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Full-Text Articles in Education

Winners And Losers After 25 Years Of Transition: Decreasing Wage Inequality In Slovenia, Suzana Laporšek, Peter F. Orazem, Milan Vodopivec, Matija Vodopivec Jun 2021

Winners And Losers After 25 Years Of Transition: Decreasing Wage Inequality In Slovenia, Suzana Laporšek, Peter F. Orazem, Milan Vodopivec, Matija Vodopivec

Economics Publications

Over the past twenty-five years, wage inequality has fallen in Slovenia, even as it has risen in most developed economies. The rates of return to education and work experience rose and remained high on average. However, rapid increases in the number of college graduates have outpaced the rising relative demand for skill among the youngest labor market entrants. As a result, the youngest cohorts of college graduates have experienced declining returns to education and a downward shift in their occupational distribution, which has not been experienced by older college graduates. These changes coincide with the implementation of the Bologna Reform ...


Do Liberal Arts Colleges Maximize Profit?, Ann M. Gansemer-Topf, Peter F. Orazem, Darin R. Wohlgemuth Jan 2021

Do Liberal Arts Colleges Maximize Profit?, Ann M. Gansemer-Topf, Peter F. Orazem, Darin R. Wohlgemuth

Economics Publications

Revenue, cost, tuition, and scholarship data at private liberal arts colleges from 2003–2013 are used to estimate how each college's net revenue per student varies with student enrollment. Our empirical specification assumes that colleges simultaneously pick their optimal net tuition and cost of instruction. The estimates allow us to identify the enrollment level that maximizes the return on the college's provision of educational services. Thirty-seven percent of the colleges have enrollments within one standard deviation of their profit maximizing enrollment. Another 11% are more than one standard deviation above the profit maximizing level; they increase access to ...


Problem On The Plains: College Earnings Premiums In Small Metropolitan Areas, John V. Winters Dec 2020

Problem On The Plains: College Earnings Premiums In Small Metropolitan Areas, John V. Winters

Economics Working Papers

I use the American Community Survey to examine how college earnings premiums differ across small metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the U.S. I document that the West North Central Division (Plains Region) has especially low average college earnings premiums. Controlling for observable MSA characteristics via regression explains some of the difference between the Plains and other regions, but large and important differences remain. The low return to education for small MSAs in the Plains suggests that they will face special challenges building and retaining human capital in the near future. These areas may especially struggle to attract college-educated in-migrants.


Employment Opportunities And High School Completion During The Covid-19 Recession, Kunwon Ahn, Jun Yeong Lee, John V. Winters Oct 2020

Employment Opportunities And High School Completion During The Covid-19 Recession, Kunwon Ahn, Jun Yeong Lee, John V. Winters

Economics Working Papers

COVID-19 created major disruptions for young people including health concerns, school closures, reduced social opportunities, and a wilting economy. We examine the effect of COVID-19 on high school completion in the United States. We find that high school completion rates increased considerably in 2020 compared to previous years. We investigate various mechanisms and find that worse employment conditions were the driving force. The lower opportunity costs of schooling because of the pandemic recession encouraged more young people to complete high school. The pandemic created extensive problems in education, but fortunately it did not reduce overall high school completion rates.


Life Expectancy At Birth And Lifetime Education And Earnings, Mohammad Mainul Hoque, Elizabeth M. King, Claudio E. Montenegro, Peter F. Orazem Sep 2020

Life Expectancy At Birth And Lifetime Education And Earnings, Mohammad Mainul Hoque, Elizabeth M. King, Claudio E. Montenegro, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Working Papers

Exploiting cross–birth cohort and cross-country variation from a pool of 188 household surveys from 111 countries, this paper measures how life expectancy at birth affects lifetime education and earnings. On average, individuals add one year of schooling for every 8.3 years of increased life expectancy at birth. Lifetime earnings increase by 1.7 percent per year of added life expectancy at birth. The estimates imply that rising life expectancy at birth explains 75 percent of the increase in average years of schooling worldwide for birth cohorts between 1922 and 1987 and 38 percent of the increase in average ...


Extension Demonstration: Grameen Microfinance Methods And Capital Access For Low-Income Female Entrepreneurs, Mark A. Edelman Jul 2020

Extension Demonstration: Grameen Microfinance Methods And Capital Access For Low-Income Female Entrepreneurs, Mark A. Edelman

Economics Working Papers

A nonprofit community development financial institution and Extension collaborated to conduct a demonstration project to evaluate efficacy of Grameen peer-group microfinance methodology in addressing barriers faced by lowincome women entrepreneurs in a small metro area. Program performance metrics achieved by 284 low-income, culturally diverse, primarily women entrepreneurs over five years included: a loan repayment rate of 99+ percent, increased average client income, savings accumulation at a local bank, and increased opportunities to improve average credit scores. Client surveys indicated peer-group methods, program structure, incentives for individual behaviors and group responsibilities provided opportunity to develop confidence, leadership skills, and teamwork.


