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Full-Text Articles in Education

Dismantling Anti-Blackness In Teacher Education: Centering Black Epistemologies To (Re)Construct Elementary Language Arts Education For Linguistic And Racial Justice, Jasmyn Kymberly Jones Aug 2023

Dismantling Anti-Blackness In Teacher Education: Centering Black Epistemologies To (Re)Construct Elementary Language Arts Education For Linguistic And Racial Justice, Jasmyn Kymberly Jones

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Black students and their linguistic resources are undervalued, disdained, disrespected, and disregarded in language arts classrooms. Not only is Black Language often ignored in English language arts instruction, but language more generally remains largely hidden within elementary ELA. Elementary ELA educators are tasked with teaching a vast array of skills, content, and concepts. So, teacher education programs are responsible for ensuring that preservice teachers leave prepared to take on the task of cultivating language arts classrooms that foster students’ literacy development. However, traditionally, literacy teacher education and the ELA curriculum has maintained white mainstream English as the standard for which …


Exploring Culturally Responsive Equitable Problem-Solving Pedagogy: Theorizing, Developing & Teaching, Tisha Newton Jones Aug 2023

Exploring Culturally Responsive Equitable Problem-Solving Pedagogy: Theorizing, Developing & Teaching, Tisha Newton Jones

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Achievement gaps in mathematics between middle and high school Black students when compared to their white peers exist in part because of access, but also because Black learners’ brilliance is not recognized. Finding ways to help students, especially Black students, become successful mathematical problem solvers was a driving force behind this research. The purpose of this research is to explore ideas of how to improve Black students' opportunities to engage in effective mathematical problem solving to improve their mathematics understanding and achievement. This study introduces the Culturally Responsive Equitable Problem Solving (CREPS) pedagogy situated at the intersections of a conceptual …


Visual Literacies And Young Children’S Writing: Creating Spaces For Young Children’S Voices And Engaging In Authentic Writing Experiences, Elizabeth Presto Aug 2023

Visual Literacies And Young Children’S Writing: Creating Spaces For Young Children’S Voices And Engaging In Authentic Writing Experiences, Elizabeth Presto

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Young children engage in multimodal written expression. The research in this study explores the spaces that were created, and the stories created by children in an after-school comic club. The club utilized the Writer’s Workshop model to support the Being a Writer program that is used in the Ocean View School District (Ocean View School District is a pseudonym). I created a supplemental writing program that utilized visual literacy instruction and taught the lessons in the club. The theoretical framework incorporated developmentally appropriate writing instruction, visual literacy elements, and sociocultural theory. This study employed an action research methodology with multiple …


Using Ozobots To Learn Character Traits, Kimberly Dawn Eure May 2023

Using Ozobots To Learn Character Traits, Kimberly Dawn Eure

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Technology is utilized in everyday life. As such, teachers can employ educational robots and technology to assist in growing skills in collaboration, communication, computational thinking, and problem-solving. Educational robots also appear to increase engagement and motivation in students to participate in lessons. This study employed design-based research (DBR) to explore the use of Ozobots in teaching character traits in a fourth-grade classroom. Together with fourth-grade teachers, a set of lessons was created that employed Ozobots to engage students in learning character traits. Two technology integration frameworks, technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) and Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition (SAMR), were …


The Influence Of Mentorship On K-5 General Education Teachers: A Study Of Southeastern Schools In Virginia, Katherine Ryan Goldburg May 2023

The Influence Of Mentorship On K-5 General Education Teachers: A Study Of Southeastern Schools In Virginia, Katherine Ryan Goldburg

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

The current teacher shortage and the demand for high quality teachers presents a nationwide educational problem. Additionally, more than one-third of teachers leave the profession within the first five years of their careers (Callahan, 2015). The most vital and systemic change that is needed in our educational landscape is the attraction, retention, and professional development of quality teachers (Darling-Hammond & Sykes, 2003). If school district administrators expect new teachers to succeed, they need to provide them with unprecedented levels of support. This qualitative research study examined new elementary education teachers' perceptions of the influence of their mentorship program and the …


