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Narratives From Appalachia: The Current Stories Of Lgbtq Community College Students, Todd A. Cimino-Johnson Apr 2021

Narratives From Appalachia: The Current Stories Of Lgbtq Community College Students, Todd A. Cimino-Johnson

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

LGBTQ students are ubiquitous on community college campuses across the United States. The exact number of LGBTQ students is unknown and often their needs are ignored. LGBTQ students face harassment and discrimination at higher rates than other minority groups. This study was conducted to gather the current narratives of LGBTQ students attending community colleges in the Appalachian Region. This study aimed to determine what LGBTQ students are experiencing on community college campuses across Appalachia. Fifteen students took part in a one-on-one semi-structured interview for this qualitative study. All students were currently enrolled in a program of study when the interviews ...


The Pursuit Of Equitable Virtual Learning: District Leaders’ Understanding Of The Influences On Designing 100% Virtual Learning Experiences During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Kathleen Wolfe Maxlow Apr 2021

The Pursuit Of Equitable Virtual Learning: District Leaders’ Understanding Of The Influences On Designing 100% Virtual Learning Experiences During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Kathleen Wolfe Maxlow

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Virginia Governor Ralph Northam required all schools to close their doors from March 13, 2020, through the remainder of the school year, causing districts in the Commonwealth to create distance learning plans for PreK-12 education within a matter of weeks. The continued fluctuation of COVID-19 positive case numbers throughout the spring and summer led to several school districts choosing to open the 2020-2021 school year using a 100% virtual model for all students. This qualitative, grounded theory study sought to determine how superintendents understood the influences on the design of their district’s 100% virtual learning ...


Measuring Up: A Case Study Of School Finance Equity Among Five Middle Schools, Christen A. Cohoon Apr 2021

Measuring Up: A Case Study Of School Finance Equity Among Five Middle Schools, Christen A. Cohoon

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between intra-district per-pupil expenditures in five middle schools in within the same school division using an equity audit. Broadly, the distribution of resources was examined. Specifically, how intra-district per-pupil expenditures influenced horizontal and vertical equity measures was explored. The questions central to this study were: (a) Does variation exist among schools? (b) What is the per-pupil expenditure by school? (c) When examining per-pupil expenditures, what differences exist? (d) To what extent does the district funding system meet the standards for horizontal and vertical equity? The history of educational funding was ...


Institutional Context Drives Mobility: A Comprehensive Analysis Of How Academic And Economic Factors Relate To International Student Enrollment At United States Higher Education Institutions, Natalie Irby Cruz Apr 2021

Institutional Context Drives Mobility: A Comprehensive Analysis Of How Academic And Economic Factors Relate To International Student Enrollment At United States Higher Education Institutions, Natalie Irby Cruz

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

International student enrollment (ISE) has become a hallmark of world-class higher education institutions (HEIs), particularly as global student mobility has grown exponentially worldwide in the last several decades. Although the United States (U.S.) has welcomed the largest numbers of international students since the 1950s, ISE shrunk by 10% in the previous three years from an all-time high of 903,127 students in 2016/2017 (IIE, 2019). A synthesis of research studies about international student mobility and enrollment highlights the significant role that academic and economic rationales play for international students who choose the United States. This quantitative, ex post ...


Institutionalized Perceptions Of Student Behavior And The Student Conduct Paradigm Shift In Virginia’S Public Schools, Tiffany D. Hardy Apr 2021

Institutionalized Perceptions Of Student Behavior And The Student Conduct Paradigm Shift In Virginia’S Public Schools, Tiffany D. Hardy

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

In 2019, the Virginia Board of Education approved the Model Guidance for Positive and Preventive Code of Student Conduct Policy and Alternatives to Suspension as a framework for school divisions to revise student behavior practices and policies. The model guidance reflects substantive changes in procedure, language, and data collection as compared to prior sanctions based codes of conduct. The goal of the model guidance is to implement a balanced approach to student behavior through proactive, constructive, and equitable practices. Consistent with current research, the guidance indicates a significant emphasis on social-emotional learning, intervention, and restorative practices. The language, coding, and ...