The Exports Of Higher Education Services From Oecd Countries To Asian Countries. A Gravity Approach, John C. Beghin, Byung Yul Park Nov 2019

The Exports Of Higher Education Services From Oecd Countries To Asian Countries. A Gravity Approach, John C. Beghin, Byung Yul Park

Economics Working Papers

We analyze bilateral exports of higher education services between OECD countries and Asia, using a gravity equation approach, panel data from 1998 to 2016, and PPML regression. The approach treats higher education consumption by Asian countries as a consumable durable good reflecting investment in human capital. Asian Students come to OECD countries to obtain degrees from their universities. Structurally, the flow of students from Asian country j to OECD country i depends on the higher-education capacity of i, the perceived quality of universities in i, expected earnings in i, a series of bilateral transaction costs between i and j, the ...


Are College Tuition Increases Linked To Student Financial Stress?, Sara K. Ray, Rebecca Ray, Clinton G. Gudmunson, Megan Gilligan, Suzanne Bartholomae Jan 2019

Are College Tuition Increases Linked To Student Financial Stress?, Sara K. Ray, Rebecca Ray, Clinton G. Gudmunson, Megan Gilligan, Suzanne Bartholomae

Human Development and Family Studies Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

Discussion about the price of attending college occurs within and outside the university setting. Tuition increases are an important topic in political debates and on the floors of state legislatures; however, little is known empirically about the impact of tuition increases on college students’ well-being. This study examines the impact of college tuition increases on enrolled college students’ financial stress.


Bounding Average Returns To Schooling Using Unconditional Moment Restrictions, Desire Kedagni, Lixiong Li, Ismael Mourifie Dec 2018

Bounding Average Returns To Schooling Using Unconditional Moment Restrictions, Desire Kedagni, Lixiong Li, Ismael Mourifie

Economics Working Papers

Abstract. In the last 20 years, the bounding approach for the average treatment effect (ATE) has been developing on the theoretical side, however, empirical work has lagged far behind theory in this area. One main reason is that, in practice, traditional bounding methods fall into two extreme cases: (i) On the one hand, the bounds are too wide to be informative and this happens, in general, when the instrumental variable (IV) has little variation; (ii) while on the other hand, the bounds cross, in which case the researcher learns nothing about the parameter of interest other than that the IV ...


Best Practices For Planning, Developing, And Sustaining Interdisciplinary Language-Based Study Abroad Programs, Chad M. Gasta Jan 2018

Best Practices For Planning, Developing, And Sustaining Interdisciplinary Language-Based Study Abroad Programs, Chad M. Gasta

World Languages and Cultures Publications

In seventeen years of experience as a study abroad program director, I have seen how university students, faculty members, and administrators have come to share a strategic mission for study or work abroad; namely that programs must provide a meaningful international credential that not only yields a more fruitful undergraduate experience but also creates the potential for a better and higher-paying job upon graduation. I have spoken with many job recruiters over the years who tout the importance of developing an international skill set that requires a profound understanding of other cultures and languages. General news outlets and trade magazines ...


Accounting For Institutional Variation In Expected Returns To Higher Education, Shawn F. Dorius, David A. Tandberg, Bridgette Cram Oct 2017

Accounting For Institutional Variation In Expected Returns To Higher Education, Shawn F. Dorius, David A. Tandberg, Bridgette Cram

Sociology Publications

This study leverages human capital theory to identify the correlates of expected returns on investment in higher education at the level of institutions. We leverage estimates of average ROI in post-secondary education among more than 400 baccalaureate degree conferring colleges and universities to understand the correlates of a relatively new metric of institutional ROI. Results indicate that a diverse undergraduate student body, high graduation rate, and public university status are strong, positive, and robustly associated with institutional ROI. The model accounts for more than 70% of inter-university variation in ROI, suggesting that the factors we have identified are among the ...