An Autoethnography On Teaching Antiracism In The Current Sociopolitical Environment, Taylor M. Jacobson May 2023

An Autoethnography On Teaching Antiracism In The Current Sociopolitical Environment, Taylor M. Jacobson

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

In the course of American history, students from historically marginalized and underrepresented communities have been left out of the educational conversation. This has created an era of undereducated citizens who have historically used privilege to oppress students from these communities. Teachers must use their privilege to teach antiracist education that specifically encourages students to stand up for the justice needed to make a better world. Although this education is important, politicians, parents, and school board administrators are consistently putting teachers in an awkward position when they work towards implementing antiracist education by enacting policies that force them to stop or …


Creating More Equitable Opportunities In Early Childhood By Highlighting Parent Voice: A Qualitative Case Study, Julie Dawn Sill Dec 2022

Creating More Equitable Opportunities In Early Childhood By Highlighting Parent Voice: A Qualitative Case Study, Julie Dawn Sill

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

This qualitative, single embedded case study, framed on Bioecological Systems Theory, Adult Learning Theory, and a Family-Systems Intervention Model investigates the reasons parents and caregivers of young children enroll in and complete parent education classes during the birth to three-year period, as well as the supports that may contribute to positive early parent-child communication or the barriers that may prevent these interactions from occurring (Bronfenbrenner, 2005; Dunst & Trivette, 2009; Knowles et al., 2020). Convenience sampling was used to recruit adult participants from a community organization in the Southeastern USA whose mission was to improve the school readiness of its …


Family Writer's Workshop: A Case Study, Alisa Innes Dec 2022

Family Writer's Workshop: A Case Study, Alisa Innes

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Today’s students need to be prepared for a successful future in our competitive world. Families and educators need to work together to provide children with a comprehensive literacy foundation. Currently, there are many school-based and community-based family literacy programs that are being implemented. While these programs are successful, they are missing a crucial component: writing intervention. Writing is a skill that our students will need for higher education and future careers.

The problem for this study was that research is lacking in regards to ways to assist parents who are interested in working on writing with their child outside of …


Teacher Perspectives On Formative Assessment Within A Primary Classroom, Dawn M. Macdonald Dec 2022

Teacher Perspectives On Formative Assessment Within A Primary Classroom, Dawn M. Macdonald

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Research has acknowledged the importance of the beliefs of educators and how their beliefs have implications impacting their classroom practices (Clark, 1987; Doyle 1997; Zhou & Urhahne, 2018; Graham & Pajares, 1997). Teachers’ beliefs have been a significant topic for researchers due to the contribution they provide for the development of teaching and learning (Gilakjani & Sabouri, 2017). Above all, with increasing attention on teacher quality and effectiveness internationally there has been little research looking at the influences between teachers’ classroom practices and their judgments on student learning (Devine, Fahie, & McGillicudy, 2013).

Further research may benefit teachers who are …


Teacher's Self-Efficacy For Data Driven Decision Making, Bettie Fisher Perry Aug 2022

Teacher's Self-Efficacy For Data Driven Decision Making, Bettie Fisher Perry

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

The present study used a sequential mixed method design to compare special education and general education elementary teachers’ self-efficacy for data-driven decision making. Participants were 127 teachers from several school divisions in a mid-Atlantic state in the United States. Dunn et al.’s (2013a) The Data-Driven Decision Making Efficacy and Anxiety Inventory (3D-MEA) was used for this study along with Tschannen-Moran and Hoy’s (2001) The Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES), specifically the subscale on the efficacy of instructional strategies. According to the quantitative findings, there was a statistically significant difference between special education and general education teachers’ efficacy for …


Examining The Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy Of Teacher Candidates In Urban Immersive Residency Programs, Latanya M. Sutphin Aug 2022

Examining The Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy Of Teacher Candidates In Urban Immersive Residency Programs, Latanya M. Sutphin