District Promotion Policies For Students With Disabilities: Examining Principal Interpretation And Implementation, Latoya Exum Floyd Dec 2020

District Promotion Policies For Students With Disabilities: Examining Principal Interpretation And Implementation, Latoya Exum Floyd

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The number of students receiving special education services have steadily increased in the United States over the past decade. Students with disabilities (SWD) historically score lower on high stakes tests, and they require considerations beyond academic achievement for promotion. The growing number of SWD and accountability measures included in district promotion policies has resulted in a wide range of principal interpretation of district promotion policies. A principal’s interpretation of district promotion policies affects the district’s high school graduation and dropout rates. Therefore, unclear promotion policies can lead to inconsistent interpretation; which can lead to greater retentions and dropouts ...


Sociopolitical Crisis And The Rise Of A Social Justice Superintendent In Charlottesville, Sara Lourdes Epperly Dec 2020

Sociopolitical Crisis And The Rise Of A Social Justice Superintendent In Charlottesville, Sara Lourdes Epperly

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

This qualitative case study examined one school superintendent’s handling of a sociopolitical crisis event over the course of its phased unfolding. A review of literature in the fields of both crisis management and social justice educational leadership supplied a conceptual lens for viewing the case. Key concepts from the crisis management literature included staged intervention, organizational learning, and transformative leadership. Key concepts from the literature of social justice educational leadership included criticality, inclusion, relationshipbuilding, and capacity-building. The study methodology involved the conduct of 17 interviews and collection of more than 100 related documents. Analysis of the data supported a ...


The Relationship Between Virginia Title 1 Spending And Minority Male Graduation Rates: A Longitudinal Study, Anastacio B. Marin Dec 2020

The Relationship Between Virginia Title 1 Spending And Minority Male Graduation Rates: A Longitudinal Study, Anastacio B. Marin

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Over the past two decades, education funding in the United States has been redistributed to schools that lack sufficient financial resources to meet the needs of students (Boyle & Lee, 2015). The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, the reauthorized Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), was enacted to increase academic accountability and achievement throughout the nation’s public-school systems. Nationwide, there is a persistent achievement gap between historically marginalized students and their affluent peers. This gap is evident in the Commonwealth of Virginia when measuring student proficiency on End of Course Assessments (EOCAs). For schools serving a large population of students from impoverished families, Title 1 funding is available to local education agencies (LEAs) to help students meet state academic standards. State’s per-pupil instructional expenditures vary widely between affluent and less affluent school divisions. The educational researchers demonstrated a connection between funding and the graduation rates of minority male students (Lhamon et al., 2018; Pan et al., 2003).

There is limited research assessing the impact Title 1 funding has had on high school graduation rates in Virginia from 2008-2019. Prior educational finance studies have measured the relationship between state fiscal effort and high school graduation rates. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a relationship between the amount of Title 1 and SOQ funds allocated to schools and the graduation rates of ...


A Multiple Case Study Investigating Principles Of Design And Implementation Of Operational Safety Plans For Crises At Colleges, Universities, And Affiliated Institutions, Antonio Passaro, Jr. Dec 2020

A Multiple Case Study Investigating Principles Of Design And Implementation Of Operational Safety Plans For Crises At Colleges, Universities, And Affiliated Institutions, Antonio Passaro, Jr.

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

In the wake of the 2007 Virginia Tech tragedy, the Virginia state legislature mandated that all college-affiliated institutions create an operational safety plan for natural and manmade crises. Previous empirical research has mostly focused on documenting faculty and students’ perceptions of campus safety, preparations for manmade crises over natural disasters, and enhancing specific aspects of emergency responses for future incidents. Thus, design and implementation “best practices” for higher education operational safety plan protocols is an understudied, yet burgeoning area of inquiry. To address this literature gap, a comparative case study of five institutions was conducted using a novel document analysis ...