The Intergenerational Welfare State And The Rise And Fall Of Pay‐As‐You‐Go Pensions, Torben M. Andersen, Joydeep Bhattacharya Jun 2017

The Intergenerational Welfare State And The Rise And Fall Of Pay‐As‐You‐Go Pensions, Torben M. Andersen, Joydeep Bhattacharya

Economics Publications

This paper develops a theory of the two-armed intergenerational welfare state, consistent with key features of modern welfare arrangements, and uses it to rationalise the rise and fall in generosity of pay-as-you-go pensions solely on efficiency grounds. By using the education arm, a dynamically-efficient welfare state is shown to improve upon long-run laissez faire even when market failures are absent. To release these downstream welfare gains without hurting any transitional generation, help from the pension arm is needed. In the presence of an intergenerational education externality, pensions initially rise in generosity but can be replaced by fully funded pensions eventually.


Expanding College Access In Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects On Graduate Quality And Income Inequality, Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, Peter F. Orazem Apr 2017

Expanding College Access In Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects On Graduate Quality And Income Inequality, Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Publications

Between 1990 and 2014, Taiwan increased the college share of its labor force from 7 to 32 percent by converting junior colleges to 4-year colleges. Such a rapid surge in skill supply should suppress college wages and lower wage income inequality. Instead, wage inequality rose 7 percent since 1978. We show that the surge of weaker college graduates made them poor substitutes for better-trained college graduates and led to an increase in wage inequality within skill groups. Rising wage inequality due to increased variation in the quality of young college graduates added another source of inequality to the Taiwan labor ...


College Student Debt And Anticipated Repayment Difficulty, Jonathan J. Fox, Suzanne Bartholomae, Jodi C. Letkiewicz, Catherine P. Montalto Jan 2017

College Student Debt And Anticipated Repayment Difficulty, Jonathan J. Fox, Suzanne Bartholomae, Jodi C. Letkiewicz, Catherine P. Montalto

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

This study analyzes factors associated with anticipated difficulty with repayment of debt accumulated during college using a basic model of credit risk that includes socialization processes influencing college student financial decisions. The empirical analysis uses data from the 2010 Ohio Student Financial Wellness Study. Results provide evidence of male overconfidence in financial decision making, as males are less likely than females to predict repayment difficulties. Socialization process variables, including financial management practices, financial parenting communication, and expected economic returns from education, are strongly associated with anticipated debt repayment difficulty. Inclusion of these process variables in the model results in loss ...


Show Me The Money: Federal R&D Support For Academic Chemistry, 1990–2009, Joshua L. Rosenbloom, Donna K. Ginther Dec 2016

Show Me The Money: Federal R&D Support For Academic Chemistry, 1990–2009, Joshua L. Rosenbloom, Donna K. Ginther

Economics Working Papers

We examine the distribution of Federal support for chemistry Research and Development (R&D) performed at U.S. universities from 1990-2009. Federal R&D funding is an essential source of funds for investigator-driven research at the nation’s universities. Previous studies have documented that aggregated federal R&D funding has become more dispersed over time and attributed this to political pressure to spread resources more evenly. There have, however, been few studies of the allocation of funds within narrowly defined scientific disciplines. By narrowing the focus and exploiting the panel nature of our data we are better able to analyze ...


Elements Of Dynamic Economic Modeling: Presentation And Analysis, Leigh Tesfatsion Feb 2016

Elements Of Dynamic Economic Modeling: Presentation And Analysis, Leigh Tesfatsion

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

The primary goal of these introductory notes is to promote the clear presentation and rigorous analysis of dynamic economic models, whether expressed in equation or agent-based form. A secondary goal is to promote the use of state-space modeling with its respect for historical process, for cause leading to effect without top-down imposition of global constraints. If economic modelers truly wish to respect the rationality of decision-makers, they should have the courage of their convictions; they should not be doing for their modeled decision-makers what in reality these decision-makers must do for themselves.


Borrowing Among Academically Underprepared Students: Facilitating Success Or Perpetuating Inequity At The Community College?, Lyle Mckinney, Heather Novak, Linda Serra Hagedorn Jan 2016

Borrowing Among Academically Underprepared Students: Facilitating Success Or Perpetuating Inequity At The Community College?, Lyle Mckinney, Heather Novak, Linda Serra Hagedorn

Education Publications

Should students who are academically underprepared for college have immediate, unrestricted access to student loans? Approximately 60% of community college students nationally are placed into developmental coursework and completion rates for these students are highly disappointing: only one in 10 earns a community college credential within three years, while one in three has earned a bachelor’s degree within six years (Complete College America, 2012). Although most developmental education (Dev Ed) students drop out before earning a degree, a recent national study found that in 2011-12, Dev Ed community college students (36%) borrowed at similar rates as their college-ready peers ...