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Urban immersive residency programs have emerged from partnerships between K-12 schools and universities offering teacher candidates a year-long field experience alongside coursework aligned with the framework and practices in the schools (Zeichner & Bier, 2015). The goals of these programs include teacher candidates applying what they learn during preparation into practice and getting good student outcomes, while building their confidence in teaching diverse students. This study used situated learning theory (Lave & Wenger, 1991) to position urban immersive residency programs as a community of practice where teacher candidate’s self-efficacy and understanding of culturally responsive teaching overlap. A mixed methods design …


The Narratives Of Teacher Candidates In Clinical Practice Within A Teacher Residency: The Shaping Of Professional Teacher Identities, Lauren Marie Laughlin May 2022

The Narratives Of Teacher Candidates In Clinical Practice Within A Teacher Residency: The Shaping Of Professional Teacher Identities, Lauren Marie Laughlin

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Clinical practice within teacher residencies offers contextually based experiences that are influential in the development of professional teacher identities. Additionally, the stories told by teacher candidates about these experiences are instrumental to this development as narratives and identity are intertwined (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000). Consequently, this study employs narrative inquiry to explore the three-dimensional space of time, place, and sociality that teacher candidates encountered for the first part of their clinical practice within a teacher residency. Additionally, I explore tensions each participant faced. Data collection included interviews, observations, and artifacts as each piece of data informed the other. Then, thinking …


How Does Parental Involvement Shape Kindergarten Readiness In One Title 1 Classroom?, Kiristen Moriah Boles May 2022

How Does Parental Involvement Shape Kindergarten Readiness In One Title 1 Classroom?, Kiristen Moriah Boles

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this action research study was to explore the role parental involvement plays in Kindergarten readiness in Title 1 schools. The theoretical foundation used to support this research was Epstein’s 6 model construct of parental involvement. For this study, a compilation of qualitative and quantitative data was used based upon the question being researched. The target sample was 20 Kindergarten students in a Title 1 elementary school along with 20 of the parents. The data collected was composed from scores from state assessments, teacher created assessment data, a parent climate survey, and parent communication logs.

The results suggested …


Covid-19, Technology, And The Math Classroom: Changes, Obstacles, And Victories Integrating Digitally, Lauren Fifield Bellamy Dec 2021

Covid-19, Technology, And The Math Classroom: Changes, Obstacles, And Victories Integrating Digitally, Lauren Fifield Bellamy

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Secondary math teachers faced new experiences and struggles this past virtual school year due to the global COVID-19 pandemic. Nine secondary math teachers from a school division in southeastern Virginia participated in this qualitative single case study. Data collection included individual semi-structured interviews and technology integration artifacts. Through a three round coding process, ten themes emerged to answer the following three research questions: 1) In terms of curriculum, teaching methods, and assessments, how did teachers describe their pedagogical change in virtual learning? 2) How do teachers perceive student performance has changed within the virtual learning space? 3) From teachers’ perspectives, …


Elementary Classroom Teachers’ Perceptions Of Redesigned Classroom Space: A Qualitative Case Study, Kristin Lee Pender Dec 2021

Elementary Classroom Teachers’ Perceptions Of Redesigned Classroom Space: A Qualitative Case Study, Kristin Lee Pender

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Classroom redesign is being recognized globally as necessary to better increase student’s enjoyment levels, engagement, collaboration, and learning. Instead of seeing traditional classrooms in a fixed setting where students are seated in rows facing the front of the room, classrooms are being arranged in multiple ways. As a result of this focus on redesigned learning spaces, there is a need to examine teachers’ perceptions about redesigned classroom spaces and understand the decisions behind their design. Thus, it is important to examine teachers’ perceptions of their classroom space to better understand if they consider their students learning needs, engagement levels, and …


“I’M Just A Middleman": A Phenomenological Study Of Specialized Literacy Professionals' Experiences During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Michelle L. Arnold Jul 2021

“I’M Just A Middleman": A Phenomenological Study Of Specialized Literacy Professionals' Experiences During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Michelle L. Arnold

