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International Journal of School Social Work

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Mental Health Problems Among Elementary School Students Mandated To E-Learning: A Covid-19 Rapid Review Caveat, Renée M. D'Amore, Angelina N. Halpern, Lauren R. Reed, Kevin M. Gorey Jul 2023

Mental Health Problems Among Elementary School Students Mandated To E-Learning: A Covid-19 Rapid Review Caveat, Renée M. D'Amore, Angelina N. Halpern, Lauren R. Reed, Kevin M. Gorey

International Journal of School Social Work

Extended lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic mandated millions of students worldwide to e-learning and by default made many of their parents proxy homeschool teachers. Preliminary anecdotal, journalistic and qualitative evidence suggested that elementary school children and their parents were probably most vulnerable to this stressor and most likely to experience mental health problems because of it. We responded with a rapid review of 15 online surveys to estimate the magnitude of such risks and their predictors between 2020 and 2021. The pooled relative risk of mental health problems among school children and their parents was substantial (RR = 1.97). Moreover, …


School Social Workers And Extracurricular Activities: The Unanswered Questions About Potential Role Conflict, Jeffrey Mccabe, Hannah Hagan Jul 2023

School Social Workers And Extracurricular Activities: The Unanswered Questions About Potential Role Conflict, Jeffrey Mccabe, Hannah Hagan

International Journal of School Social Work

Abstract

School social workers respond to students’ mental health needs from an education training perspective that defines set professional role boundaries in service provision that may differ from the multiple roles teachers have with students. One of those perspectives is a recognition of what may happen if a boundary crossing was to occur in a dual relationship with a client. Teachers are encouraged to take on a secondary role with students by coaching athletics or advising a club. Taking on dual roles with students has led to both increased job satisfaction and concerns regarding burnout for teachers. There is an …


Social Work Educators’ Perceptions Of School Social Work Leadership – What Are The Characteristics That Make A Leader?, Christine Vyshedsky Jul 2023

Social Work Educators’ Perceptions Of School Social Work Leadership – What Are The Characteristics That Make A Leader?, Christine Vyshedsky

International Journal of School Social Work

Social workers in school settings are uniquely poised to propose and implement proactive solutions to climate stressors, but they may not capitalize on this opportunity to lead. This study explored the perceptions of Masters’ level social work educators, who set the tone and expectations for school social workers through curricula, towards the inclusion of leadership-related skills within school social work curriculum. A survey of educator administrators (n = 75) at Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) accredited institutions examined leadership as defined through a combination of two proposed definitions for social work leadership, delineated by Holosko, 2009 and Hopson & …


Moving Beyond Trauma: Activating Resilience To Support Our Most Vulnerable Youth, Joanne Malloy, Sara Manisco Chapo, Kathryn Francoeur Jul 2023

Moving Beyond Trauma: Activating Resilience To Support Our Most Vulnerable Youth, Joanne Malloy, Sara Manisco Chapo, Kathryn Francoeur

International Journal of School Social Work

It is well-documented that exposure to toxic stress in childhood can contribute to impaired social, emotional, behavioral, and neuro-biological development that often results in learning difficulties, poor emotional regulation, an inability to develop healthy relationships, and impaired problem-solving skills. Further, youth who grow up in unsafe environments or are subjected to structural inequality are faced with challenges over which they have no control. Using a positive, future-oriented, and trauma-responsive perspective while intentionally building resilience can effectively engage and support youth to overcome feelings of hopelessness and achieve positive outcomes. This paper includes a qualitative study of protective factors as identified …


Dimensions Of Hope And The School Environment: Results From A School-Wide Needs Assessment At An Urban High School, James P. Canfield, Wendy L. Wilson, Lauren Shute, Amy N. King, Kennesha J. Smith, Dana Harley Jul 2023

Dimensions Of Hope And The School Environment: Results From A School-Wide Needs Assessment At An Urban High School, James P. Canfield, Wendy L. Wilson, Lauren Shute, Amy N. King, Kennesha J. Smith, Dana Harley

International Journal of School Social Work

Objectives: Various aspects of hope can play a major role in how students from urban locales perceive their school environment. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between various dimensions of hope and the school environment as perceived by adolescents at an urban high school. Methods: Data from a school-wide needs assessment measuring urban adolescents’ perceived hope and perceptions of the school environment were analyzed. Results: The analysis from regression models indicate that the dimensions of hope variables can be predicted by perceptions of the school environment. Conclusion: Overall, the urban adolescent hope …


