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Full-Text Articles in Education

Beyond Spatial Materiality, Towards Inter- And Intra-Subjectivity: Conceptualizing Exclusion In Education As Internalized Ableism And Psycho-Emotional Disablement, Anthony J. Maher, Justin A. Haegele Jan 2024

Beyond Spatial Materiality, Towards Inter- And Intra-Subjectivity: Conceptualizing Exclusion In Education As Internalized Ableism And Psycho-Emotional Disablement, Anthony J. Maher, Justin A. Haegele

Human Movement Sciences Faculty Publications

Of the little written about educational exclusion, much of it considers exclusion as disabled students experiencing less access, opportunities and participation in education when compared to their nondisabled same-aged peers. Our article aims to move beyond these narrow, parochial, and reductive postulates by centering the inter- and intra-subjectivities of disabled students to conceptualize exclusion as experiences with internalized ableism and psycho-emotional disablement that may (or may not) be experienced in any or all material and social spaces in education. We cast light on ableism and psycho-emotional disablement in education so that we and others can challenge, disrupt, and transform it …


Examining The Relationship Between Program Satisfaction, Credential Earnings, And Gender On Full-Time Employment Outcomes Of Career And Technical Program High School Graduates In Virginia, Margaret J. Turley May 2023

Examining The Relationship Between Program Satisfaction, Credential Earnings, And Gender On Full-Time Employment Outcomes Of Career And Technical Program High School Graduates In Virginia, Margaret J. Turley

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

Career and technical education (CTE) incorporates occupational skills, workforce readiness skills, and credentials that make high school graduates better prepared for the workforce. Students who complete CTE programs of study have higher employment rates after high school graduation and often go on to postsecondary education. For those who do not go on to postsecondary education, CTE programs can provide opportunities for increased earnings and more access to the labor market.

This quantitative study used binary logistic regression, using data collected by the Center for Survey Research of the University of Virginia’s Weldon Cooper Center to examine if satisfaction with CTE …


Historically Black Colleges And Universities Are Vital And Valuable To The United States, James V. Koch, Omari H. Swinton Jan 2023

Historically Black Colleges And Universities Are Vital And Valuable To The United States, James V. Koch, Omari H. Swinton

Economics Faculty Publications

Though Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are little recognized, both in the United States and internationally, rigorous empirical analysis reveals that given their circumstances, they typically perform at a high level. This is the first comprehensive empirical analysis that has examined the performance of HBCUs.


Building Belonging Into The System, Kristin Herman, Michelle Gill Jan 2023

Building Belonging Into The System, Kristin Herman, Michelle Gill

STEMPS Faculty Publications

This design case documents how a K-12 district took steps to systemically support virtual student wellness and belonging. Plans for course design to support social-emotional-academic learning (SEAL) competencies, increase perception of belonging, and create safe, predictable learning environments characteristic of a trauma-informed approach to teaching and learning are shared. The assumption virtual learners are not looking to experience belonging and cannot be successful unless they already have strong SEAL skills is challenged. Rather, the positioning of SEAL competencies as learning objectives rather than necessary prerequisites to access online learning proved to contribute to more equitable learning opportunities.


School Library Advocacy: Enhancing Opportunities For All Learners, Elizabeth A. Burns Jan 2023

School Library Advocacy: Enhancing Opportunities For All Learners, Elizabeth A. Burns

STEMPS Faculty Publications

There is a lack of consistency in how school librarians understand and engage in advocacy for their programs and the profession (Burns, 2015; Lance & Kachel, 2018). It is important that school librarians demonstrate the positive impact they contribute to improving instruction for student learners and advancing access so that all learners have equal opportunities. The school library and school librarian should be available to each student (Kachel, 2021). The School Library Manifesto (2021) includes language to support a strong school library with a qualified school librarian. Advocacy goals can be highlighted throughout this critical set of school library guidelines. …


