learn their craft (Brown & Duguid, 1991; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Orr, 1996, Scribner, 1999). While research into the phenomenon of situated teacher learning exists, research into teacher’s learning and evolving expertise with the context of high stakes accountability environments is lacking to date (Boylan, 2010; Davies, 2005; Hodkinson & Hokinson, 2003; Pyrko, Dörfler, & Eden, 2017). This case study explored how teachers with 5-10 years of experience have learned in social and situated contexts. Teachers studied taught within two different subject areas within …


Chief Academic Officers And The Aacc's Leadership Competencies, Josh Philip Lavorgna Dec 2020

Chief Academic Officers And The Aacc's Leadership Competencies, Josh Philip Lavorgna

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Chief Academic Officers (CAOs) hold one of the most vital senior leadership positions at community colleges. Typically thought to be the second person in charge, directly under the president, their impact on the community college is crucial. CAOs have historically been considered the next in line to the president, and community college presidents were often CAOs before assuming their first presidency. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) publishes Leadership Competencies for hopeful and current community college leaders. This study examined the perceptions of community college CAOs regarding the AACC Leadership Competencies for Aspiring Chief Executive Officers (CEOs), or presidents. …


Black Girls In 3d Disruptive, Defiant, And Disrespectful: Case Studies Of Culturally Responsive And Sustaining Classroom Management Practices In An Urban Middle School, Janeen Perry-Campbell Dec 2020

Black Girls In 3d Disruptive, Defiant, And Disrespectful: Case Studies Of Culturally Responsive And Sustaining Classroom Management Practices In An Urban Middle School, Janeen Perry-Campbell

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Extensive research has been conducted on the disproportionate amount of suspensions that occur among Black boys, however, there is an emerging body of research that suggests that the rate of suspensions among Black girls is increasing. The most common behaviors that Black girls receive office referrals for, are subjective behaviors such as being disruptive, defiant, and disrespectful. (Nunn, 2018). The purpose of this study was to examine how Culturally Responsive Classroom Management (CRCM) strategies reduce the disproportionate amount of suspensions that Black girls received. This qualitative study conducted through case studies focused on how the teachers’ culturally responsive and sustaining …


Disrupting Education: High School Principals’ Efforts To Lead Disruptive Innovation And The Influence Of Isomorphic Mechanisms, Katie Cummings Catania Dec 2020

Disrupting Education: High School Principals’ Efforts To Lead Disruptive Innovation And The Influence Of Isomorphic Mechanisms, Katie Cummings Catania

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Students today require skills and dispositions different from those of the past. Despite ongoing efforts to initiate change in schools through reform efforts, little has changed within educational institutions. Current reform efforts do, however, create conditions for principals to lead disruptive innovation within their schools. Research is limited on innovation implementation in education and the various ways isomorphic forces may hinder or contribute to the design and adoption of disruptive innovations. The purpose of this study was to examine how high school principals lead disruptive innovation. Additionally, this study sought to understand how the mechanisms of isomorphism influence the adoption …


Creating A Culture Of Informal Mentoring At Community Colleges: Conditions That Strengthen And Weaken Relationships And Students' Structural Resiliency, Sharon Mcmahon Dec 2020

Creating A Culture Of Informal Mentoring At Community Colleges: Conditions That Strengthen And Weaken Relationships And Students' Structural Resiliency, Sharon Mcmahon

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Informal mentoring relationships that develop out of frequent and meaningful interaction with faculty and staff are powerful tools that can help community college students persist and succeed in achieving not only their educational goals but their future economic mobility as well (Komosa-Hawkins, 2012; Phillippo, 2010; Zimmerman et al., 2002). Students are more likely to be successful when they can identify and interact with someone on campus who they relate to, can count on for support, and who affirms their sense of belonging (Rendón, 1994).

The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify conditions conducive to the development of …


Health-Related Fitness Knowledge Growth In Middle School Years: Individual- And School-Level Correlates, Xihe Zhu, Justin A. Haegele, Haichun Sun Dec 2020

Health-Related Fitness Knowledge Growth In Middle School Years: Individual- And School-Level Correlates, Xihe Zhu, Justin A. Haegele, Haichun Sun

Human Movement Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) has been an essential concept for many health and physical education programs. There has been limited understanding and longitudinal investigation on HRFK growth. This longitudinal study examined HRFK growth and its individual- and school-level correlates in middle school years under 1 curriculum condition: Five for Life.