Therapist, Intermediary Or Garbage Can? Examining Professional Challenges For School Social Work In Swedish Elementary Schools, Maria Kjellgren, Sara Lilliehorn, Urban Markström Jan 2023

Therapist, Intermediary Or Garbage Can? Examining Professional Challenges For School Social Work In Swedish Elementary Schools, Maria Kjellgren, Sara Lilliehorn, Urban Markström

International Journal of School Social Work

The overall aim of this article is to describe and analyse critical components that influence the role and performance of school social workers in the Swedish elementary school. Special attention will be paid to aspects related to formal regulations, professional self-understanding, and SSWs’ role in the interplay between professional domains involved in elementary school.

The data collection was conducted through four semi-structured qualitative focus group interviews with a total of 22 School Social Workers (SSWs) in four different regions in Sweden during the latter part of 2019.

The results reveal three main challenges for the SSW: 1. To …


Perceptions And Practices In School Social Worker-Teacher Interprofessional Collaboration, Stacy A. Gherardi, Kimberly Knox, Allison Stoner, Bethany Garling-Spychala Dec 2022

Perceptions And Practices In School Social Worker-Teacher Interprofessional Collaboration, Stacy A. Gherardi, Kimberly Knox, Allison Stoner, Bethany Garling-Spychala

International Journal of School Social Work

School social work requires significant skills for interprofessional collaboration, especially collaboration with teachers. While the value of such skills is increasingly recognized in fields such as healthcare, there has been limited attention to assessing or supporting interprofessional practice in education. This exploratory mixed-methods study analyzed survey data from 264 school social workers across the United States in order to understand their perceptions of teachers as collaborators and their practices relating to collaboration with teachers. Barriers to collaboration were also identified. Data suggested that school social workers had positive perceptions of teachers as collaborators generally, but saw limitations in the training …


Assessing Differential Item Functioning And Differential Test Functioning In An Academic Motivation Scale Using Item Response Theory Methods, Gerald J. Bean Dec 2022

Assessing Differential Item Functioning And Differential Test Functioning In An Academic Motivation Scale Using Item Response Theory Methods, Gerald J. Bean

International Journal of School Social Work

Social work researchers and practitioners who use measurement instruments to make data-informed decisions need to ensure those decisions are based on items and scales that are free from possible bias or undesirable differential functioning. In this study, we provide an example of how a set of Item Response Theory (IRT) statistical methods and tools can be used by social work measurement researchers to assess differential item (DIF) and scale (DTF) functioning. For the example, we explored the possible race, gender, and family composition differential functioning of a scale—the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS)—developed for use by school social workers. The data …


Assessing Texas School Social Work Practice: Findings From The First Statewide Conference Survey, Xiao Ding, Monica Faulkner, Cynthia Franklin, Beth Gerlach, Mary Beer, Eboni Calbow, Swetha Nulu Dec 2022

Assessing Texas School Social Work Practice: Findings From The First Statewide Conference Survey, Xiao Ding, Monica Faulkner, Cynthia Franklin, Beth Gerlach, Mary Beer, Eboni Calbow, Swetha Nulu

International Journal of School Social Work

Abstract

Aims: To examine the characteristics, perceived barriers, special student populations, and school-based tasks performed by Texas's school social workers in comparison to other Specialized Instructional Services Providers (SISP) professionals in schools.

Methods: A convenience sample from a survey of 212 school social workers and school services providers from the Texas School Social Workers Conference. The survey was developed using previous surveys and practice knowledge and assessed (a) demographics, (b) characteristics of school social work practice, (c) types of tasks, (d) special population served, (e) types of barriers), and (f) the tools and training that are most needed. …


The Shalem Counselling Assistance Plan For Students (Caps): Delivering Social Work Services To Faith-Based School Systems, Mark Vander Vennen, Marg Smit-Vandezande, Ken Van Wyk, Mikaeli Cavell, Danielle Vandenakker, Richard Csiernik Nov 2022