Values And Power As Levers To Influence Accountability Policy In Virginia: A Case Study, Angela M. Rhett Dec 2022

Values And Power As Levers To Influence Accountability Policy In Virginia: A Case Study, Angela M. Rhett

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The education landscape has been inundated in recent decades with a plethora of accountability measures. New mandates and processes are conceived at the hands of policymakers, and concepts such as power and values are at the core of accountability changes. The purpose of this research study was to uncover the web of unwritten structures and systems in place that influence the educational accountability policy process using complexity theory as the guiding theoretical framework (Shoup & Studer, 2010). Complexity theory dispels the notion of simplistic cause and effect relationships as predictors for accountability trends, and, instead, posits the multiplicity of factors …


Natural History Of Discourse Of Missouri House Bill 1042: Bringing A Critical Perspective To Policy Engagement In Two-Year Contexts, Mary Casey Reid Dec 2022

Natural History Of Discourse Of Missouri House Bill 1042: Bringing A Critical Perspective To Policy Engagement In Two-Year Contexts, Mary Casey Reid

English Theses & Dissertations

In this autoethnographically-infused natural history of discourse (NHD) (Silverstein and Urban, 1996; Slembrouck, 2001), I use methods from critical discourse studies (CDS) to trace 10 years of changes in “remediation” discourses within a corpus of texts associated with Missouri HB 1042, a piece of legislation passed in 2012 that requires higher education institutions to “replicate best practices in remediation” (CBHE, 2013). After providing national and state context related to HB 1042 and the discourses circulating within the HB 1042 corpus of texts, I describe what I call the “higher ed’s remediation problem” discourse, focusing on three discourse features that I …


"Quality-Less” Higher Education: Relationship And Neocolonialism In International Development In Afghanistan, Wolayat Tabasum May 2022

"Quality-Less” Higher Education: Relationship And Neocolonialism In International Development In Afghanistan, Wolayat Tabasum

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

This study aimed to explore the internal quality assurance and accreditation (QAA) policy at University X in Afghanistan. A single case study and document review methods were chosen to examine the policy implementation process and its perceived effectiveness at a single university. This case study also explored faculty members' perceptions toward QAA, the policy's impact on teaching and learning, and the opportunities and challenges it might offer. The findings of the study produced unexpected and expected results. The expected findings were tailored around social relationships, labor division, the hierarchy of labor, incompatibility of the policy, and their impact on the …


Pulling Back The Veil: What Determines Hbcu Campus Enrollments, James V. Koch, Omari H. Swinton Jan 2022

Pulling Back The Veil: What Determines Hbcu Campus Enrollments, James V. Koch, Omari H. Swinton

Economics Faculty Publications

Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are among the least researched sectors of American higher education. This article addresses a portion of this knowledge deficit by focusing on the determinants of the full-time equivalent enrollments of 50 HBCUs between fiscal year FY 2005 and FY 2018 and then comparing them to a broad sample of 182 non-HBCUs. The most noteworthy specific results generated by our analyses are: (1) increased recruitment of white students by HBCUs may not hold the key to HBCU enrollment success; (2) the incomes of the households from which students emanate have a major positive influence on …


Practice With Feedback Makes Permanent: Ecoaching Through Online Bug-In-Ear During Clinical Experiences, Annemarie L. Horn, Marcia L. Rock Jan 2022

Practice With Feedback Makes Permanent: Ecoaching Through Online Bug-In-Ear During Clinical Experiences, Annemarie L. Horn, Marcia L. Rock

Communication Disorders & Special Education Faculty Publications

Federal mandates (e.g., Every Student Succeeds Act [ESSA], 2015) require special educators to use evidence-based practices (EBP) when working with K-12 students. However, for this expectation to become a reality, teacher educators must make changes in educator preparation program (EPP) curriculum, policy, coursework, and clinical experiences (Kolb et al., 2018). The need for changes
in EPP clinical experiences has been underscored by the Council for Exceptional Children’s (CEC’s) shift from knowledge to practice-based standards for special educators (CEC, 2020). Real-time performance feedback (PF) delivered via online bug-in-ear (BIE) technology is an EBP (Sinclair, 2020) for coaching and supervising during early, …