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Specialized literacy professionals (SLPs) are an integral part of schools, serving as interventionists, coaches, coordinators, and more. They are called on to guide reading and writing in their schools, helping to build academic success for students. However, these individuals are asked to do so much in schools that they have difficulty meeting the expectations set for them. The International Literacy Association has spent decades creating and revising standards for literacy professionals helping to delineate roles for SLPs so that they have set responsibilities that they can focus on. Despite these efforts, SLPs continue to serve a multiplicity of roles. During …


Does A Schoolwide Silent Reading Initiative Make A Difference In The Reading Habits Of High School Freshmen: A Mixed Methods Study, Stephanie Trzeciakiewicz Jul 2021

Does A Schoolwide Silent Reading Initiative Make A Difference In The Reading Habits Of High School Freshmen: A Mixed Methods Study, Stephanie Trzeciakiewicz

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation describes a study that investigated the degree to which a Schoolwide Silent Reading Initiative (SSRI) impacted high-school students’ motivation, attitudes toward, and amount of time spent reading for pleasure both in and outside of school. Multiple methods were used to collect and analyze data, however the data collection window was drastically shortened and unexpectantly closed due to Covid-19. Close analysis of the limited student data available revealed that some adolescents find reading self-selected material enjoyable and spend some of their free time doing so, while most teens report they don’t find reading to be a pleasurable activity and …


Growing Up Rural: A Sensory Ethnography Of Rural Children’S Perspectives On Time, Space, And Place, Rebecca Tilhou Apr 2021

Growing Up Rural: A Sensory Ethnography Of Rural Children’S Perspectives On Time, Space, And Place, Rebecca Tilhou

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Rural places afford significant differences in learning opportunity than their urban and suburban counterparts, and are often viewed from deficit perspectives, with a focus on the challenges that are specific to rurality. This locally-focused, qualitative research explored how childhood learning and education in a rural, Mid-Atlantic peninsula of the United States are produced by the interactions between and influences of the place’s geography, history, and culture. Through ethnographic and sensory fieldwork and participatory research with children at a place based learning program for youth housed at a public library, I present a deep examination of both formal and informal learning …


Black Girls In 3d Disruptive, Defiant, And Disrespectful: Case Studies Of Culturally Responsive And Sustaining Classroom Management Practices In An Urban Middle School, Janeen Perry-Campbell Dec 2020

Black Girls In 3d Disruptive, Defiant, And Disrespectful: Case Studies Of Culturally Responsive And Sustaining Classroom Management Practices In An Urban Middle School, Janeen Perry-Campbell

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Extensive research has been conducted on the disproportionate amount of suspensions that occur among Black boys, however, there is an emerging body of research that suggests that the rate of suspensions among Black girls is increasing. The most common behaviors that Black girls receive office referrals for, are subjective behaviors such as being disruptive, defiant, and disrespectful. (Nunn, 2018). The purpose of this study was to examine how Culturally Responsive Classroom Management (CRCM) strategies reduce the disproportionate amount of suspensions that Black girls received. This qualitative study conducted through case studies focused on how the teachers’ culturally responsive and sustaining …


"Meet Me At The 50": A Critical Discourse Analysis Of How Higher Education Curriculum Is Meeting The Needs Of Black, Male Student-Athletes, Julia Diane Morris Aug 2020

"Meet Me At The 50": A Critical Discourse Analysis Of How Higher Education Curriculum Is Meeting The Needs Of Black, Male Student-Athletes, Julia Diane Morris

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

The overarching goal of this research is to make proverbial payments towards Ladson-Billings’ (2006) “education debt” owed to historically resilient populations by promoting equitable and democratic practices in all facets of education. Black men, specifically those who participate in athletics, are advocated for in this research because these men identify as part of a community of voices who are not only historically oppressed but are being failed by current educational practices. Further, student-athletes provide a predetermined and specific sociocultural context, and thus social location, by which to compare how various types of critical literacy assignments are addressing said contexts. Using …


Black Teachers’ Collective Wisdom As Social Justice Pedagogy: A Black Feminist Narrative Analysis, Jacqueline Cora Boone Aug 2020