The Shalem Counselling Assistance Plan For Students (Caps): Delivering Social Work Services To Faith-Based School Systems, Mark Vander Vennen, Marg Smit-Vandezande, Ken Van Wyk, Mikaeli Cavell, Danielle Vandenakker, Richard Csiernik

International Journal of School Social Work

In Ontario, Canada, non-Catholic faith-based schools do not receive provincial government funding but are funded primarily by families of students and through fundraising. As a result, historically school-based provision of counselling or school social work resources to students has been the exception rather than the rule, as this has typically been considered an adjunct resource. A new initiative was launched in the province of Ontario in 2011 to address this gap, the Counselling Assistance Plan for Students (CAPS). CAPS was premised on another novel idea, a Congregational Assistance Plan, which itself grew out of concepts derived from Employee Assistance Programming …


Leadership In School Social Work: Implications For Promoting The Preparedness Of Tomorrow’S Practitioners, Yasmine Perry, Susan E. Elswick, Matthew J. Cuellar Nov 2022

Leadership In School Social Work: Implications For Promoting The Preparedness Of Tomorrow’S Practitioners, Yasmine Perry, Susan E. Elswick, Matthew J. Cuellar

International Journal of School Social Work

Current research suggests that leadership skills in the field of school social work are valuable and needed. However, these skills are not always clearly outlined by governing entities as a result of little examination and research. This article examines differences of perceptions toward and engagement in professional leadership skills among school social work practitioners across the United States (N = 686). Using descriptive and multivariate methods, this paper examines practitioner perceptions toward and engagement in school-based leadership and what this leadership looks like in today’s schools. Findings call for educators and practitioners to advocate for the incorporation of leadership …


Attending To Attention: A Systematic Review Of Attention And Reading, Sarah M.R. Eisensmith, Premela G. Deck, Melissa R. Jenkins, April Harris Britt, Kirsten Kainz, David Ansong Nov 2022

Attending To Attention: A Systematic Review Of Attention And Reading, Sarah M.R. Eisensmith, Premela G. Deck, Melissa R. Jenkins, April Harris Britt, Kirsten Kainz, David Ansong

International Journal of School Social Work

Background: Extensive research has conclusively linked inattention to poor reading performance. The process by which this relation occurs remains somewhat undefined, which makes it difficult for practitioners to identify key intervention targets. Objectives: This systematic review will synthesize current peer-reviewed research on the developmental relationship between inattention and reading. The primary aim of this review was to describe how inattention negatively relates to the development of literacy from preschool through middle childhood. A secondary aim of this review was to summarize recent research on the potential differential relationship between attention and literacy among students overrepresented in ratings of inattention, including …


Exploration Of Implementation Variables Impacting Trauma Informed Practices In Schools: A Narrative Review, Rachel A. Parker, David Hodgson, Lisa Wood, Karen Martin May 2022

Exploration Of Implementation Variables Impacting Trauma Informed Practices In Schools: A Narrative Review, Rachel A. Parker, David Hodgson, Lisa Wood, Karen Martin

International Journal of School Social Work

Current literature suggests that by using trauma- informed practices (TIP) in our schools and classrooms, positive short and long-term outcomes can be achieved for both children and their communities. However, there is little research identifying what helps or hinders the implementation of trauma-informed practice in schools or the development of a practitioner’s trauma-informed pedagogy. As part of this narrative review, 25 trauma- informed practice implementation variables were identified from 34 peer-reviewed works of current (2015-2020) literature using a process of thematic analysis. This review utilised an ecological model as an overlay to present these variables in a useable format. The …


School-Based Mental Health Services For Racial Minority Children In The United States, Shinwoo Choi, Hyejoon Park, Yeongbin Kim, Ching-Hsuan Lin Mar 2022

School-Based Mental Health Services For Racial Minority Children In The United States, Shinwoo Choi, Hyejoon Park, Yeongbin Kim, Ching-Hsuan Lin

International Journal of School Social Work

Racial minority children have been an underserved population and are particularly vulnerable due to limited access to community resources, especially mental health services. Schools have been noted as appropriate that environment to deliver services for underserved children (Blewett, Casey, & Call, 2004). However, little is known about the effectiveness of exiting school-based services targeting minority students. Therefore, this study reviewed past research regarding the effects of school-based mental health services (SBMHS) for racial minority children and analyzed the methodological and cultural features. By applying the Levels of Evidence-Based Intervention Effectiveness (LEBIE) scale and the cultural sensitivity criteria, the researchers examined …