The Relationship Between The Earning Of Career And Technical Industry Credentials And The Virginia Economy, Anjanette Mcfadden Hendricks Dec 2020

The Relationship Between The Earning Of Career And Technical Industry Credentials And The Virginia Economy, Anjanette Mcfadden Hendricks

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Nationally, the labor market is calling out for workers to fill the increasing number of job vacancies, but those qualified, skilled, and able to fill them are limited in supply or retiring in large numbers. As America’s key industries offer high salaries in return for candidates with the necessary skills and credentials to fill their vacancies, the skills learned and third-party industry credentials earned in secondary Career and Technical Education (CTE) programs seem to make a perfect fit for the student, employer, and the economy. However, unlike the favored US educational model of the four-year degree, the continued outdated ...


International Student Recruitment, Retention, And Transfer Efforts At Top Community Colleges Hosting International Students In The United States, Alejandra Diaz-Rangel Aug 2020

International Student Recruitment, Retention, And Transfer Efforts At Top Community Colleges Hosting International Students In The United States, Alejandra Diaz-Rangel

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The number of international students enrolled at community colleges across the U.S. has significantly shifted in recent years. As a result, higher education institutions across the country have developed and integrated rationales for attracting and retaining international students to their campuses. The purpose of this research study was to examine international student recruitment, retention, and transfer efforts taking place at community colleges in the U.S. The data that influence the international student recruitment, retention, and transfer plans set forth by community colleges in the U.S. was collected from decision makers at 15 U.S. higher education institutions ...


Trust Issues: A Case Study Of The Relationship Between Trust And Reform Implementation, Courtney R. Wilson Aug 2020

Trust Issues: A Case Study Of The Relationship Between Trust And Reform Implementation, Courtney R. Wilson

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Reform creation and implementation tends to focus on the mechanics needed to ensure intended outcomes are achieved. School relationships are affected by the tension caused by reform implementation. Research suggests trust among teachers and between teachers and their administrator affects the way teachers make sense of, implement, and use new reform efforts. Given the demands reforms place on schools, trust has the potential to impact and encourage the implementation of reform and the maintenance of relationships. A qualitative case study method was used to decipher the impact trust plays in the implementation of reform. The concept of trust is used ...


Property, Wealth, Race, And Power: An Introduction To Critical Resource Theory, Andrew Whitfield Aug 2020

Property, Wealth, Race, And Power: An Introduction To Critical Resource Theory, Andrew Whitfield

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

School funding inequality is an issue that has plagued America and the Commonwealth of Virginia for years (Owings & Kaplan, 2020). Understanding the role that funding plays in education is one that is of extreme importance today This study explored the relationship between income inequality and how education is funded. This study follows a quantitative study approach using correlational methods. This study takes multiple facets from Critcal Theory, Critical Race Theory, and Resource Dependency Theory to introduce a new theory, Critical Resource Theory The results indicated there is a practically significant relationship between income inequality and education funding. These findings are ...


Quasi-School Leaders: The Lived Experiences Of High School Counseling Directors And Their Role In Schools, Andrea Cherice Simon Aug 2020

Quasi-School Leaders: The Lived Experiences Of High School Counseling Directors And Their Role In Schools, Andrea Cherice Simon

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The aim of this study is to explore the lived experiences of high school counseling director’s and how their principal and district school counseling supervisor shape their experiences as leaders. The role of high school counseling director’s is increasingly complex, unique, and oftentimes misunderstood. They are often viewed as leaders and change agents in student’s overall success due to their unique skill levels in advocacy and collaboration (Kaffenberger, Murphy, & Bemak, 2006; McMahon, Mason, Daluga-Guenther, & Ruiz, 2014; Young, Millard, & Kneale, 2013). However, principal’s and district school counseling supervisors are key players in defining the role and responsibilities of a high school ...