Methods: Participants were 12,044 students from 47 middle schools. Data were collected at both individual/participant and school/institution levels. Individual-level variables included gender, grade, and HRFK test scores. School-level variables included percentage of students receiving free and reduced meals (FARM), student-to-faculty ratio for physical education, and school academic performance …


Designing For The One-Shot: Building Consensus On Design Processes For Academic Librarians, Kirsten Hostetler Dec 2020

Designing For The One-Shot: Building Consensus On Design Processes For Academic Librarians, Kirsten Hostetler

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

Academic librarians have long been responsible for teaching information literacy competencies on college campuses, even as many are hesitant to accept the title of teacher. With inadequate instructional design preparation and one-shot sessions serving as a popular, if limited, instructional medium, librarians’ design processes are often developed on the job and infrequently explored in the literature. Previous research has examined specific design models and instructional strategies, but no studies were found that determined how academic librarians select and implement these design decisions within the unique context of a one-shot.

The purpose of this study was to describe academic librarians’ design …


A Meta-Analysis Of Group Treatment Outcomes For Veterans With Substance Use Disorders, Robert “Tony” Dice Dec 2020

A Meta-Analysis Of Group Treatment Outcomes For Veterans With Substance Use Disorders, Robert “Tony” Dice

Counseling & Human Services Theses & Dissertations

Group therapy is commonly used in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD). Many studies exist related to the efficacy of group interventions for veterans with SUDs. A meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature addressing the use of group therapy, specifically psychoeducational groups, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) groups and support groups, in the treatment of SUDs with veterans was conducted. The following questions guided the research: What are viable treatment outcomes for psychoeducational, CBT, and support groups of veterans with SUDs? and What are the measures that capture outcomes related to psychoeducational, CBT, and support groups of veterans with …


A Systemic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Psychoeducational Groups For The Treatment Of Psychopathology Resulting From Child Sexual Abuse, Alexis Lynnette Wilkerson Dec 2020

A Systemic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Psychoeducational Groups For The Treatment Of Psychopathology Resulting From Child Sexual Abuse, Alexis Lynnette Wilkerson

Counseling & Human Services Theses & Dissertations

It is estimated that 16% of men and 26% of women have experienced child sexual abuse (CSA), and studies have shown a strong association with long-term psychosocial consequences. The use of psychoeducational groups with survivors of CSA has been found to produce favorable outcomes; however, no meta-analyses have been conducted on studies assessing the use of psychoeducational groups to treat victims of CSA. The purpose of this systematic review and random-effect meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of psychoeducational groups for the treatment of psychopathology subsequent to child sexual abuse (CSA) by addressing the following research questions (1) Are psychoeducational …


A Multiple Case Study Investigating Principles Of Design And Implementation Of Operational Safety Plans For Crises At Colleges, Universities, And Affiliated Institutions, Antonio Passaro, Jr. Dec 2020

A Multiple Case Study Investigating Principles Of Design And Implementation Of Operational Safety Plans For Crises At Colleges, Universities, And Affiliated Institutions, Antonio Passaro, Jr.

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

In the wake of the 2007 Virginia Tech tragedy, the Virginia state legislature mandated that all college-affiliated institutions create an operational safety plan for natural and manmade crises. Previous empirical research has mostly focused on documenting faculty and students’ perceptions of campus safety, preparations for manmade crises over natural disasters, and enhancing specific aspects of emergency responses for future incidents. Thus, design and implementation “best practices” for higher education operational safety plan protocols is an understudied, yet burgeoning area of inquiry. To address this literature gap, a comparative case study of five institutions was conducted using a novel document analysis …


Defying The Odds: The Resilience Of African American Youth In The Face Of Differential Treatment In The Classroom, Frank R. Wood Jr. Dec 2020

Defying The Odds: The Resilience Of African American Youth In The Face Of Differential Treatment In The Classroom, Frank R. Wood Jr.

Sociology & Criminal Justice Theses & Dissertations

In the education system, African American youth are confronted by deficit-based narratives of intellectual inferiority and defiance that inform teaching pedagogies, curricula, and classroom management strategies, such as school discipline practices. In light of available research documenting the deleterious effects of low expectations and treatment by teachers on the academic outcomes of African American youth, this body of knowledge also underscores the importance of racial socialization and positive perceptions of school bonding in safeguarding the academic achievement and success of African American youth. However, the lack of criminological inquiry into the complex associations between perceptions of differential treatment by teachers, …


An Analysis Of The Effect Of Digital Badging On Workplace Self-Directed E-Learners' Achievement, Persistence, And Self-Regulation, Emma Awuor Agola Dec 2020

An Analysis Of The Effect Of Digital Badging On Workplace Self-Directed E-Learners' Achievement, Persistence, And Self-Regulation, Emma Awuor Agola

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

Despite the advantages and increase in popularity of self-directed e-learning, this mode of learning is still reported to suffer from low voluntary enrollment rates, high learner dropout rates, as well as low retention of learning. Although there is a paucity of motivation research with regard to self-directed e-learning, a considerable number of studies identify shortfalls in factors related to learner motivation as the most prevalent factor contributing to these pitfalls.