Black Teachers’ Collective Wisdom As Social Justice Pedagogy: A Black Feminist Narrative Analysis, Jacqueline Cora Boone

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

In this age, 21st century, where social issues surrounding race and gender are impassioned and escalating, black feminists and Black Feminist Theory are leading the charge in bringing salience through activism and engagement. Doing post structural qualitative research aims to dismantle a myth of scientific knowledge that emphasizes triangulation and transferability of research with the use of multiple representations of experience. This research investigates critical issues in qualitative research, specifically the ontological challenge that researchers commonly encountered in depicting experience and social reality. The turn to experience and lived stories has expanded the modes of qualitative research by hearing marginalized …


A Case Study Exploring The Nature Of How Prekindergarten Teachers’ Mathematics Instruction Decisions Relate To Their Mathematics Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Raleta Summers Dawkins Apr 2020

A Case Study Exploring The Nature Of How Prekindergarten Teachers’ Mathematics Instruction Decisions Relate To Their Mathematics Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Raleta Summers Dawkins

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

The mathematics knowledge students develop in prekindergarten is key to their ability to make sense of more complex mathematics in the future (C. T. Cross, Woods, & Schweingruber, 2009; Ginsburg, Lee, & Boyd, 2008). Research continues to present evidence that there is a mathematics achievement gap between minoritized students living in lower socioeconomic communities compared to their peers before entering kindergarten (Arnold, Fisher, Doctroff, & Dobbs, 2002; Duncan et al., 2007; Sonnenschein & Galindo, 2015; Wang, 2010). The joint position statement issued by the National Association for the Education of Young Children and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics …


Service Learning And The Experiential Learning Cycle In Elementary School, Brittney D. Rose Apr 2020

Service Learning And The Experiential Learning Cycle In Elementary School, Brittney D. Rose

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

There has been an increase in interest in service learning in the past decade (Kuh et al., 2017). However, there has been less attention given to service learning in elementary school, particularly to service learning that does not focus on academic outcomes for the students (Scott & Graham, 2015). This qualitative instrumental case study utilized focus groups with fifth grade students, interviews with educators, education specialists and a nonprofit representative, and observational notes to explore students’ and educators’ experiences as they participated in a service learning project in conjunction with a nonprofit organization. Findings indicate that specific collaborative practices, such …


Impact Of School Librarians On Elementary Student Achievement, Lois D. Wine Apr 2020

Impact Of School Librarians On Elementary Student Achievement, Lois D. Wine

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is evidence that a full-time certified school librarian, trained and licensed based on state requirements, impacts fourth grade and fifth grade student scores on reading and/or mathematics end-of-year state achievement tests. Following over 30 years of school library impact studies, primarily correlational and qualitative studies, the school library field continues to have a lack of strong evidence of school librarian impact. This quasi-experimental matching design was conducted to determine if students who had full-time certified school librarians attained higher achievement scores than students who did not have full-time certified school …


I Had To Do The Reading: A Phenomenological Case Study Of College English Students, Jennifer Eleanor Frank Oct 2019

I Had To Do The Reading: A Phenomenological Case Study Of College English Students, Jennifer Eleanor Frank

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

The purposes of this qualitative phenomenological case study were to investigate multiple student experiences in a general elective introduction to literature course when music was added as an autonomously structured assignment. Music and song lyrics are no strangers to the classroom setting, but there is a gap in the literature examining the space where students can create meaningful links between music they enjoy and assigned course readings in college English. Informed by social constructivism and English studies theories this study was designed to investigate any impact that autonomously driven music-link assignments may have on students. The structured assignments were called …


Science In The School Library Inquiry Model (Sslim): A Mixed-Methods Case Study Of The Implementation Of A Science And Information Inquiry Curriculum In An Elementary Library, Bree L. Ruzzi Apr 2019

Science In The School Library Inquiry Model (Sslim): A Mixed-Methods Case Study Of The Implementation Of A Science And Information Inquiry Curriculum In An Elementary Library, Bree L. Ruzzi