Food Defense Best Practices Reported By Public School Food Authorities In Seven Northern U.S. States, Catherine H. Strohbehn, Carol J. Klitzke Apr 2015

Food Defense Best Practices Reported By Public School Food Authorities In Seven Northern U.S. States, Catherine H. Strohbehn, Carol J. Klitzke

Apparel, Events and Hospitality Management Publications

Purpose/Objectives This study reported food defense planning, training and best practices implemented in public schools in Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Methods An internet-administered survey was sent to 1,501 school food authorities or food service directors (FSDs) in public schools. Survey items included frequency of implementation of 31 food defense best practices adapted from the work of Yoon and Shanklin (2007) and Yoon (2007). Focus was on practices relating to employee management, utility security, facility security, and communication. Additional items requested information about food defense planning, food defense training, operational, and demographic characteristics ...


An Extension Case Study In Institutional Innovation: Microfinance Intermediary Formation, Mark A. Edelman Apr 2015

An Extension Case Study In Institutional Innovation: Microfinance Intermediary Formation, Mark A. Edelman

Economics Publications

An institutional innovation process led by Extension created a statewide microfinance intermediary. The intermediary provides business technical assistance and microloans to entrepreneurs having difficulty securing conventional credit but having workable business plans. The process included (1) gathering indicators of a problem; (2) formation of a steering committee of relevant interests to study the concerns; (3) a search for alternative solutions and assessment of probable consequences; and (4) emergence of an institutional strategy for addressing gaps. A business plan was implemented over 5 years. The collaboration created new opportunities on multiple levels for Extension problem-solving impacts and outcomes.


Forging A University Research Mission, Joshua L. Rosenbloom Jan 2015

Forging A University Research Mission, Joshua L. Rosenbloom

Economics Publications

The university exists to accommodate and implement the whole human learning process, and this must include creative scholarship and research. Thus research is not an optional activity of the university, not merely a legitimate pursuit of those who may be interested and willing to dedicate their spare time, nor an assignment justified to either the university or the professor by the resultant income in dollars and publicity. Rather, research is an inescapable responsibility of the university and an inseparable part of its total educational function. "The Place of Research in the University"


Benchmarking Professional Development Practices Across Youth-Serving Organizations: Implications For Extension, Barry A. Garst, Sarah Baughman, Nancy K. Franz Jan 2014

Benchmarking Professional Development Practices Across Youth-Serving Organizations: Implications For Extension, Barry A. Garst, Sarah Baughman, Nancy K. Franz

Extension and Outreach Research and Scholarship

Examining traditional and contemporary professional development practices of youth-serving organizations can inform practices across Extension, particularly in light of the barriers that have been noted for effectively developing the professional competencies of Extension educators. With professional development systems changing quickly, particularly through online education and blended learning opportunities, benchmarks need to guide new research around best practices in professional development. Although many program providers have not established benchmarks for professional development, a few cases exist. This article examines the current state of professional development practices of youth-serving organizations and offers recommendations for improving Extension professional development practices.


Surveying Student Perspectives To Enhance Civic And Global Learning, Robert D. Reason, Larry A. Braskamp Jul 2013

Surveying Student Perspectives To Enhance Civic And Global Learning, Robert D. Reason, Larry A. Braskamp

Education Publications

Throughout its history, American higher education has prepared students for principled citizenship in a democratic society. Yet in recent years, public critique has focused ever more sharply on higher education's role in fueling economic growth (National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement 2012). In the face of these pressures, several educational leaders and organizations, including the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U), have called on colleges and universities to recommit to preparing students to become active workers and citizens. Fortunately, these are complementary goals. By helping students develop civic capacities like a sense of personal ...


Economic Pressure And Family-Of-Origin Relationships As Predictors Of African American Educational Attainment During Late Adolescence, Jennifer Marie Senia, Aisha White, Clinton G. Gudmunson Jan 2011

Economic Pressure And Family-Of-Origin Relationships As Predictors Of African American Educational Attainment During Late Adolescence, Jennifer Marie Senia, Aisha White, Clinton G. Gudmunson

Human Development and Family Studies Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

According to a recent Current Population Survey, at the end of the 2008-2009 period, African American and Hispanic families experienced respective poverty rates of 25.8% and 25.3%, a stark contrast to the 9.4% rate experienced by non-Hispanic White families. Minority youth have disproportionately low rates of educational & occupational attainment compared to other ethnic groups.