The Evolving Identities Of Hsi And Differentiated Funding, Amanda K. Burbage, Chris Glass Jan 2022

The Evolving Identities Of Hsi And Differentiated Funding, Amanda K. Burbage, Chris Glass

Educational Foundations & Leadership Faculty Publications

To achieve Higher Education Act Title V funding goals, policymakers must reconsider approaches, respond to Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) diversity, and prioritize servingness. This study investigated HSI heterogeneity across traditional performance metrics and student-engagement indicators using data sources previously only examined independently. A multi-step TwoStep cluster analysis revealed six clusters of HSIs. The two most important predictors of cluster membership were years with an HSI designation (transitioning and established) and institution type (associate, bachelor, and special focus). Key quantitative metrics may be useful for policy actors seeking an equity-minded Title V award strategy that considers HSI heterogeneity and prioritizes HEA Title …


Opportunities For Autism Information Shared Through Professional Conferences, Amelia Anderson, Selena Layden, Crystal Stang (Ed.), Jennifer L. Branch-Mueller (Ed.) Jan 2022

Opportunities For Autism Information Shared Through Professional Conferences, Amelia Anderson, Selena Layden, Crystal Stang (Ed.), Jennifer L. Branch-Mueller (Ed.)

STEMPS Faculty Publications

With prevalence most recently reported at 1 in 44 (Maenner et al., 2021) children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the United States, school librarians can and should expect to see these children in their schools and in their libraries. However, previous work indicates that school librarians are not being provided with an adequate education about this in their graduate coursework (Layden, Anderson, & Hayden, 2021). This study expands upon previous work to explore the preparation of school librarians about autism by examining the previous five years of state library conference programs.


Making It To The Next Grade: How Elementary School Principals Make Sense Of Grade Retention Policies For English Learners, Lynmara Colón Dec 2021

Making It To The Next Grade: How Elementary School Principals Make Sense Of Grade Retention Policies For English Learners, Lynmara Colón

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Critical approaches to policy suggest that policy, even in the most apparently democratic polity or institution, codifies and extends the interests of those who disproportionately wield power (Levinson et al., 2009). While many people are involved in conversations and decisionmaking processes related to the implementation of grade retention or promotion policies, the final decision is made at the school level. Critics of grade retention, meanwhile, also warn that retained students may be harmed by stigmatization, reduced expectations for their academic performance on the part of teachers and parents, and the challenges of adjusting to a new peer group (Schwerdt et …


Is It Better To Be Tough, Or Is Consistency Key? A Multilevel Analysis Examining The Effects Of School Disciplinary Procedures On Perceptions Of Climate And Safety Among Students And Teachers, Erica Nicole Bower Jul 2021

Is It Better To Be Tough, Or Is Consistency Key? A Multilevel Analysis Examining The Effects Of School Disciplinary Procedures On Perceptions Of Climate And Safety Among Students And Teachers, Erica Nicole Bower

Sociology & Criminal Justice Theses & Dissertations

Though delinquency and violence have been steadily decreasing in American schools, research suggests that discipline use has not followed that same downward trend. This raises questions to why schools are reliant on certain disciplinary practices if rates of student misbehavior are not increasing. Due to zero tolerance mandates, schools often take a harsh approach to punishment, yet are also inconsistent in the punishment of similar misbehavior among students, which often leaves students feeling frustrated and sometimes, unsafe. How do school disciplinary decisions affect the ways in which school actors, such as students and teachers, perceive their schools’ environments? This broad …


The Pursuit Of Equitable Virtual Learning: District Leaders’ Understanding Of The Influences On Designing 100% Virtual Learning Experiences During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Kathleen Wolfe Maxlow Apr 2021