“Never Give Up.” Adjudicated Girls’ School Experiences And Implications For Academic Success, Laura M. Hopson, Jennifer L. Kenney, Wesley T. Church Ii, Jill Beck Mar 2022

“Never Give Up.” Adjudicated Girls’ School Experiences And Implications For Academic Success, Laura M. Hopson, Jennifer L. Kenney, Wesley T. Church Ii, Jill Beck

International Journal of School Social Work

There is limited literature on best practices for promoting academic success for adjudicated girls. The goal of this qualitative study was to elicit information about the educational experiences of female juvenile offenders within a residential facility. Interviews with 10 girls and two teachers were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were analyzed for narratives pertaining to success stories and challenges the girls faced in educational settings. Themes were: Barriers in school; Individual Characteristics that Promote Success; Coping Skills; Relationships that Promote Success; School Environments that Promote Success; Transitioning to Traditional Schools. Findings inform strategies to promote academic success for detained youth. The …


Partnerships To Address School Safety Through A Student Support Lens, Summer G. Woodside, Tamara Estes Savage, Nicole A. Stargell, Veronica L. Hardy, Whitney P. Akers, Ki Byung Chae, Cindy Locklear, Shenika J. Jones, Joshua A. Peele, Skyla D. Pryor Mar 2022

Partnerships To Address School Safety Through A Student Support Lens, Summer G. Woodside, Tamara Estes Savage, Nicole A. Stargell, Veronica L. Hardy, Whitney P. Akers, Ki Byung Chae, Cindy Locklear, Shenika J. Jones, Joshua A. Peele, Skyla D. Pryor

International Journal of School Social Work

School safety is a primary concern of school leaders, employees, parents, and a variety of community stakeholders. Attempts to mitigate and prevent school safety concerns often focus on strategies around school climate assessment, emergency communication, school safety plan development, and school resource officer employment (U.S. DHS et al., 2018). Involvement of key stakeholders, such as school social workers, school counselors, and school-based mental health professionals is emphasized in creating and assessing school safety in a wholistic manner. This article provides an overview of a Trainings to Increase School Safety grant program that was implemented with public school stakeholders through partnerships …


School Mental Health In Charters: A Glimpse Of Practitioners From A National Sample, Jandel Crutchfield, Kate L. Phillippo, Annahita R. Ball Mar 2022

School Mental Health In Charters: A Glimpse Of Practitioners From A National Sample, Jandel Crutchfield, Kate L. Phillippo, Annahita R. Ball

International Journal of School Social Work

Charter schools are part of a global push for alternative governance models in public education. Even though U.S. charter schools enroll nearly 3.2 million children, little is known about school mental health (SMH) practice in charter schools. The current study was the first step in a line of inquiry exploring SMH and school social work practice in charter schools. Using cross-sectional survey research methods, the authors conducted brief one-time phone surveys with charter school social workers and counselors identified using a stratified random sampling strategy with national charter school lists. The final sample for analysis was 473 schools. Of these, …


A Global Picture Of School Social Work In 2021, Marion Huxtable Mar 2022

A Global Picture Of School Social Work In 2021, Marion Huxtable

International Journal of School Social Work

The article provides a global picture of school social work in 2021 using data gathered by the International Network for School Social Work. School social work is a growing specialty around the world. There are school social workers practicing in more than 50 countries. School social workers support students' educational success, especially those who are marginalized by poverty, oppression, disability and other personal or social problems. Ideally school social workers practice within a multi-disciplinary team to address wide-ranging barriers to education and participate in preventive programs for all students. The article describes the growth of school social work around the …


Editor's Message For Ijssw Special Issue On Trauma Informed/Responsive Services Mar 2022

Editor's Message For Ijssw Special Issue On Trauma Informed/Responsive Services

International Journal of School Social Work

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Social Justice And Trauma-Informed Care In Schools, Carrie E. Lorig, Aleksandra Krupina, Kris Varjas Jan 2022

Social Justice And Trauma-Informed Care In Schools, Carrie E. Lorig, Aleksandra Krupina, Kris Varjas