Iowa State University Financial Counseling Clinic Client Report, Meghan Gillette, Clinton G. Gudmunson, Jeanna Nation Jan 2011

Iowa State University Financial Counseling Clinic Client Report, Meghan Gillette, Clinton G. Gudmunson, Jeanna Nation

Human Development and Family Studies Reports

According to client exit surveys, the Financial Counseling Clinic at Iowa State University provides highly satisfactory services to students and non-students in the Ames area. The average level of client financial stress decreased by three points on a ten-point scale after a counseling session. The majority of clients were single, White, Iowa State University students in their early 20s. The biggest concern reported by clients was not having a saving or spending plan. There were differences across ethnic and age groups in the number of financial pressure experienced, stress level, amount of self-reported student loan debt, and self-reported total consumer ...


Student And Teacher Attendance: The Role Of Shared Goods In Reducing Absenteeism, Ritwik Banerjee, Elizabeth M. King, Peter F. Orazem, Elizabeth M. Paterno Dec 2010

Student And Teacher Attendance: The Role Of Shared Goods In Reducing Absenteeism, Ritwik Banerjee, Elizabeth M. King, Peter F. Orazem, Elizabeth M. Paterno

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

A theoretical model is advanced that demonstrates that, if teacher and student attendance generate a shared good, then teacher and student attendance will be mutually reinforcing. Using data from the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan, empirical evidence supporting that proposition is advanced. Controlling for the endogeneity of teacher and student attendance, the most powerful factor raising teacher attendance is the attendance of the children in the school, and the most important factor influencing child attendance is the presence of the teacher. The results suggest that one important avenue to be explored in developing policies to reduce teacher absenteeism is to ...


Lifetime Health Consequences Of Child Labor In Brazil, Chanyoung Lee, Peter F. Orazem Jan 2010

Lifetime Health Consequences Of Child Labor In Brazil, Chanyoung Lee, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Publications

The health consequences of child labor may take time to manifest themselves. This study examines whether children who began working at a young age experience increased incidence of illness or physical disability as adults. When child labor and schooling are treated as chosen without consideration of unobserved abilities or health endowments, child labor appears to have small adverse effects on a wide variety of health measures. Some adverse health consequences such as heart disease or hypertension seem unlikely to be caused by child labor. However, when we allow unobserved health and ability endowments to alter the age of labor market ...


The Benefits And Costs Of Alternative Strategies To Improve Educational Outcomes, Peter F. Orazem, Paul Glewwe, Harry Patrinos Jan 2009

The Benefits And Costs Of Alternative Strategies To Improve Educational Outcomes, Peter F. Orazem, Paul Glewwe, Harry Patrinos

Economics Publications

Few empirical relationships have been investigated more frequently than that between years of schooling and earnings. Hundreds of studies using a wide variety of datasets from developed countries, spanning many decades, and employing alternative specifications to correct for various potential sources of bias, have consistently found positive private returns per year of schooling.• Returns arc frequent ly equal to or above long-run average market returns to other investments.


High School Employment, School Performance, And College Entry, Chanyoung Lee, Peter F. Orazem Jun 2008

High School Employment, School Performance, And College Entry, Chanyoung Lee, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

The proportion of U.S. high school students working during the school year ranges from 23% in the freshman year to 75% in the senior year. This study estimates how cumulative work histories during the high school years affect probability of dropout, high school academic performance, and the probability of attending college. Variation in individual date of birth and in state truancy laws along with the strength of local demand for low-skill labor are used as instruments for endogenous work hours during the high school career. Working more hours during the academic year does not affect high school academic performance ...


Using Spatial Analyses To Examine Student Proficiency: Guiding District Consolidation And Reform Policy Decisions, Monica A. Haddad, Thomas Alsbury Jan 2008

Using Spatial Analyses To Examine Student Proficiency: Guiding District Consolidation And Reform Policy Decisions, Monica A. Haddad, Thomas Alsbury

Community and Regional Planning Publications

Nationally, all districts, regardless of their size, face the challenge to ensure that all students have access to a quality education. However, some characterize the alternatives for rural families as being between schools that are too small or too far away, and for urban families as being between schools that are too large or too far away. State policies to equalize educational spending, cap bond and levy rates, require common teacher salary schedules, and consolidate school districts are geared toward improving quality and attempting to resolve problems of inefficiency. However, despite the use of the state policy to equalize educational ...


The Economic Impacts Of Iowa State University In Fiscal 2006, David Swenson, Liesl Eathington Jul 2007

The Economic Impacts Of Iowa State University In Fiscal 2006, David Swenson, Liesl Eathington

Economics Technical Reports and White Papers

Iowa State University contributes significantly to the state’s economy. This study isolates the economic impacts of the university as an Iowa educational, scientific, service, cultural, and recreational center. This study also measures the economic impact value of ISU student spending in central Iowa.