The current study investigated the effect of digital badges, an extrinsic reward, on learning effectiveness, persistence and self-regulation in a corporate self-directed e-learning environment. The study employed an experimental between-subjects …


The Relationship Between The Earning Of Career And Technical Industry Credentials And The Virginia Economy, Anjanette Mcfadden Hendricks Dec 2020

The Relationship Between The Earning Of Career And Technical Industry Credentials And The Virginia Economy, Anjanette Mcfadden Hendricks

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Nationally, the labor market is calling out for workers to fill the increasing number of job vacancies, but those qualified, skilled, and able to fill them are limited in supply or retiring in large numbers. As America’s key industries offer high salaries in return for candidates with the necessary skills and credentials to fill their vacancies, the skills learned and third-party industry credentials earned in secondary Career and Technical Education (CTE) programs seem to make a perfect fit for the student, employer, and the economy. However, unlike the favored US educational model of the four-year degree, the continued outdated perception …


Illuminating The Voices Of Black Women Principals: A Phenomenological Qualitative Study, Crystal L. Haskins Dec 2020

Illuminating The Voices Of Black Women Principals: A Phenomenological Qualitative Study, Crystal L. Haskins

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

School reform efforts, particularly those that are concerned with equity and social justice have led to an evolution of educational leadership theories and practices. Among these, Culturally Responsive School Leadership and Critical Race Theory have emerged as potential frameworks for dismantling the ghost of neo-managerialism and its impact on Black and Brown students’ academic success (Barton, 1998; MacRuairc, 2012; Terry, 1998). Relatedly, there is a dearth in the literature regarding the experiences of Black Women Principals; their lives, leadership styles, and accomplishments are not consistently recognized as valued contributions to educational research (Ladson-Billings, 2002). The purpose of this phenomenological study …


Analysis Of Capital Distribution Among Ohio’S Publicly Funded Higher Education Institutions, John D. O’Brien Dec 2020

Analysis Of Capital Distribution Among Ohio’S Publicly Funded Higher Education Institutions, John D. O’Brien

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

In 2012, Governor Kasich instituted a call-to-action, “Campus leaders throughout Ohio must work together to rethink how the state allocates its investment in our public higher educational facilities.” (Ohio Higher Education Capital Funding Commission, 2016). The intent of Governor Kasich was to drive more equitable outcomes and opportunities in higher education, including capital allocation (2016). However, despite the changes in processes over time, there continues to be disproportion in allocation of capital funding (Maiden & Stearns, 2007; Manns, 2004; Tandberg 2010).

A deeper understanding of the historical and current trends of capital allocation to postsecondary public institutions in Ohio is …


The Relationship Between Virginia Title 1 Spending And Minority Male Graduation Rates: A Longitudinal Study, Anastacio B. Marin Dec 2020

The Relationship Between Virginia Title 1 Spending And Minority Male Graduation Rates: A Longitudinal Study, Anastacio B. Marin

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Over the past two decades, education funding in the United States has been redistributed to schools that lack sufficient financial resources to meet the needs of students (Boyle & Lee, 2015). The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, the reauthorized Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), was enacted to increase academic accountability and achievement throughout the nation’s public-school systems. Nationwide, there is a persistent achievement gap between historically marginalized students and their affluent peers. This gap is evident in the Commonwealth of Virginia when measuring student proficiency on End of Course Assessments (EOCAs). For schools serving a large …


Standards For Technological And Engineering Literacy: Addressing Trends And Issues Facing Technology And Engineering Education, Johnny J. Moye, Philip A. Reed Nov 2020

Standards For Technological And Engineering Literacy: Addressing Trends And Issues Facing Technology And Engineering Education, Johnny J. Moye, Philip A. Reed

STEMPS Faculty Publications

The article offers information on addressing trends and issues facing technology and engineering education. It mentions future challenges, students need to "have a broad conceptual understanding of technology and its place in society, enabling them to be active participants in the technological world and careful creators and users of technology.