The Pursuit Of Equitable Virtual Learning: District Leaders’ Understanding Of The Influences On Designing 100% Virtual Learning Experiences During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Kathleen Wolfe Maxlow

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Virginia Governor Ralph Northam required all schools to close their doors from March 13, 2020, through the remainder of the school year, causing districts in the Commonwealth to create distance learning plans for PreK-12 education within a matter of weeks. The continued fluctuation of COVID-19 positive case numbers throughout the spring and summer led to several school districts choosing to open the 2020-2021 school year using a 100% virtual model for all students. This qualitative, grounded theory study sought to determine how superintendents understood the influences on the design of their district’s 100% virtual learning plans. …


Measuring Up: A Case Study Of School Finance Equity Among Five Middle Schools, Christen A. Cohoon Apr 2021

Measuring Up: A Case Study Of School Finance Equity Among Five Middle Schools, Christen A. Cohoon

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between intra-district per-pupil expenditures in five middle schools in within the same school division using an equity audit. Broadly, the distribution of resources was examined. Specifically, how intra-district per-pupil expenditures influenced horizontal and vertical equity measures was explored. The questions central to this study were: (a) Does variation exist among schools? (b) What is the per-pupil expenditure by school? (c) When examining per-pupil expenditures, what differences exist? (d) To what extent does the district funding system meet the standards for horizontal and vertical equity? The history of educational funding was …


Institutionalized Perceptions Of Student Behavior And The Student Conduct Paradigm Shift In Virginia’S Public Schools, Tiffany D. Hardy Apr 2021

Institutionalized Perceptions Of Student Behavior And The Student Conduct Paradigm Shift In Virginia’S Public Schools, Tiffany D. Hardy

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

In 2019, the Virginia Board of Education approved the Model Guidance for Positive and Preventive Code of Student Conduct Policy and Alternatives to Suspension as a framework for school divisions to revise student behavior practices and policies. The model guidance reflects substantive changes in procedure, language, and data collection as compared to prior sanctions based codes of conduct. The goal of the model guidance is to implement a balanced approach to student behavior through proactive, constructive, and equitable practices. Consistent with current research, the guidance indicates a significant emphasis on social-emotional learning, intervention, and restorative practices. The language, coding, and …


Edtech And Emergency Remote Learning: A Systematic Review, Helen Crompton, Diane Burke, Katy Jordan, Sam Wilson, Susan Nicolai, Christina Myers Jan 2021

Edtech And Emergency Remote Learning: A Systematic Review, Helen Crompton, Diane Burke, Katy Jordan, Sam Wilson, Susan Nicolai, Christina Myers

Teaching & Learning Faculty Publications

An output of the EdTech Hub, https://edtechhub.org


The (Un)Sustainability Of Higher Education Institutions In Jordan, Sumaya Bint El Hassan, Kyle E. Cordova, Ghaith Rabadi, Wejdan Abu Elhaija Jan 2021

The (Un)Sustainability Of Higher Education Institutions In Jordan, Sumaya Bint El Hassan, Kyle E. Cordova, Ghaith Rabadi, Wejdan Abu Elhaija

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Faculty Publications

Higher education in Jordan has been tied closely to the state-building process in the century since the modern Hashemite state's foundation in 1921, with its explicit purpose being to educate and train high volumes of students who are competent and capable to serve as contributors to the state's development. Though this purpose has largely been successful to date, it is becoming increasingly clear that more is needed than simply issuing degrees. In an increasingly globalized world, it is necessary to educate those who can contribute to future research arenas and labor markets over which a single state has limited control. …


The International Student Experience At U.S. Community Colleges At The Onset Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Melissa Whatley, Heidi Fischer Jan 2021

The International Student Experience At U.S. Community Colleges At The Onset Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Melissa Whatley, Heidi Fischer