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Data indicate that students in the U.S. may start school with lower levels of science understanding and that these levels may consistently remain lower throughout their public-school career. With deficits in science achievement starting in the earliest years of students’ education, benefits may be gained by exploring alternate resources and alternative environments that can support young student’s science education and achievement. A largely unexplored area for science instruction is in the school library. This dissertation, a mixed-methods, case study, examined the creation and implementation of a novel information and science inquiry model and curriculum, SSLIM. This curriculum was created and …


Mothers’ Voices In Early Childhood Education: A Dual Case Study Of Resettled Refugee Mothers’ Perspectives, Rebecca John Apr 2019

Mothers’ Voices In Early Childhood Education: A Dual Case Study Of Resettled Refugee Mothers’ Perspectives, Rebecca John

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

The U.S. admits approximately 70,000 refugees each year. Many of these are families with young children. Refugee populations differ from broader immigrant populations in their background and experiences, yet they are rarely disaggregated from other immigrant populations within educational studies. Many refugee families meet the eligibility guidelines for early childhood educational programs, such as Head Start or public PreK programs; however, they often have difficulty navigating the enrollment process (Gross & Ntagengwa, 2016; Hooper, Zong, Capps, & Fix, 2016). To date, little is known about the specific experiences of resettled refugee mothers and their perspectives of navigating the early childhood …


The Impact Of A Teacher’S Implementation Of The Readworks Digital Reading Program On Second Graders’ Reading Fluency And Comprehension Test Scores, Cynthia Molina Mar 2019

The Impact Of A Teacher’S Implementation Of The Readworks Digital Reading Program On Second Graders’ Reading Fluency And Comprehension Test Scores, Cynthia Molina

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Since elementary school student performance on the end-of-year summative Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) Standards of Learning (SOL) reading test is vital in impacting school accreditation, computer-assisted instruction has become popular. Online reading programs have existed in many elementary schools in Norfolk Public School district since 1996, such as Breakthrough to Literacy (McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002), Istation in 2014 (Mathes, Torgesen, & Herron, 2015), and the i-Ready program from 2015 to 2017 (Curriculum Associates, 2014). The problem is that there is insufficient empirical research supporting the use of the ReadWorks program at several Norfolk, Virginia’s elementary schools.

The purpose of this …


The Effects Of Metacognitive Training On Algebra Students’ Calibration Accuracy, Achievement, And Mathematical Literacy, Deana J. Ford Oct 2018

The Effects Of Metacognitive Training On Algebra Students’ Calibration Accuracy, Achievement, And Mathematical Literacy, Deana J. Ford

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation describes an empirical study that investigated how metacognitive training influenced lower achieving Algebra students’ calibration accuracy, achievement, and development of mathematics literacy. Multiple methods were used to collect and analyze the data. Close analysis of students’ work and classroom observations revealed that students that were exposed to the metacognitive training had significantly higher prediction accuracy and made gains in their understanding of the mathematics word problems than did students who did not receive the metacognitive training. Overall, however, both the intervention and comparison groups improved in their academic performance and became more mathematically literate and accurate in their …


A Multi Case Study Of Community College Discipline Faculty’S Participation In A Disciplinary Literacy Professional Learning Community, Kristen Howell Gregory Jul 2018

A Multi Case Study Of Community College Discipline Faculty’S Participation In A Disciplinary Literacy Professional Learning Community, Kristen Howell Gregory

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Many students enter college with inadequate reading, writing, and critical thinking skills to successfully navigate discipline-specific college-level coursework (Duff, 2010; Hyland, 2006; Lea & Street, 1998; Tsui, 2002). As such, college faculty, and specifically community college faculty, are challenged to meet the multiple literacy needs of their students while still maintaining high expectations within their discipline-specific courses. One option is for discipline faculty (e.g., history) to integrate disciplinary literacy instruction within their courses. As discipline faculty are deemed experts in their content area and often not trained in literacy, professional development focused on disciplinary literacy could provide the knowledge and …