Student Success Coaching In Virginia Community Colleges, Angela Lawhorne Aug 2020

Student Success Coaching In Virginia Community Colleges, Angela Lawhorne

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Community college students face many barriers when they start college, especially if they are from first-generation families, are low-income, or identify as a minority. Retention and completion for these at-risk students are relatively low compared to those with higher socioeconomic backgrounds (Bettinger & Baker, 2014). To improve these statistics and promote academic persistence, some Virginia Community College System (VCCS) colleges have implemented student success coaching under the Chancellor’s College Success Coach Initiative (VCCS, 2011). This entails not only assisting students with academic coaching, but also with career, financial, and personal matters that may affect their academic success. The researcher sought ...


Cultural Capital, Habitus, College Persistence And Graduation Among Black Immigrant-Origin Undergraduates: A Basic Interpretive Qualitative Study, Erica M. Richards Chew Apr 2020

Cultural Capital, Habitus, College Persistence And Graduation Among Black Immigrant-Origin Undergraduates: A Basic Interpretive Qualitative Study, Erica M. Richards Chew

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Black immigrant-origin students are a significant sub-population of the total Black college student population, and they are persisting and graduating more frequently than Black U.S.-origin students. This study explored cultural capital and habitus and how they shaped the college persistence and graduation of Black immigrant-origin undergraduates and alumni from four-year postsecondary institutions. A basic interpretive qualitative design, guided by cultural capital theory, was used to explore thirteen Black-immigrant-origin students’ and graduates’ perspectives in-depth; and to describe their subjective meanings, actions, and social contexts from their point of view. Participants grew up with a habitus of achievement that came ...


Virginia Standards Of Accreditation: A Case Study Of Sensemaking And Policy Implementation In A School District, Shana Nicole Remian Apr 2020

Virginia Standards Of Accreditation: A Case Study Of Sensemaking And Policy Implementation In A School District, Shana Nicole Remian

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between how school leaders at both the district and school level make sense of a policy change and how that understanding affects implementation. Specifically, this study explores how different factors affect individual sensemaking and the effect that has on policy implementation. Using an embedded case study methodology, data were collected through sixteen, semi-structured interviews. Additionally, field observations and document analysis were conducted to triangulate the data. Data were coded and analyzed to determine three major categories--policy ambiguity, internal and external factors, and communication. These three categories were integrated to form ...


Transformational Leadership Qualities Among Students Within Doctoral Higher Education Leadership Programs, Joshua Lee Howell Apr 2020

Transformational Leadership Qualities Among Students Within Doctoral Higher Education Leadership Programs, Joshua Lee Howell

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Transformational Leadership Qualities Among Students Within Doctoral Higher Education Leadership Programs is a mixed-method study utilizing program evaluation of course descriptions and transformational leadership fostering activities, interviews with program chairs surrounding transformational leadership fostering activities, and completion of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5x™) survey results from doctoral higher education students and their programs within the Commonwealth of Virginia. Researchers in the field of Higher Education and Leadership indicated that Transformational Leadership was more apt for college and university presidency, that doctoral degrees were more preferable for college and university presidency, and as doctoral higher education programs provide students with curriculum ...


Neglected Cultural Outcomes That Impact Hispanic-Serving Institution Policymaking, Amanda Kate Burbage Apr 2020

Neglected Cultural Outcomes That Impact Hispanic-Serving Institution Policymaking, Amanda Kate Burbage

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The Higher Education Act (HEA) Title V is designed to expand opportunities, increase attainment, and enhance institutional quality and stability of Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs). The assessment of Title V goals relies on enrollment, retention, and graduation rates which reflect organizational outcomes that policymakers prioritized without deference to student population, institutional mission, and funding levels. Title V policymakers do not currently consider the ways HSIs centralize the racialized experiences of students and institutions do not uniformly collect or report cultural outcome data despite its relevancy to Hispanic student success.

The purpose of this study was to draw on criteria identified in ...


Policymakers' Decision-Making: A Critical Policy Analysis On Performance-Based Funding, Laura Rose Inez Soulsby Apr 2020

Policymakers' Decision-Making: A Critical Policy Analysis On Performance-Based Funding, Laura Rose Inez Soulsby

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Over the last three decades, state governments have been challenged by financial recessions. With limited resources, it is not surprising that taxpayers demanded greater accountability over state funds, and neoliberalism, a political ideology that prefaces a strong economy and individual marketplace choices, spread. Scholars have argued that performance based funding (PBF) policies for higher education, which ties financial resources to specific metrics of achievement, is a result of that spread. In contemporary literature, scholars are examining the impacts of PBF and limitations, especially for community colleges, Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and Minority-Serving Institutions. Research on the PBF policy making ...