Educational Foundations & Leadership Faculty Publications

This study’s purpose is to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on international students who were studying at U.S. community colleges at the onset of this public health crisis. While previous work has explored the impact of the pandemic on international students generally, we argue that community college international students deserve focused attention due to their potentially marginalized status on their campuses. Using a mixed methods research approach, we analyze survey and interview data provided by community college international educators. Our results speak to two overarching themes: the supports provided to students at the onset of the pandemic (and …


Promoting Privilege: Selecting Students For A Public Gifted School, Douglas G. Wren Jan 2021

Promoting Privilege: Selecting Students For A Public Gifted School, Douglas G. Wren

Educational Foundations & Leadership Faculty Publications

Point of view: I am a cisgender, White male in my sixties. I retired recently after working with children in a professional capacity since the mid-1970s. During my education career, I was an elementary school teacher, gifted teacher, research specialist, and director of research and evaluation in a historically White school district that became majority African American during my tenure.

Value of submission: Numerous educational policies and procedures in the United States benefit children from privileged families over their traditionally underserved counterparts, which include students of color and low-income students. This piece describes a public school district’s inequitable practices related …


Sociopolitical Crisis And The Rise Of A Social Justice Superintendent In Charlottesville, Sara Lourdes Epperly Dec 2020

Sociopolitical Crisis And The Rise Of A Social Justice Superintendent In Charlottesville, Sara Lourdes Epperly

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

This qualitative case study examined one school superintendent’s handling of a sociopolitical crisis event over the course of its phased unfolding. A review of literature in the fields of both crisis management and social justice educational leadership supplied a conceptual lens for viewing the case. Key concepts from the crisis management literature included staged intervention, organizational learning, and transformative leadership. Key concepts from the literature of social justice educational leadership included criticality, inclusion, relationshipbuilding, and capacity-building. The study methodology involved the conduct of 17 interviews and collection of more than 100 related documents. Analysis of the data supported a series …


District Promotion Policies For Students With Disabilities: Examining Principal Interpretation And Implementation, Latoya Exum Floyd Dec 2020

District Promotion Policies For Students With Disabilities: Examining Principal Interpretation And Implementation, Latoya Exum Floyd

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The number of students receiving special education services have steadily increased in the United States over the past decade. Students with disabilities (SWD) historically score lower on high stakes tests, and they require considerations beyond academic achievement for promotion. The growing number of SWD and accountability measures included in district promotion policies has resulted in a wide range of principal interpretation of district promotion policies. A principal’s interpretation of district promotion policies affects the district’s high school graduation and dropout rates. Therefore, unclear promotion policies can lead to inconsistent interpretation; which can lead to greater retentions and dropouts for SWD …


The Relationship Between Virginia Title 1 Spending And Minority Male Graduation Rates: A Longitudinal Study, Anastacio B. Marin Dec 2020

The Relationship Between Virginia Title 1 Spending And Minority Male Graduation Rates: A Longitudinal Study, Anastacio B. Marin

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Over the past two decades, education funding in the United States has been redistributed to schools that lack sufficient financial resources to meet the needs of students (Boyle & Lee, 2015). The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, the reauthorized Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), was enacted to increase academic accountability and achievement throughout the nation’s public-school systems. Nationwide, there is a persistent achievement gap between historically marginalized students and their affluent peers. This gap is evident in the Commonwealth of Virginia when measuring student proficiency on End of Course Assessments (EOCAs). For schools serving a large …


Trust Issues: A Case Study Of The Relationship Between Trust And Reform Implementation, Courtney R. Wilson Aug 2020

Trust Issues: A Case Study Of The Relationship Between Trust And Reform Implementation, Courtney R. Wilson

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Reform creation and implementation tends to focus on the mechanics needed to ensure intended outcomes are achieved. School relationships are affected by the tension caused by reform implementation. Research suggests trust among teachers and between teachers and their administrator affects the way teachers make sense of, implement, and use new reform efforts. Given the demands reforms place on schools, trust has the potential to impact and encourage the implementation of reform and the maintenance of relationships. A qualitative case study method was used to decipher the impact trust plays in the implementation of reform. The concept of trust is used …