International Journal of School Social Work

Current understandings of trauma and implementations of trauma-informed care (TIC; SAMSHA, 2014) in school environments can be limited because the conceptualization, assessment, and treatment of trauma tends to focus on specific, identified histories of abuse. This reflects the impact of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) prevalence study among the adult American population (Felitti et al., 1998). However, addressing and preventing trauma in youth populations encourages recognition of the particular and disproportionate ways trauma affects marginalized groups, especially in schools. Some advocates for TIC view TIC as a crucial partner in social justice (Crosby et al., 2018; Rigard et al., 2015). …


The Importance Of Trauma-Informed Approaches In Education – The Impact Of Implementing A Brain-Based Approach To Supporting Learners Across A Scottish Local Authority, Lesley Taylor, Whitney Barrett Jan 2022

The Importance Of Trauma-Informed Approaches In Education – The Impact Of Implementing A Brain-Based Approach To Supporting Learners Across A Scottish Local Authority, Lesley Taylor, Whitney Barrett

International Journal of School Social Work

Throughout the history of education, a series of fashions, fads and trends has come and gone – some resulting in widespread changes in approach, some creating barely a ripple in the "pedagogical pool". Currently, a wave is being created by the desire to develop approaches that are trauma-informed – a move that is being driven by a number of factors including the introduction of funding streams such as the Scottish Attainment Challenge (SAC) and the Pupil Equity Fund (PEF), alongside growing public awareness of the impact childhood trauma and adversity has across many areas of a child’s development.

However, we …


When Trauma Comes To School: Toward A Socially Just Trauma-Informed Praxis, Catriona O'Toole Jan 2022

When Trauma Comes To School: Toward A Socially Just Trauma-Informed Praxis, Catriona O'Toole

International Journal of School Social Work

Given the prevalence and devastating consequences of childhood trauma, there has been a surge in initiatives to help schools become trauma-informed. However, despite the growing adoption of such initiatives, a number of concerns have been expressed. These include the lack of attention paid to issues of power and inequality including poverty, racism, and community violence as well as the power of adults to neglect, mistreat or abuse children. Contemporary approaches can also serve to inscribe deficit-based perceptions of children, reinforcing negative stereotypes and stigmas; and they tend to overlook the possibility that schools themselves can contribute to students’ distress, especially …


The Healing Power Of Teacher-Student Relationships In Repairing Childhood Abuse: Commonalities And Differences With Clinical Social Work Practice, Mehak Jamil Jan 2022

The Healing Power Of Teacher-Student Relationships In Repairing Childhood Abuse: Commonalities And Differences With Clinical Social Work Practice, Mehak Jamil

International Journal of School Social Work

Research indicates survivors of childhood abuse are able to form the same quality relationships with teachers as non-abused children (Armstrong, Hasket & Hawkins, 2017). However, there is little research indicating what factors within the teacher-student relationship help build this resiliency. This study looks to clinical social work practice as a basis for understanding what qualities of the therapeutic relationship can extend to or overlap with non-clinical relationships with students who have a trauma history, within the teaching field. To better understand experiences within these relationships, semi-structured interviews were conducted with both a clinical social worker who has teaching experience at …


School Social Workers In The Milieu: Ubuntu As A Social Justice Imperative, Lynn Lim, Johanna C. Baez, Meghan Gabriel Pataky, Ellen Wilder, Hester Wilhelmina Van Sittert Jan 2022

School Social Workers In The Milieu: Ubuntu As A Social Justice Imperative, Lynn Lim, Johanna C. Baez, Meghan Gabriel Pataky, Ellen Wilder, Hester Wilhelmina Van Sittert

International Journal of School Social Work

Supporting community resilience throughout the milieu, or school community, is a social justice imperative in providing trauma-informed approaches in education. More school social workers need to view their work as a community-level intervention with a trauma-informed approach that includes collaborating with students and staff throughout the building and within the neighboring community. This conceptual article will explore the humanistic concepts of the milieu as a focus of intervention and the South African value of ubuntu, our interconnectedness, through the lens of school social work. The milieu is a humanistic principle in which the community works together to support each …


Special Issue 2: Trauma Informed Care From A Social Justice Lens Jan 2022

Special Issue 2: Trauma Informed Care From A Social Justice Lens

International Journal of School Social Work

This editorial provides the rationale for the special issue as well as a summary of the articles in these two special issues.