The Association Of The National Assessment Of Educational Progress Scores And Variance In State Education Requirements, Patrick M. Doyle Apr 2020

The Association Of The National Assessment Of Educational Progress Scores And Variance In State Education Requirements, Patrick M. Doyle

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Since the 10th Amendment to the United States Constitution, states have the function to set policy that varies drastically from state to state. This study examines the relationship of state fiscal effort and per pupil expenditure and graduation rates over a 10-year period. Furthermore, this study will look at the relationship between NAEP scores, compulsory attendance, graduation rates, course credit requirements, and hours of instruction. Research is necessary to show a relationship between the varying policies set forth by each state. This research will help policy makers, school leaders, and school localities to assess their own states’ policies and outcomes ...


The Business Of Choice: Why Students Select For-Profit Career Colleges In Northeast Florida And The Implications For Community College Leaders, Tameiko Allen Grant Oct 2019

The Business Of Choice: Why Students Select For-Profit Career Colleges In Northeast Florida And The Implications For Community College Leaders, Tameiko Allen Grant

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Over the past decade, for-profit career colleges have faced significant scrutiny and increased governmental regulation. Even with the skepticism of critics, for-profit enrollments surged and had one of the fastest enrollment growths among higher education sectors. For-profit career colleges are typically known for their predatory marketing practices and exorbitant costs. However, there is a significant concern surrounding why students would attend an institution with such a high cost and a socially perceived low-probability of return on investment (Cellini, 2012; Iloh & Tierney, 2013). This study employs a case study methodology to examine the decision-making process of students who selected for-profit career ...


Who Am I Now? Teachers’ Development Of Leadership Identity A Phenomenologically-Informed Qualitative Research Study, Kimberly Alicia Richardson Jul 2019

Who Am I Now? Teachers’ Development Of Leadership Identity A Phenomenologically-Informed Qualitative Research Study, Kimberly Alicia Richardson

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Due to the complexity of schools and more challenges to teaching and learning, teacher leadership is an answer to reform that addresses both improving teaching and restructuring of schools (Smylie & Denny, 1990). While empirical research exists that speaks to teacher leadership work, what teacher leaders do and why particular teachers emerge as leaders. An expanding body of research (e.g., Day and Harrison, 2007; Day, Kington, Stobart, & Sammons, 2006; Lord and Hall, 2005) advocates the acceptance of coupling identity and leadership, and the acknowledgment of the influence on leader’s development and behaviors. This phenomenological study examined the leadership identity development of a sample of teacher leaders in order to better understand their perceptions about what contributed to the development of their leadership identities. Using semi-structured interview questions, the lived experiences of the teachers were explored ...


Association Between Fiscal Effort Above Required Local Effort And Accreditation In Virginia Schools, Daniel C. Soderholm Apr 2019

Association Between Fiscal Effort Above Required Local Effort And Accreditation In Virginia Schools, Daniel C. Soderholm

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

This study expands on previous research regarding the adequacy of educational funding in order to reach a desired academic outcome. Specifically, this study examines Virginia policies of Standards of Quality and Standards of Accreditation to see if local fiscal effort above the minimum required by Virginia has an association to the desired minimum academic outcome of school accreditation.

The research in this study shows that when using a linear regression analysis or an ANCOVA there is no relationship between effort above Required Local Effort (RLE) and the percentage of students attending an accredited school. However, when looking at the non-linear ...