Property, Wealth, Race, And Power: An Introduction To Critical Resource Theory, Andrew Whitfield Aug 2020

Property, Wealth, Race, And Power: An Introduction To Critical Resource Theory, Andrew Whitfield

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

School funding inequality is an issue that has plagued America and the Commonwealth of Virginia for years (Owings & Kaplan, 2020). Understanding the role that funding plays in education is one that is of extreme importance today This study explored the relationship between income inequality and how education is funded. This study follows a quantitative study approach using correlational methods. This study takes multiple facets from Critcal Theory, Critical Race Theory, and Resource Dependency Theory to introduce a new theory, Critical Resource Theory The results indicated there is a practically significant relationship between income inequality and education funding. These findings …


Neglected Cultural Outcomes That Impact Hispanic-Serving Institution Policymaking, Amanda Kate Burbage Apr 2020

Neglected Cultural Outcomes That Impact Hispanic-Serving Institution Policymaking, Amanda Kate Burbage

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The Higher Education Act (HEA) Title V is designed to expand opportunities, increase attainment, and enhance institutional quality and stability of Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs). The assessment of Title V goals relies on enrollment, retention, and graduation rates which reflect organizational outcomes that policymakers prioritized without deference to student population, institutional mission, and funding levels. Title V policymakers do not currently consider the ways HSIs centralize the racialized experiences of students and institutions do not uniformly collect or report cultural outcome data despite its relevancy to Hispanic student success.

The purpose of this study was to draw on criteria identified in …


The Association Of The National Assessment Of Educational Progress Scores And Variance In State Education Requirements, Patrick M. Doyle Apr 2020

The Association Of The National Assessment Of Educational Progress Scores And Variance In State Education Requirements, Patrick M. Doyle

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Since the 10th Amendment to the United States Constitution, states have the function to set policy that varies drastically from state to state. This study examines the relationship of state fiscal effort and per pupil expenditure and graduation rates over a 10-year period. Furthermore, this study will look at the relationship between NAEP scores, compulsory attendance, graduation rates, course credit requirements, and hours of instruction. Research is necessary to show a relationship between the varying policies set forth by each state. This research will help policy makers, school leaders, and school localities to assess their own states’ policies and outcomes …


Policymakers' Decision-Making: A Critical Policy Analysis On Performance-Based Funding, Laura Rose Inez Soulsby Apr 2020

Policymakers' Decision-Making: A Critical Policy Analysis On Performance-Based Funding, Laura Rose Inez Soulsby

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Over the last three decades, state governments have been challenged by financial recessions. With limited resources, it is not surprising that taxpayers demanded greater accountability over state funds, and neoliberalism, a political ideology that prefaces a strong economy and individual marketplace choices, spread. Scholars have argued that performance based funding (PBF) policies for higher education, which ties financial resources to specific metrics of achievement, is a result of that spread. In contemporary literature, scholars are examining the impacts of PBF and limitations, especially for community colleges, Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and Minority-Serving Institutions. Research on the PBF policy making …


Virginia Standards Of Accreditation: A Case Study Of Sensemaking And Policy Implementation In A School District, Shana Nicole Remian Apr 2020

Virginia Standards Of Accreditation: A Case Study Of Sensemaking And Policy Implementation In A School District, Shana Nicole Remian

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between how school leaders at both the district and school level make sense of a policy change and how that understanding affects implementation. Specifically, this study explores how different factors affect individual sensemaking and the effect that has on policy implementation. Using an embedded case study methodology, data were collected through sixteen, semi-structured interviews. Additionally, field observations and document analysis were conducted to triangulate the data. Data were coded and analyzed to determine three major categories--policy ambiguity, internal and external factors, and communication. These three categories were integrated to form …