"Trauma-Informed" Ideas In English Education: Discussing The Scientific Evidence Base And Exploring The Discursive And Practice Effects, Niamh Storey, Sally Neaum Oct 2021

"Trauma-Informed" Ideas In English Education: Discussing The Scientific Evidence Base And Exploring The Discursive And Practice Effects, Niamh Storey, Sally Neaum

International Journal of School Social Work

The UK has been slower to adopt "trauma-informed" ideas than the United States, and despite policies across the devolved governments of Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland, there remains no clear overarching strategy in English policy. Despite this, there is observable interest in adopting "trauma-informed" practices on a more localised level across England, but the range of approaches labelled as such is varied and disparate.

The scientific evidence-base for "trauma-informed" educational practices is discussed and the discursive effects of these ideas when accepted as a basis for practice are explored. Two different conceptualisations of social justice frame this discussion. We argue …


Integrating Social Justice Practices Into Graduate Training: Collaborating With Stakeholders To Adapt Professional Development In Puerto Rico, Kathryn D. Kurtz, Emily R. Defouw, Marta E. Pagan-Ortiz Oct 2021

Integrating Social Justice Practices Into Graduate Training: Collaborating With Stakeholders To Adapt Professional Development In Puerto Rico, Kathryn D. Kurtz, Emily R. Defouw, Marta E. Pagan-Ortiz

International Journal of School Social Work

Treating trauma has become an international social justice concern, with increasing numbers of graduate training programs prioritizing how to conceptualize needs and interventions within a trauma-informed framework. Minimal research and guidelines exist for adapting these trauma-informed practices for the local community context. Additionally, trauma-informed practices often fail to consider ongoing structural issues faced by oppressed communities such as poverty and racism. Social work, psychology, and counseling graduate training programs often rely on a cultural competency framework instead of a social justice framework that addresses racism and Whiteness. During our graduate Counseling and School Psychology training program at the University of …


Just Trauma-Informed Schools: Theoretical Gaps, Practice Considerations And New Directions, Stacy A. Gherardi, Myra Garcia, Allison Stoner Oct 2021

Just Trauma-Informed Schools: Theoretical Gaps, Practice Considerations And New Directions, Stacy A. Gherardi, Myra Garcia, Allison Stoner

International Journal of School Social Work

Trauma-informed practices in schools have proliferated over the last decade and are often framed as social justice-oriented practices. This article assesses the theoretical and empirically supported basis for the proposed relationship between trauma-informed practices and social justice. It concludes the current theory of impact linking trauma-informed practices and social justice work is not supported by evidence. In response, we document theoretical gaps which limit the potential reach of trauma-informed practices in responding to social justice issues in schools and identify potential ways in which research and practice can respond to these gaps. We also highlight critical considerations for developing and …


Trauma-Informed Education Viewed Through A Social Justice Lens: Introduction To The Special Issue, Gary Walsh, Michael S. Kelly Oct 2021

Trauma-Informed Education Viewed Through A Social Justice Lens: Introduction To The Special Issue, Gary Walsh, Michael S. Kelly

International Journal of School Social Work

The purpose of this special issue is to apply a social justice lens to the question of how education practitioners operating within primary and secondary school contexts around the world are thinking about trauma-informed education and care. Papers explore what school social workers and other educators are doing to address these issues in schools and consider the broader implications of a global shift towards trauma-informed approaches in education. This special issue, the first one for IJSSW, features 10 papers from diverse fields (social work, psychology, education) that all reflect on how trauma-informed practices in schools can be enhanced and understood …


Trauma Informed Practices In Education And Social Justice: Towards A Critical Orientation, Mark Boylan Oct 2021

Trauma Informed Practices In Education And Social Justice: Towards A Critical Orientation, Mark Boylan

International Journal of School Social Work

Increasingly, educational practitioners committed to social justice embrace trauma-informed practices and those who advocate for and enact trauma-informed practices are committed to social justice. However, connecting social justice to trauma-informed practice requires greater conceptual clarity than is currently found, given the malleable meanings of both 'trauma informed' and 'social justice'. Further, the complex relationship between these educational aims is under-examined. To address these issues, an analytical framework is developed that brings together a model of forms of trauma-informed practice in education with orientations to social justice. This draws on models of social justice developed in social work and teaching, and …