Political Culture And Policy: The Impact Of Culture And Values On School Choice Legislation, Heather Leigh Neal Apr 2019

Political Culture And Policy: The Impact Of Culture And Values On School Choice Legislation, Heather Leigh Neal

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Policy actors unite political culture, power, and values to make substantial decisions which are often subjective in nature. Politics and policy are about collective decisions, which rely on the arrangement of a group of people. As values can influence policy actors in their attempt to solve problems, it is important for policymakers to establish a balance among the most essential values. A qualitative case study approach was used to investigate how, and what ways, political culture influenced how state stakeholders interpreted or implemented policy. Power and values were explored as both can connect for the implementation of policy. If values ...


A Study Of Late Registration At Four Community Colleges, Meredith Courtney Nourie-Manuele Jan 2018

A Study Of Late Registration At Four Community Colleges, Meredith Courtney Nourie-Manuele

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

At the community college level, a debated policy is whether to keep the option for late registration. Most colleges define late registration as registration that occurs any time after the first day of the semester (O’Banion, 2012). Some community colleges have opted to eliminate late registration, believing, based on previous studies, that late registration is a barrier to students and their success (Bolt, 2013; Hale & Bray, 2011; Jones, 2015; Smith, Street, & Olivarez, 2002; Weiss, 1999). Others assert late registration remain an option maintaining that the open access designation associated with the community college demands that students not be deterred from attending when that ...


Community College Students' Deep Learning Approaches In Oer Courses, Kim Ellen Grewe Jan 2018

Community College Students' Deep Learning Approaches In Oer Courses, Kim Ellen Grewe

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Open Educational Resources (OER) have the potential to bridge the gap for community college students not only because they are more affordable or provide access but also because they have the potential to make learning more meaningful for these same students. Although issues related to access and affordability have been extensively researched, less is known about the ways in which OER use may impact community college students’ deep approaches to learning. More qualitative research around OER efficacy from the student perspective is needed. The purpose of this study was to describe the ways students use OER and how students’ OER ...


Infusing Complex Problem-Solving And Systems Thinking In College Leadership Development Programs, Dionicia Mahler-Rogers Oct 2017

Infusing Complex Problem-Solving And Systems Thinking In College Leadership Development Programs, Dionicia Mahler-Rogers

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Present day leaders grapple with a dynamic environment of evolving challenges. Prior leadership studies have afforded revisions of leadership theories in an attempt to remain relevant with the prominently shifting environment. The leadership models that underscore college leadership development programs should reflect the updated theories and practices which expose student leaders to solving complex problems they will experience. This study explores the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed for college students to be able to conceptualize and address system’s level leadership challenges. Foremost, the study examined instructional tools and methods that students found impactful for improving conceptualization and achievement of ...


Student Global Mobility: An Analysis Of International Stem Student Brain Drain, Margaret E. Gesing Oct 2017

Student Global Mobility: An Analysis Of International Stem Student Brain Drain, Margaret E. Gesing

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

This study seeks to understand global mobility patterns of international graduate STEM students studying in the United States. Using data from the NSF Graduate Students in Science Survey (GSSS), this study investigates the political, economic, and social factors affecting students' intent to stay or go, identifying differences based on students' country of origin within World Bank defined categories of gross national income (GNI) per capita. Descriptive statistics identified factors affecting students' intent to stay or go. Chi-square analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) identified differences between factors based on students' intent to stay or go, and identified differences based on ...


Breaking The Silence: A Phenomenological Exploration Of Secondary Traumatic Stress In U.S. College Student Affairs Professionals, Robert Jason Lynch Jul 2017

Breaking The Silence: A Phenomenological Exploration Of Secondary Traumatic Stress In U.S. College Student Affairs Professionals, Robert Jason Lynch

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Breaking the Silence: A Phenomenological Exploration of Secondary Traumatic Stress in U.S. College Student Affairs Professionals is a qualitative-intensive mixed methods study using phenomenology and art-based research techniques to uncover the essence of secondary traumatic stress in U.S. college student affairs professionals. Researchers in the fields of psychology, counseling, social work and other helping professions suggest that repeated exposure to individuals experiencing trauma, or hearing repeated details of an individual’s trauma, have negative outcomes on professional helpers. Coined secondary traumatic stress, this phenomenon may be defined as “the stress resulting from helping or wanting to help a ...