Transforming Study Abroad: A Handbook [Book Review], Heidi Fischer Nov 2020

Transforming Study Abroad: A Handbook [Book Review], Heidi Fischer

Educational Foundations & Leadership Faculty Publications

In her new handbook, Transforming Study Abroad: A Handbook (2019), Doerr takes the discourse surrounding several education abroad concepts in a new direction. She emphasizes the need for a rigorous theoretical framework throughout the education abroad experience for students to successfully process their experiences while studying abroad. Transforming Study Abroad is a well researched and practical handbook that includes sample questions for students to consider that can be used in various settings, such as in one-on-one meetings with administrators, in small group discussions, or during orientation sessions. Additionally, the book could lend itself as a textbook for a reflection-based education …


Transformative Learning And The Power Of Experience Contextualized In Tertiary-Level Study Abroad, Colleen M. Kolb Oct 2020

Transformative Learning And The Power Of Experience Contextualized In Tertiary-Level Study Abroad, Colleen M. Kolb

Educational Foundations & Leadership Master’s Level Projects/Papers

The study abroad experience for many students is ineffable by nature. Teasing this apart and understanding how to maximize student learning abroad can lead to more enriched and potentially transformative experiences. There is little training offered to faculty and administrators at most American institutions about how to integrate study abroad learning into the wider higher education curriculum before, during, and after a global experience. By utilizing transformative learning theory (TLT) and experiential learning theory (ELT), this thesis provides a space for thought to conceptualize study abroad as a fully integrated part of the college curriculum that enhances the learner experience …


The Forgotten Students: Covid-19 Response For Youth And Young Adults Aging Out Of Foster Care, Mauriell H. Amechi Sep 2020

The Forgotten Students: Covid-19 Response For Youth And Young Adults Aging Out Of Foster Care, Mauriell H. Amechi

Educational Foundations & Leadership Faculty Publications

[First paragraph]

In March 2020, the coronavirus pandemic upended American higher education and shuttered campus doors across the country. As the opening vignette illustrates, many college students reported severe housing and food insecurities as a result. Nevertheless, not all college students experienced COVID-19’s effects and consequences equally. For example, Ivory, a current student enrolled at Concordia University Texas who spent 17 years in foster care, illuminated some of the difficulties she has personally faced in the wake of COVID-19. College students impacted by foster care make up approximately 5% of all undergraduates, and many are struggling to have their basic …


Alcohol Use And Drinking-Related Eating Restriction Behaviors Among College Students, Peter Preonas Aug 2020

Alcohol Use And Drinking-Related Eating Restriction Behaviors Among College Students, Peter Preonas

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The combination of eating restrictions and alcohol use is a prevalent problem on college campuses. Some students engage in eating restrictions prior to drinking to limit their overall caloric intake or to enhance intoxication effects. To date, limited research suggests that drinking-related eating restriction behaviors are associated with additional and unique health risks relative to high-risk drinking or eating restrictions alone. As such, additional research examining this unique, risky set of behaviors is warranted. Consequently, the present study aimed to address gaps in the literature by further examining the risks associated with drinking-related eating restrictions and testing trait factors related …


Trust Issues: A Case Study Of The Relationship Between Trust And Reform Implementation, Courtney R. Wilson Aug 2020

Trust Issues: A Case Study Of The Relationship Between Trust And Reform Implementation, Courtney R. Wilson

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Reform creation and implementation tends to focus on the mechanics needed to ensure intended outcomes are achieved. School relationships are affected by the tension caused by reform implementation. Research suggests trust among teachers and between teachers and their administrator affects the way teachers make sense of, implement, and use new reform efforts. Given the demands reforms place on schools, trust has the potential to impact and encourage the implementation of reform and the maintenance of relationships. A qualitative case study method was used to decipher the impact trust plays in the implementation of reform. The concept of trust is used …


Quasi-School Leaders: The Lived Experiences Of High School Counseling Directors And Their Role In Schools, Andrea Cherice Simon Aug 2020

Quasi-School Leaders: The Lived Experiences Of High School Counseling Directors And Their Role In Schools, Andrea Cherice Simon

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The aim of this study is to explore the lived experiences of high school counseling director’s and how their principal and district school counseling supervisor shape their experiences as leaders. The role of high school counseling director’s is increasingly complex, unique, and oftentimes misunderstood. They are often viewed as leaders and change agents in student’s overall success due to their unique skill levels in advocacy and collaboration (Kaffenberger, Murphy, & Bemak, 2006; McMahon, Mason, Daluga-Guenther, & Ruiz, 2014; Young, Millard, & Kneale, 2013). However, principal’s and district school counseling supervisors are key players in defining the role and responsibilities of …